Tuesday, December 17, 2013

Universal Decimal Classification P- 08. Knowledge Organization and Processing - Classification By :m satija

इस ब्लॉग्स को सृजन करने में आप सभी से सादर सुझाव आमंत्रित हैं , कृपया अपने सुझाव और प्रविष्टियाँ प्रेषित करे , इसका संपूर्ण कार्य क्षेत्र विश्व ज्ञान समुदाय हैं , जो सभी प्रतियोगियों के कॅरिअर निर्माण महत्त्वपूर्ण योगदान देगा ,आप अपने सुझाव इस मेल पत्ते पर भेज सकते हैं - chandrashekhar.malav@yahoo.com

UDC SUMMARY.....................................PAPER-8

Universal Decimal Classification

P- 08. Knowledge Organization and Processing - Classification

By :m.p. satija

1. Introduction

The Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) is known by many names such as European Dewey, Brussels Classification, and the International decimal classification. Being based on the Dewey's System, it was called Expanded Dewey in the beginning. Nevertheless, it is the first truly International classification designed by an organization and also the first one meant for bibliographic and documentation work — all earlier systems were for shelf arrangement designed by individuals. It continued its development as a retrieval tool. Nevertheless, it is equally efficient as a library classification and tool for organizing other entities and objects. It has become a highly flexible and effective system for organizing bibliographic records for all kinds of information in any medium. For multimedia packages it is highly suitable. Electronic UDC is now seen as a retrieval tool of the future.
It is a multilingual and general classification for all fields of knowledge. All branches of knowledge have a place in UDC, through traditionally it is considered more strong in science and technology subjects.

2. Brief History

In 1895 some system of classification was required by the then newly established International Institute of Bibliography (IIB), which later changed name to International Institute for Documentation (IID). 1914-1937), and later became International Federation of Information and Documentation (1958-1985), and International Federation of Information and Documentation, 1986-2001). FID (with its office in the Hague) was closed down in 2001 due to financial failures. Task of the IIB was to compile a universal bibliography, a Repertoire bibliographique universal. It needed a system for arrangement of entries in this universal bibliography – a systematic list of technical literature published anywhere in any subject and language since antiquity. This bibliography could only be in a classified order to transcend the language barrier. By 1921 the IIB had collected 12 million references on cards. Two Belgians Paul Otlet (1869-1944) and Nobel laureate Hernri La Fontaine (1854-1943), founders of the IIB, discovered the DDC and sought permission from Melvil Dewey (1851-1931) to use and expand DDC for arranging items in the bibliography. After obtaining necessary permission they brought out expanded and powerful classification equipped with more details and added synthetic equipment for class number synthesis for micro documents.  To the DDC they added dimensions, depth and flexibility. It is credited as the first faceted classification, a harbinger of the Colon Classification in 1933, though S R Ranganathan claimed his classification was invented independent of the UDC. In course of history it has proved an apt classification for information analysis and retrieval, and a classification for highly specific subjects encountered in documentation work.
First edition based on the 5th edition of DDC (1894) appeared in French between 1905­-1907 under the title Manual du Reperoire Universals. It consisted of 33,000 classes. The 2nd edition again in French was published between 1923-1933, and was titled Classification Decimal Universalle. The third German and fourth English editions were begun in 1933 and 1936 respectively. Development of the UDC has been divided into the following three historical periods by Rayward:
  1. 1. French Period, 1895-1933:            Foundation and grammar
2. German Period, 1933-1952           Details and expansion
3. English Period, 1936-1975            Research and practice
To this we can add:
  1. 4. International Period, 1990            Technical and strong  organizational
The completed English edition published in numerous small fascicules took halfa century– due to alleged neglect.

3. Various Editions

Throughout its history, it has been made available in editions of varied details. Till 1990, there were Full, Medium and Abridged editions. Full edition consisted of about 200, 000 terms, Medium had only 70,000 terms, about 30% of the Full, and Abridged had 22000 terms, about 10% of the Full edition. At present these versions are no longer official or exist. Now only standard version of 66, 000 terms, and the Abridged of 4100 classes are the official editions. In addition to the earlier available different full, medium and abridged editions, in 1999 was published the Pocket edition in English, and other languages. There is a plan to revive the pocket edition.
A core version of the UDC having 70, 000 subdivisions is now available in a database format. It is called the Master Reference File (MRF), which earlier was in all the three official languages namely, French, Garman and English. But now it is mostly in English. A UDC Summary of about 400 classes is available on their website, which soon is being upgraded to 1000 classes.

