Friday, January 17, 2014

COMMUNICATION STRATEGY for LIBRARIANS P- 12. Management of Libraries and Information Centres & Knowledge Centres * By :PK gupta

इस ब्लॉग्स को सृजन करने में आप सभी से सादर सुझाव आमंत्रित हैं , कृपया अपने सुझाव और प्रविष्टियाँ प्रेषित करे , इसका संपूर्ण कार्य क्षेत्र विश्व ज्ञान समुदाय हैं , जो सभी प्रतियोगियों के कॅरिअर निर्माण महत्त्वपूर्ण योगदान देगा ,आप अपने सुझाव इस मेल पत्ते पर भेज सकते हैं -


P- 12. Management of Libraries and Information Centres & Knowledge Centres *

By :PK gupta


The word communicate comes from the latin communis or common. It indicates that two people or two groups have something shared in common but many problems and disputes can be traced to a lack of understanding. Effective communication skills are something no one can do without, on the job or in your personal life. There’s no enterprise in human affairs, from top-level negotiations to everyday personal interactions that can go smoothly in the absence of great communication.

Libraries are defined as non-profit service enterprise has a particular management process, just like for profit. The basic elements of this process, planning, organization, leadership and effective and efficient management of control systems in libraries contain important functions. Although the steps involved in this process and strict criteria have been met to support this process, even the most basic need to skip a critical element of success: "Effective Communication".

Communication makes the world habitable. Consciously involves sharing ideas, feelings, thoughts, and many other things that humans share. Ojomo (2004) defined communication as the process of sharing ideas, feelings, thoughts and messages with others. Rothwell (2001) sees communication as a transactional process of sharing meaning with others. Kemoni (2004) citing Ojiambo avers that communication involves the giving and receiving of information, signals or messages by talk, gestures and writing. Odini (1999) identifies communication as one of the core competencies that all information professionals should possess. Interpersonal communication involves sending and receiving messages between two or more people.

1. Every individual has his own unique language
Generally speaking, there are as many languages as there are individuals; because every person uses his or her own unique combination of spoken languages, non-verbal communication skills, and styles of argumentation to express thoughts.

2. Know who you’re speaking to
Empathizing with people from different backgrounds, and seeing the world through their eyes, can allow you to communicate with anyone, anywhere in the world.
For an effective communicator, the audience is first and foremost; one cannot formulate one’s argument until one properly understands where the listeners are coming from. Don’t coerce—persuade.

3. An embarrassment of riches
Everyone realizes that people communicate by speaking. But it’s amazing to consider how much of our feelings and even thoughts we convey by non verbal communication. Our gestures and facial expressions can tell the listener (or rather, watcher!  ) a lot about us. Often, the impression we give by our body language and movements can color the message we are trying to express with our spoken words.

4. Be aware
Be aware of every factor in the communication process—your own strengths and weakness, the expectations of your listener, the logic of your arguments, and, most importantly, the goal you have in mind for the interaction. If the conversation strays, guide it gently back to the central issue at hand, and pursue your aims with good communication.


We can see the communication from the perspective of an individual and from the perspective of an organization:

Communication at individual level - In a civil society, one has to deal in person with all kinds of people. You may have to interact with people within your organisation: these may be your colleagues or co-workers, superiors or subordinates - who may work with you in your own department, in another part of the building or in another branch. And you may also have to deal with people from outside the organization: clients, suppliers, visitors and members of the public. Moreover, these people may be friends, acquaintances or strangers - people of your own age, or people who are younger or older than you.

Communication at organization level- All managerial functions like planning, organizing, directing, co-coordinating and controlling can be well performed with the tool of good communication.

The process of communication makes it possible for managers to carry out their task responsibilities. Information must be communicated to managers so that they will have a basis for planning; the plans must be communicated to others to be carried out. Organizing requires communicating with people about their job assignments. Leading requires managers to communicate with subordi­nates so that group goals can be achieved. Oral, written, and, increasingly, electronic communications are an essential part of controlling. Managers can carry out their management functions only by interacting with and communi­cating with others. The communication process is thus the foundation for the management functions.


There are four major forms of Communication (Norton and Dutt, 2003).

Intra-personal Communication
Communication is an ongoing process and intra-personal communication is one of the important aspect of it. For example, if we see food that we are allergic to, we will say, ‘I should not eat that as it gives me stomach ache’. So we have communicated to ourselves the aversion to taking such foods. This way we keep communicating with ourselves about factors that influence us or affect us.

