05. Classical Law of Bibliometrics
Bradford's Law of Scattering
First law -- Definition
Second Law --Definition
- i. Take a piece of writing in English containing not less than 5,000 words. The writing can be an article, a short story, a novelette, a part of a novel, even a technical writing.
- ii. Scan the selected writing with an optical character recognition (OCR) software viz. OmniPage Pro.
- iii. Save the file in a suitable software package such as Microsoft Word for Windows.
- iv. Check the file with the original to ascertain accuracy.
- v. Consider only the textual portion of the writing and remove the names of the authors, author affiliations, abstract, keywords, alpha-numeric expressions like 2nd and F10, alpha-symbolic expressions like au=, and su=, abbreviations such as FDT and ISO, numbers written with digits (eg 324), serial numbering such as a), b) etc., formulas, punctuation marks, intra- and extra-textual references, tables, figures, and appendices.
- vi. The rationale behind the exclusion of the names of authors and author affiliations is obvious because they don’t represent the author’s style of writing and as such cannot be used for word counting. The keywords are sometimes chosen consulting a thesaurus where the author has little choice and sometimes added by the editor. Hence, it was felt safe to exclude them. An abstract is the condensed version of an article and does not necessarily represent the normal style of writing of an author. Moreover, sometimes the abstract is prepared by someone other than the author. Therefore, it was not considered. Alpha-numeric as well as alpha-symbolic expressions, abbreviations, numbers written with digits, serial numbering with a, b, c, etc., and formulas are not words, hence excluded. The references comprise certain fixed elements such as author, year, title of the article, and other bibliographical details which are not the creation of the author. Tables and figures were to be excluded for the ease of sorting. Moreover, at times a table may contain numerous YESes and Noes or Ys and Ns representing the answers of respondents. Appendices usually are also not reflective of the style of writing of an author. Consider only the textual part of the article with the above exceptions since that part seemed to be the best part for judging the word use pattern of an author.
- vii. In the case of hyphenated words, follow the following rules.
- If the hyphen joins a prefix, such as co-ordination, remove the hyphen, and consider the word as coordination
- In other cases such as short-term. Remove the hyphen, and consider the combination as two different words
- Convert the punctuation marks into spaces,
- ix. Convert all spaces into line breaks.
- x. Convert all upper case letters into lower case letters
- xi. Make sure that the file has converted into a pure word file
- xii. Sort the file alphabetically and save it as a text file
- Run the file through a small program that can count the frequencies of word occurrence.. The program will take the text file as its input and reproduce the text file with the corresponding frequencies as its output.
- Convert the file into a table
- xv. Sort the table according to descending frequencies
- Add one column to the table
- Compute rank x frequency
- If the product of rank and frequency is found to be more or less the same, the Law is verified.
No. of Papers (x)
No. of authors (y)
Entry No/s. of Contributions
No. of Contributions
Abbahu ( G E P)
Abbas (S M )
Abbulu (G E P)
Abdul Azeez (T A )
Abdul Jaleel (T)
Abdul Majeed Baba
0595. 0956, 0929
0311, 0312, 0743, 1477, 1684
Abdur Rauf Meah (Md.)
Abideen P (Sainul)
Abidi (Syed A H)
Abraham (Deborah V H )
0424, 0466, 0744, 1015, 1726, 2031, 3011