3.1 Current Edition:

Now due to organizational changes the following two edition are available: Standard edition of about 66,000 entries is available in  print and electronic database in CDS/ISIS. ISO 2709 compliant MRF data designed in UNESO's CDS/ISIS contains the UDC tables with other records required for administration, maintenance and archival. It is a comprehensive tool with the UDC consortium is and is also made available to the license holders. To support its multiple functions in fact there are three MRFs. It is the UMRF (user MRF) version which is available for distribution to the public (www. udcc.org/mrf.htm).
Derived from the MRF the print edition in two volumes has the following bibliographic details:
Universal Decimal Classification, complete edition, London: BSI, 2005, 2v.--vol. 1. Systematic tables (ISBN 0-580-45469-X)--v.2 Alphabetical index (ISBN 0-580-45470-3).
 It may be mentioned that the BSI is no longer a member of the UDCC and consequently its publisher
UDC online is the complete first  edition available electronically. It has many additional features over the print version which allows multiple searching by terms and numbers. Online version multi-users facility on user friendly screen
and also provides number building facility. Cut paste facility saves time and effort. Now UDC MRF files have been moved to a new database with extended functionality. It will provide more diversified and improved products. Standard online edition cannot be purchased. Multi-user license to use it usually on a LAN can be obtained from the UDCC office in the Hague, the Netherlands. A guide to the application of the MRF called the MRF Manual, is available free of charge to all Consortium members and license holders.
The English version of the abridged edition was available on order from the British Standards Institution (BSI), London (www.bsi.org). A new and revised edition is expected in 2014. UDC online allows free access on trial basis or for teaching for two weeks.

4. Main Features

  1. UDC is a practical bibliographic classification: truly international in efforts and exposition of contents. Considered as the first faceted classification, it is a synthetic classification which is able to specify minute subjects, aspects, formats and their varied viewpoints.
  2. It is the first officially multilingual classification being published in French, German and English.
  3. 2.1 Its 1000 sections summary is available in about 50 languages
  4. Its notation is independent of any particular language or script, and its translations have appeared in about 50 languages.
  5. It lays more emphasis on subject analysis and document specification.
  6. Auxiliary apparatus of relations and synthesis is quite powerful. It makes the UDC a truly multidimensional scheme.
  7. It is thus more suitable for micro documents, electronic information and information retrieval in online and networked databases, and websites.
  8. Its structure is flexible to accommodate new subjects, and change citation order for flexibility of shelf arrangement and searching.
  9. It has A-class machinery for governance, maintenance and marketing. It is called UDC Consortium which has a full time director, a full time editor, and an international advisory board.

5. Organization of Knowledge and Layout of the Schedules (Main Tables)

It is a general classification covering the whole domain of knowledge. As already said, it has borrowed its basic structure from its parent the DDC, with the exception of merging main classes 4 with 8 Literature. The main class 4 is still vacant. The main classes thus are:
0        Generalities
1        Philosophy. Psychology
2        Religion. Theology
3        Social Sciences
4        [Vacant]
5        Natural Sciences, Mathematics
6        Technology
7        The arts
8        Language. Linguistics. Literature
9        Geography. Biography. History
Unlike the DDC there is no condition of minimum of three digits in a class number. Each of the main class has been further divided into 10 divisions:
5        Natural Sciences
51      Mathematics
52      Astronomy
59      Zoology
There are thus 10 x 10 =100 divisions including the vacant places. Similarly the above 100 divisions can be divided again into 1000 sections:
53             Physics (General)
531/534      Mechanics
535              Optics
536              Heat & thermodynamics
537              Electricity & Magnetism
538              Physical nature and matter: (Atomic & Nuclear Physics)
Each of the above classes can be further divided decimally.
536              Heat and thermodynamics
536.2           Heat Conduction
536.5           Temperature
536.6           Calorimetry
536.7           Entropy
A dot has been put after the third digit. In fact a dot is put after every third digit of the same facet, e.g. 621. 882 Bolts, Screws...
621.882.215                   Round-headed screws...
621.882.215.3      Round-headed screws and bolts with cross recesses
The schedules 0/9 and its subdivisions are known as Main Tables.

6. Auxiliary Tables

Any number from the main table can be extended by notation from auxiliary tables, which are of two types:
A)              Common Auxiliaries: Universally applicable to all classes for subject and document specification.
B)               Special Auxiliaries: Applicable restrictively to a specified class.