Inter-personal Communication
Inter-personal communication takes place between two people who share some kind of a relationship. Interpersonal communication allows us to better understand the external world events, the people and their environment. Interpersonal communication may take place between two people or between small groups of people.

Group Communication
The librarian intends to send a piece of communication to a niche community on a specific issue. This is also termed as customized information services.

Mass Communication
With the advent of printing and information technology, a new form of communication was introduced. Mass communication involves the newspapers (and other print media), television, radio, Internet. All these are forms of mass communication and can be used very powerfully to mould opinions and get people to act in a desired manner


Today, the real people the important decisions, and an institution designated by the managers involved in a business organization. Changes in internal and external environment, the mission of library administrator who has administrative position has to communicate effectively and efficiently. There 8 vital attributes have been identified which are useful for an effective communication listed as under Table 1:

Roles and Responsibilities
Librarians to create and establish credibility in the organisation by developing a trust with the senior management and peer groups.
Library manager has to be very clear in his content which he wants to communicate and deliver. It should not be elaborative but pin-pointed and meaningful.
To provide the right information it has to be well-crafted content. The contextual-message should be in-depth.
The library manager and this communication should take their feedback constantly must make his arguments.
Library manager should be consistent, and promise a return, what has been communicated. This will develop trust among the management and peer group.
Library manager is required to identify and set up right communication channels to communicate. Sometimes appropriate blende of right channels would be very effective.
Capacity of the audience
The identification and appropriate use of right channel, for the right audience is necessary. Different channels are used depending upon the capacity and different tier of audiences.
Librarian’s message that will be given a clear, understandable, accurate, and give simple words. Avoid ambiguity in the message. Usage of symbols, images are preferred and make impact.
                                     Table 1: Eight Attributes of Effective Communication


The main methods of oral and written communication, both internal and external, are shown in the following diagrams.

5.1 Internal communication

The Figure 1 below depicts the interface between oral and written communication. Depending upon the audiences either oral or written or blend of both may be used to communicate.


 Alternate Text
                                              Figure 1: Interface between oral and written communication

5.2 External communication

Figure 2 shows the different nature of oral and written communication.
Alternate Text

Figure 2: Difference between Oral and Written Communication

5.1 Oral Communication in Practice

In your life you will probably spend much more of your time talking and listening to colleagues and clients than you will be writing and reading. In this process, both oral and non-verbal communications become quite significant (Norton and Dutt, 2003).

5.1.1 Different forms of Oral Communication

Oral communication can take a variety of forms. It can be over the telephone or face to face. It can be:
l  A private discussion
l  A conversation over lunch
l  A gossip in the lift
l  A telephone conversation
l  A chance meeting in the corridor
l  An informal gathering of staff
l  Instructing subordinates
l  Dealing with clients
l  Formal meetings
l  Interviews
l  Training sessions
l  Giving a presentation
l  Conferences/seminars

5.1.2 Guidelines to Create a Structured Oral Message

Effective oral communication should be planned just as carefully as planning what you write. Here are some guidelines to follow in order to create a well-structured oral message.
l  Decide the desired outcome - what is the aim of your message?
l  Select the important facts and figures to support your message.
l  Identify key points of your message.
l  Arrange the key points in a suitable order which will flow naturally from introduction to middle to conclusion.
l  Choose an appropriate style in which to put your message over. Its acceptance will depend very much on.
■      Facial expressions (sincerity, warmth, assertiveness, diplomacy, fairness).
■      Body stance and gestures (ease, physical presence, enthusiasm, conviction, determination, respect, eye contact).
■      Articulation (tone, enunciation, emphasis, volume, projection).
■      When delivering the message, monitor the feedback constantly. Watch for unusual facial expressions, gestures, body movements. Be prepared to adjust your delivery or content in accordance with the listener’s reactions.
■      Know when you have said enough and try to end on a positive note.

5.1.3 Listening Skills

Listening is an integral part of oral communication, and it is a skill that needs to be practiced and taken equally as seriously as speaking. All effective leaders and managers realize the importance of acquiring good listening skills (Robbins 1992).
Here are some guidelines to follow if you want to be an effective listener.
i)        Prepare to listen: Clear your mind so that your attention is assured. Concentrate on what is being said. Learn to listen, not just hear!
ii)      Establish eye contact: This shows that you are listening, as does your posture.
iii)    Watch for signals: Pick up aspects that the speaker considers important by watching posture and gestures, and listening to intonation in the speaker’s words. This is like listening to the ‘music’ as well as the words.
iv)    Exact main points: Pick out and repeat to yourself the key words or phrases. This will help to fix in your mind what is being said.
v)      Give feedback: Learns to give positive feedback non-verbally, by nodding and smiling. Be alert so that you can provide a suitable remark or ask a question to assist your understanding of the message.
Make note: Record important conversations afterwards. Your notes will serve as a useful reminder. Develop your note-taking skills by jotting down the salient points of lectures or meetings.

.1.4 Interviews

One very important type of oral communication is an interview. You may be involved in various kinds of interviews:
l  Selection interview: the kind where you consider someone for a job.
l  Promotion interviews: this takes place when you wish to be considered for a job at a higher grade within your organization.
l  Appraisal interviews: this generally takes place annually to review progress and discuss the future.
l  Counselling interviews: this may be held to find out what has been troubling the employee or why someone has not been working to their usual high standard.
l  Disciplinary interviews: this is carried out when an employee has been accused of breaching usual procedures.
l   Grievance interviews:   This is carried out when an employee feels that he or she has been treated badly by another member of staff.

5.1.5 The Telephone

Most of us use the telephone several times a day to talk with friends or to make social arrangements. These calls are usually quite straightforward and require little planning. Using the telephone for business purposes is very different. In any organization the person on the telephone represents the centre and gives an impression of the organization to the outside world. If you are to ensure good public relations, effective telephone techniques must be mastered.

5.2 Non-verbal Communication

Non-verbal communication techniques are often used unconsciously, for instance while speaking we may throw our arms around; while listening a sudden shock may result in a sharp intake of breath. Such non-verbal signals add impact to a meaning, and thus combine to provide an instant impression in a way, which written communication or telephone calls cannot. Actions of this sort are an important part of the communication process.
Posture: The way people stand or sit can say an awful lot about how they feel. Someone who is nervous or anxious will fidget with their hands, tap their feet, drum the table with their fingers. Someone who is sitting well back in their chair, legs crossed at the ankle, may be seen as being relaxed and confident.
Facial expressions: Human faces are capable of communicating a wide range of expressions and emotion. A smile conveys good humor, raised eyebrows denote questioning and disbelief, a frown denotes upset or worry.
Gestures: Many gestures are used as we speak, for example shaking a first to denote anger, sweeping arms in excitement, using hands for emphasis. In listening, too, gestures are used, like nodding in agreement, shaking your head in disapproval, putting your hand to your chin in consideration, folding your arms in boredom. There are all valuable signs in communicating and you should learn to read such gestures carefully.
Eye contact: The importance of eye contact is paramount. Looking someone directly in the eye suggests openness, honesty, confidence and comfort. Looking away gives an impression of being conniving or sly, or perhaps just unsure and uncomfortable. When speaking to one person try to look them in the eye. When speaking to a group avoid fixing your gaze on one or two people - let your eyes rove around regularly in all corners of the room to let everyone feel involved.


The communication process is a loop that connects the sender and the receiver and operates in both directions. Communication is not complete until the original sender knows that the receiver understands the message.

The communication process involves eight basic elements: source (sender), encoding, message, transmission channel, receiver, decoding, noise, and feedback. Managers can improve communication skills by becoming aware of these elements and how they contribute to successful communica­tion. Communication can break down at any one of these elements.

 Alternate Text

Fig 3: Schematic Representation of Communication Process

1. Source (sender) - The communication process begins with sender. Sender wishes to send a message to the receiver.

2. Message - The message is 'what the sender wants to convey' to the receiver. It may be an idea, or feeling, or some information. Every message has a purpose or objective. The sender intends — whether consciously or unconsciously — to accomplish something by communicating. In organizational contexts, messages typically have a definite objective: to motivate, to inform, to teach, to persuade, to entertain, or to inspire.

3. Encoding - To encode is to put a message into words or images. The sender organizes his message into a series of symbols - either written words or spoken words or gestures or any other symbolic act or a combination of these modes. This is termed as encoding of the message. There are three encoding skills: speaking, writing, and body language.

4. Transmission channel - The channel is the method of transmission from one person to another (such as air for spoken words and paper for letters); it is often inseparable from the message. For communication to be effective and efficient, the channel must be appropriate for the message.