6.1 Common Auxiliaries

More than 10,000 Common Auxiliaries are given in Tables la to lk:

Concept                         Symbol                          Table
1. Relations,                                      + / : [ ]::                          la and lb
addition, coordination
2. Languages                           =0/9                               lc
3. Forms                                  (0/09)                             ld
4. Places                                  (1/9)                               le
5. Race and nationality            (=…)                              lf
6. Time                                    “   ”                                lg
7. Non-UDC numbers             * and A/Z                       l h
8. General characteristics                  -0                                   l k
          Properties                             -02
          Materials                                -03
          Relations, operations, etc.       -04
          Persons                          -05
These auxiliaries can be added to a number of any specificity without any specific instruction.
3+5                                Social Sciences and Natural Sciences
5/6                                 Science and Technology
2:5                                 Religion and Science (Relation)
[5+6](05)                     Journal of Science and Technology
512=111                     Algebra in English
02(03)                      Dictionary of Library Science      
02(03)= 112.2           Dictionary of Library Science in German language  
5 “19”                            Science in 20th Century
551.5 "2010.12.25”       Weather on X-Mas of 2010
5+6 "20" (540)               21st Century Science and Technology in India
523.6*81P                     Halley's Comet (Number 81P)
821.111 Shak.               Works of William Shakespeare
004.38*P4                     Pentium Four Personal Computer
61-051                           Medical personnel
645.4-035.3                             Wooden Furniture
Two or more auxiliaries can be added simultaneously:
Foreign relations between Pakistan and India: An Urdu text
327 (540: 549) =214.22
Hindi-Urdu journal of Indian foreign policy
327(540) (05)=214.21=214.22
Birds of India and Nepal: A textbook in Bengali
598.2 (540+541.35) (075) =214.32
Weather on 1st January 2014 in India: a report
551.5 "2014.01.01" (540) (047)
Critical study of the Tragic Plays of William Shakespeare
821.111 Shak-21.09
Psychology of single parents
159.9 – 055.52 –058.832

6.2 Special Auxiliaries

These three kinds of auxiliaries are applied to a restricted but clearly specified range of numbers. Their functions overlap. These are recognized by sidelining the numbers. These are denoted by
                  .0       point naught
‘        Apostrophe
-        Hyphen,
                   53              Physics
                   53.02                   General laws of phenomena
                   53.081       Units and constants [Physics]
It means that the special auxiliaries .02 and .081 shown by sidelining 53 are applicable to all the subdivisions of 53 Physics, e.g.,
531.02                  General Laws of mechanics
531.5.02               General Laws of gravity
531.55.02             General Laws of external ballistics
531.55.081           Units in external ballistics
534.6.081             Units of acoustic measurement

-        Hyphen auxiliaries:
546                       Inorganic chemistry
546-31                  Oxides
546.26                  Carbon element
546.26-31             Carbon Oxides
546.47                  Zinc
646.47-31             Zinc Oxides
‘Apostrophe auxiliary
                   81’282                  Dialects
                   811.111’282                  Dialects of English language
811.134’282(8)    Dialects of Spanish language in South America 811.134-26'282(8) Dialects of written Spanish in South America.

6.3 Citation Order

As clear from the above examples two or more auxiliaries can be added to a given class number. The UDC follows the Principle of Inversion: that is, the order of facets in the class number is reverse of their arrangement on the shelves. Broader citation order is: Class number + Special auxiliaries + Common auxiliaries. The common auxiliaries are to be added in the order of their decreasing specificity – i.e. more important or specific common auxiliaries is to be added first and the least specific to be added last. A mechanical formula for the citation order is that, the auxiliary tables should be added in the order 1k to 1c.
Unemployed Medical librarianship graduates in India in 2000 CE : A motion picture in Hindi
026: 61-577.19 (540) “2000” (084.122) = 214.21
However, no formulated order has been presented for the special auxiliaries.
The UDC being a flexible classification the order may be changed to have better sense or make some local variations Moreover to arrange documents the shelled auxiliaries may be brought in the fore position. For example, to bring all journals in one section we could have numbers like:
(05) 5                    Journal of science
(05) 53                  Journal of physics
(05) 54                  Journal of chemistry Similarly,
(540) 32                Indian politics
(540) 33                Indian economics
(540)336.71                   Indian banking
(540) 34                Indian laws
(540) 39                Indian folklore
(540) 5                  Indian science
and so on to make a section of Indology.