5. Receiver - The receiver is the person or group for whom the communication effort is intended. The message must be crafted with the receiver’s background in mind. If the message does not reach a receiver, communication has not taken place. The situation is not much improved if the message reaches a receiver but the receiver doesn't understand it.

6.  Decoding- Decoding is the process by which the receiver interprets the message and translates it into meaningful information. Decoding involves two things: one is technically receiving the message as it has been sent, and the other is interpreting the message the way sender wants receiver to understand.

7. Feedback - Feedback is reaction, without it, the sender of the message cannot know whether the recipient has received the entire message or grasped its intent. The need for feedback should be clearly understood. Feedback is the return of a portion of the message to the sender with new information. It regulates both the transmission and reception. The whole process is straightforward: the sender transmits the message via the most suitable communication media; the receiver gets the message, decodes it, and provides feedback. Feedback enables the sender to adjust his performance to the needs and responses of the receiver(s).

Organizational feedback may be in a variety of forms, ranging from direct feedback, such as a simple spoken acknowledgement that the message has been received, to indirect feedback, expressed through actions or documentation.

Noise- Noise is any disturbance that obscures, reduces, or confuses the clarity or quality of the message being transmitted. In other words, it is any interference that takes place between the sender and the receiver. This is why we generally identify any communication problem that can't be fully explained as “noise.”


A channel of communication is the path through which information flows throughout the organization. It may be formal or informal.

1. Formal Communication network- Formal Communication networks are systems designed by management to dictate who should talk to whom to get a job done. All downwards, upward and horizontal communications flow through this network. This network is created to regulate the flows of commu­nication so as to avoid any confusion and make it more orderly, timely and smooth.

Some of the merits of formal communication network are discussed below:

  1. Satisfy the information needs of the organization - Formal channels of communication are designed to cater to the informational needs of the organization, i.e., when and where, what kind of information is required and who is to provide it.
  2. Integrates the organization - Formal communication channels work as linking wires in a big sized organization, and thus integrate its functioning.
  3. Coordination and control- By providing required information at right time to right places, the formal communication networks greatly facilitates coordination and control in the organization.
  4. Sorts the information for high-level executives - Formal communication channels facilitate the flow of selective information to the top executives. Otherwise they will be finding themselves in the midst of all relevant and irrelevant information.
  5. Restricts unwanted flow of information - When a person is supposed to formally communicate some information to some authority, that itself has a restrictive implication that he need not disseminate this information anywhere else.
  6. Reliability and accuracy of information - When information moves through formal channel, it has to have some basis to substantiate it. It is any time more reliable and accurate than the informally obtained information.

However, the formal communication network entails some limitations also:

  1. Time consuming and expensive - Since formal communication channels involves lot many levels, information takes time to travel across. More­over, paper work, involvement of executive’s time, and other facilities required for the communication network make it an expensive proposi­tion.
  2. It increases the workload of the line supervisor - Since most of the reporting goes from down to up, generally line supervisor is the person who has to devote a good deal of time because in forwarding information under formal channels. This leaves him with little time to perform other organizational functions properly.
  3. Information may get distorted - There are dangers of messages being lost, filtered or distorted as they pass through many points.
  4. Creates gaps between top executives and lower subordinates - Formal communication channels reduce the need of contact between the top executive and the subordinates at the lowest level. Many a times they do not even recognize each other. This adversely affects superior subordi­nate relationship.
Whatever these limitations are, the need for a formal network of communica­tion cannot be done away with. An organization has to have a formal commu­nication structure. Of course one can strive to make it more economic and efficient by not being too rigid and too elaborate.

2 Informal communication network- Informal communication network is not a deliberately formed network. It arises to meet needs that aren't satisfied by formal communication. Employees form friendships, and cliques develop, they talk in gatherings, the persons working at same place may talk just like that, and likewise. These in turn allow employees to fill in communication gaps within the formal channels. Following are some of the sources of informal communication:
  1. Grapevine - channel mostly associated with gossip and rumors
  2. Social gatherings - organizational gatherings give a chance to people of various ranks to meet and talk
  3. Management by walking around - where a manager informally walks through the work area and casually talk to employees
Secretaries/administrative assistants - It is very common that the secre­taries or administrative assistants of the top bosses pass and receive much information informally.


Some of the traditional/primitive methods used for communication have been visual and audio in the form of gestures, sound and pictures/drawings. Technology today has transformed these sounds and gestures to produce speech, videos, films, posters and theatre. The evolution of different means has opened up a vast potential for communication. With a plethora of tools and methods to use, the communicator may find it difficult to choose an appropriate one. How is this choice to be made? Answer to this question depends on our understanding of the impact of information technology on our everyday life.

8.1 Impact of information technology

In recent years there has been an information technology (IT) revolution. While paper-based manual systems for processing information and communication are still very much evident, computer-based technology is increasingly undertaking most office functions and procedures. The implications of IT on communication methods cannot be ignored. However, technology will always require people, and in communication it is the input of the human agency that will ensure effective communication (or otherwise).   See   Figure   4   to understand better the impact of information technology (Tanenbaum, 2007).

The fundamental skills of structure, tone and composition will always be of vital importance in ensuring effective communication. As originators of printed communications, people have control over these factors. However, while technological developments are making their role more interesting and challenging, the conventional presentation techniques should not be allowed to suffer. High standards must be set and maintained in order to ensure that your communications are not only appropriately worded and logically structured, but are also consistently and attractively presented.

 Alternate Text


Figure 4 Impact of Information Technology

8.2 Social Media

Social media has drastically changed how we communicate. Not too long ago, we communicated through the mail, on a land-line telephone, and in person. Today, we send text messages; leave voice messages; use instant messenger; send emails; talk through headphones, cell phones, and online video phones; and, of course, interact through the Internet where a plethora of social media tools has redefined communication Such a redefinition has had an enormous effect. The entire paradigm of social media has altered the basic rules of communication, especially between business and their audiences. The oneway communication methods of the recent past—business-to-customer and business-to-business—have been replaced by a more robust multidimensional communication model. That model is collectively called social media (also referred to as Web 2.0).

8.2.1 Understanding social media.

While the tools and kinds of social media are many and their implementations seemingly boundless, they all share a common set of characteristics that meet the rules of social media (stated above). Herewith, then, are the five C’s of social media:

  1. Conversation. No longer is the communication one-way, broadcast or somehow sent to a passive audience. Social media is at least a two-way conversation, and often a multidimensional conversation. Social media engages everyone involved.
  2. Contribution. Social media encourages contributions and reactions from anyone who is interested. ‘Encourage’ is the key here; social media solicits an interaction, positive and negative, by making it easy to contribute.
  3. Collaboration. Social media promotes an exchange of information between you and your audience, and among audience members, by inviting participation. Creating a quick and simple collaborative platform requires that information be organized and easily distributed.
  4. Connection. Accessing information on the Internet only takes a click. Social media thrives on connections, within its own Web vehicles and through links to other sites, resources, people, and automatic feeds. People can even create their own personalized site of connections.
Community. The fundamental characteristic of social media is the creation of community: a fellowship and relationship with others who share common attitudes, interests, and goals (such as friendship, professionalism, politics, and photography). Communities form quickly and communicate effectively. Communities build goodwill from members to the hosting organization and among members. While these communities are only virtual, with members seldom meeting each other in person, they are no less robust than the physical communities in which we live, and in many ways more robust from the simple fact that barriers are removed.

8.2.2 What are social networking sites?

The computer industry has always loved buzzwords and one of the latest is ’social networking’. This can be fun, as well as useful, and if you fancy getting involved, then this article will point you in the right direction.
There are a lot of myths about social networking. Firstly, Facebook, Twitter and that sort of thing are for kids (actually, Ofcom figures show that over 50% of the people on these networks are aged 35 and over). Secondly, it’s risky and people will steal your personal details (it’s no more risky than any other internet page). And thirdly, it’s difficult and technical (it’s not).
Social networking is a way of using your computer to talk to other people, exchange pictures, whatever you want to do. We have some articles on specific networks elsewhere on the WebWise site, but here are a few basic pointers listed in Table 2:

This is one of the fastest-growing networks. You follow people you know or in whom you’re interested, they follow you, you exchange brief text-only messages. If you say something interesting, one of your followers might ’re-tweet’ it, which means repeating it and saying who said it. So, some of their followers might start to follow you too, and that’s how you meet new people.

Unlike Twitter, you get a page on the web and can use this for longer bits and pieces. You can upload pictures, videos, play games, whatever you want to do. There are Facebook applications for reviewing books, reviewing films, areas for private messages and for more open discussions. This can really be your place on the internet if you want it to be.

A bit like a Facebook for business. This is a network for contacting and keeping in touch with work colleagues. You may only contact people who are a friend of a friend, or a friend of a friend of a friend, and so forth.