7. Notation and Layout:

The UDC notation is a mix of decimal numbers, mathematical and punctuation signs with permissible use of alphabets, arithmetic numbers, or other non-UDC symbols. The use of decimal notation has made it a truly international classification with many technical advantages. It is hierarchical, expressive, hospitable, mnemonic, faceted and synthetic. Instead of verbal signs, some symbols independent of language have been used to give notes and instructions under an entry in the schedules:
Symbol                          Name                                       Meaning
Arrow                            See Also
 à                                    Diamond                        Examples of built numbers
                                    Square                           Inclusion note
|                                      Sideline                          Special auxiliaries
*                                     Asterisk                                   Non-UDC numbers
A/Z                                Alphabets                      Alphabetical divisions
The symbols are only to interpret the tables correctly, and never make a part of the class number.
These tables, both main and auxiliary, consist of simple numbers and a few compound numbers –latter are a compilation of two or more numbers built with linkage sign or auxiliaries. Such numbers are indicated by à sign, e.g.,
56                Paleontology
à56:581      General Paleontology
030             General reference works  Encyclopedia
It means Encyclopedia will also get the class number 030

8 Index

Terminology is current which uses British spellings and idiom. In the index of the abridged edition there are 9500 main and 3500 subentries making a total of 13000 contained in 107 pages. It gives an average of three access points per entry in the tables. Index entries culled from the electronic files are arranged in word-by-word order to conform to the BS ISO 999 Standard. Specific names are entered following AACR2 specifications. It includes all the principal divisions, inclusion notes, common and special auxiliaries and built-in compound numbers. Collocation of terms depicts relations and qualifiers are added to homonymous words to show the context, e.g., axes (tools), 672.7; axes (plants), 581.4, or line (art), 7.013. In case of a synonym all its popular terms are indexed to avoid see-references, e.g., both Aves and Birds have been indexed. Index is tidy and easy to use.

9. Management, Maintenance and Revision

Since the 1990s the UDC has undergone a sea change in its technicalities, contents organizations and management. It has been completely rejuvenated. The original FID/CCC, the committee in charge of the UDC, was replaced in 1985 by the UDC Management Board. On the recommendation of a Task Force constituted by the Board, the FID(now defunct) handed over the ownership of the UDC to the non-profit, but self‑financed UDC Consortium which came into being on I" January 1992. Since 2007 it consists of the publishers of the Dutch, English, French, Russian, Spanish and Czech editions of the UDC (www.udcc.org).  The UDCC owns, markets, maintains innovates and keeps the UDC updated.
The office of the UDCC is housed in the National Library of the Netherlands at the Hague and is a managed by a full time director, now Alan Hopkinson. The UDCC also appoints editorial team and the Advisory Board The first full time editor of the UDC was Professor Ms Ia. C. McIlwaine (1993-2006) who was succeeded by Maria Ines Corderio. Since May 2010 the current Editor- in- Chief is Dr. Aida Slavic. Chief editor is helped by 12 member  UDC Editorial team. Each of the consortium members has the right to issue UDC edition in its own language. Language versions are not mere translations. These are updated with local and cultural additions. The UDC Advisory Board consists of about 20+ information professionals from all over the world.
A UDC discussion list moderated by Dr Aida Slavic exists at UDC-FORUM@ JISCMAIL.AC.UK. <wwiv.jiscmail.ac.uk/listsiudc-forum.html>. It is a forum to get and share UDC news and developments. UDC blog exists athttp://universaldecimalclassification.blolc,spot.com 

9.1 Revision

The UDC revision though slow is well planned and extremely regular. The UDCC controls its development acting as an international clearing house. It seeks help from specialists in many subject fields. Editorial revision is quite democratic and broad based. Revision proposals are circulated among consortium members, advisors and users for comments before finally incorporating in the MRF. With the appointment of full time Editor for the first time since September 1993, the pace of revision has become quick. Users are informed of changes and expansions in the annual publication: UDC: Extensions & Corrections published every year in November (Vol.35: 2013). This annual also contains articles, major revision proposals and a bibliography on the UDC. Editions of the UDC incorporating the authorized changes are published by the members of the consortium, each in its own language, or by any outside publisher licensed by the UDCC.

9.2 Problems

Despite its constant and enduring success, it has been criticized on certain points:
  1. Its DDC base has always been criticized. It has mortgaged its future to the DDC, it is often said, ruefully.
  2. Some notational devices, although apparently logical and satisfactory, cause problems in retrieval systems.
  3. Symbols like — and 0 overlap in function and may lead to confusion.
  4. Its auxiliaries are still developing with changes in some notational symbols.
  5. There are certain citation order problems, as no definite standard has been prescribed.
  6. Main class 4 has still not been filled up.
  7. Frequent notational changes are worrisome.
  8. Lacking support/sponsorship of any institution it is financially not sound.

10. Use

In terms of its applications, now it is a most diversely used tool ranging from shelf classification, organizing bibliographies, web organization to classification of conceptual and material objects. Though the first bibliographic classification, it is equally useful for arranging documents, their surrogates and other information bearing objects such as electronic files, AVs, maps, CDs , art collections, photographs, coins, stamps and entities like persons, places and organizations.
Today, UDC is ranked as one of the big three classification systems of the world. Technically, it is considered much superior to the other two, namely the DDC and the Library of Congress Classification. It is used in about 100, 000 libraries and information centers in 130 countries especially in Europe and Latin America. Its use was mandatory in the S & T libraries of the erstwhile USSR. Translated in 40 languages and 5 scripts, it is also used in about 20 national, subject and trade bibliographies including the Walford Guide. The abridged edition is equally useful for teaching.
It has been a pioneer in finding its use in computerized databases. It works extremely well with computers. Its hierarchical structure and classified order is useful for computer screen browsing and searching. Its hierarchical and synthetic notation is helpful in accurate retrieval. Online UDC allows multiple search facilities, namely, string search in natural language, Boolean searches, and browsing up and down the hierarchy. It pioneer use in OPACs has been successful. It is already being used on several subject gateways and websites to arrange directories of references, e.g., (UK) National Information Services and System (NISS) Directory of Networked Resources (www.niss.ac.uk). In subject gateways,) can be put to the following uses: Manual Classification of manual collection; manual classification of large number of automatically harvested resources by using metadata; and, automatic harvesting and classification (Slavic, 2006).
It has emerged as an excellent source for building other indexing languages, thesauri, taxonomies and special classifications with its multilingual database. It has the potential to act as a switching language between different information systems.
Its use outside the library is increasing. The UDC has emerged as knowledge organization tool of high quality, easy applicability and international validity. 

10.1 Future

As said earlier, UDC has been criticized for its DDC core and slow development. It has also been remarked that the UDC had better not been invented, yet it has not only survived but thrived in the bibliographic world where mortality rate is high. Once introduced, it not only works but performs better than many of its competitors.
For a century, despite lack of adequate finance and manpower it has kept its head above waters. It has rejuvenated itself with constant reorganization since the last two decades. It is coping with updating by restructuring the knowledge using the frame work of the Bibliographic classification (BC-2) – latter is much more up-to-date and better structured than any the other general scheme. Class 61 Medicine has been used as a pilot project by Ia. C McIlwaine and Nancy Williamson to change it to a fully faceted structure.
During an IFLA, etc sponsored international seminar on UDC in June 2007 (www.ulec.org/seminar2007.htm) at UDCC headquarter, a Dutch software company Magnaview (www.magnaview.nl) presented an innovative visual application of the UDC. It makes possible to view the UDC MRF in twenty novel ways and interact it with visually. The software is commercially available from the company for the MRF license holders.
With its well organized promotional network and keenness for innovations the UDC seems surely to have an  assured long future.

12.Reference & Notes

Satija, M P . “Pocket edition of the Universal Decimal Classification” Lib. Herald 38(1) 2000: 1-7
Robinson, G. “Abridged UDC" Knowledge Organization 26(3) 1999: 149-156
British Standards Institution. Universal Decimal Classification, Pocket edition/ DISCPD 1000: 1999; 288p. ISBN 0-580-33045-1 www.bsi.org.uk/disc
Universal Decimal Classification, Abridged ed. London: The BSI, 2003, 266p. ISBN 0­580-42440-5.
http:// www.ude-online.com
McIlwaine, Ia. C. “UDC Centenary: the present state and future prospects” Knowledge Organization 22(2) 1995: 64-69
McIllwaine, Ia.C. The Universal Decimal Classification: A guide to its use. The Hague: UDCC, 2007, 278p. ISBN 978-90-806152-3-6.
Reyward, W. Boyd. “The UDC and FID: A historical perspective” The Lib Quarterly 37(3) July 1967: 259-278.
Slavic, Aida “UDC in subject gateways: experiment or opportunity” Knowledge Organization 33(2) 2006. 67-85.
Slavic, Aida; Corderio, Maria E and Riesthusi, Gerhard. “Maintenance of the Universal Decimal Classification: Overview of the past and preparation  for the future”. To be published in 2008, available on www.udcc.org
Select literature on the UDC is available on dList the Digital library of Information & Technology dist. sir. arizina. eddies.
http:///universaldecimalclass1fieation.bloaspot.com .
UDC Summary (abridged web edition) - published in 2009 - available for free fromhttp://www.udcc.org/udcsummary/php/index.php
- UDC Online (complete web edition) - published in August 2013 - available under annual subscription from http://www.udc-hub.com/en/login.php
- Abridged UDC Edition (printed) - in preparation - planned for September 2014
- Complete UDC Edition (printed) - planned for 2015.




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