There’s less scope for socialising here, but you can upload and share any pictures you want others to see. You can also download and sometimes use pictures on websites, as many people put them up with few copyright restrictions.

It's still early days for Google's competitor to Facebook and Twitter, but the company is such a behemoth that it's not a good idea to count them out. Google+ lets you put all your acquaintances in separate "circles", so you can post something to your best friends that you might not want sent to your work colleagues.
Table 2: Different Social Networks


How will you deliver the message?
Selecting the right strategies can save time and money, as well as increase the reach and effectiveness of your message.
One-on-one communication is the most time consuming, but it is also the most powerful. Mass media are most effective in reaching large numbers of people.Outreach to groups—through speaking engagements, library tours or mailings—is an effective way of reaching key audiences who share particular interests and concerns.In addition to identifying strategies, your communication plan should include a schedule for the activities you want to undertake.
Consider the following when deciding which strategies to use:
  1. WHO is the audience?
  2. WHAT is the best way to convey the information to the target audience—radio, TV, direct mail, other? What kind of image do you want to project? Will it be an effective part of your total communication effort?
  3. WHEN is the deadline? Will your message be distributed in time to be effective?
  4. HOW much will it cost? Is this the most effective use of available funds?
  5. WHY is the best strategy for this audience?
What are modes of delivering the message? 
Here are some commonly used strategies for getting the message out:
  • Banners/Posters/Displays
  • Handouts/Giveaways
  • Mailings
    Media: Newspapers, newsletters, radio, TV
  • Print materials: fact sheet, newsletter, flyers, tent cards, etc.
  • Web site
  • E-mail lists
  • Presentations to groups
  • Partnerships
  • Word of mouth

9.1 Communication Plan Objectives

  • To improve communications between the Library and its stakeholders through clear, consistent and timely messages using a range of communication channels
  • To promote the Library as a high quality resource for the entire user community
  • To increase awareness and promote the use of library services, facilities and resources
  • To promote library contributions towards the institution’s strategic directions
  • To improve the channels available for feedback and input
  • To expand the channels of communication available
  • To increase the level of patron satisfaction with library communications

9.2 Planning and Strategizing Communication

While designing a communication plan for an institution following strategic actions should be addressed at length. This may be customized depending upon the categories of the library:

General Strategy

Key Messages

General Strategies

The Library...
  • is to support all stakeholders throughout their journey
  • staff are professional, friendly, helpful and approachable
  • is a great place for research and study and offers a number of excellent facilities
  • has an extensive range of electronic and print resources
  • provides a range of help services, face to face and online
  • has online environments dedicated to providing real time information and links to key
  • tools and services

  • Promote the library as a part of a student’s on-campus and off-campus experience
    • Promote this in a variety of publications and communication channels
  • Promote awareness of library staff, their expertise, professionalism, friendly andapproachable manner
    • Regular interviews with staff and publishing them in electronic newsletters
  • Use plain simple English language in all library communications, which is understandable and not jargons
    • Develop a glossary of library terms.  Ensure consistent and current information in all library communications
    • Develop a communication policy for the library staff to use appropriate communication channel for the right audience. Make a process available for seeking approval.
  • Ensure consistent current information in all library communications
    • Develop templates for posters, notices, hand-outs, digital signage etc.
    • Develop procedures for reviewing the information in publications, website and using the other media in the library
    • Interactive communication using website
    • Recycle information through different channels
  • Branding of Library and Communicating appropriately
    • Create a brand and logo which is used appropriately on all publications and other communication media
  • Deliver messages in multiple formats to cater for different communication preferences,
    • Communicating using social media like Facebook, Twitter, Linked-In, You-tube, RSS Feeds etc.
    • Develop a Social Media policy and align with the organisation policy when developed
    • Develop a schedule for responsibility of posts and monitoring and evaluation
    • Seek Youtube channel subscription
    • Electronic newsletter for internal and external community
    • Information bookmarks on important benchmarks of the library
    • Pop-up banners on the PC’s in the Learning Commons
  • Ensure communications strategies are included in all library project plans
    • Develop a communication strategy template into the project plan template
    • Responsibilities, content, delivery methods, timing etc.
    • Ensure information about library collection and building development is available to librarypatrons.

Academic Staff

Specific key messages
Specific strategies & actions

The Library...
  • values research and offers a number of research support services, including the institutional repository
  • values teaching and offers a number of teaching and learning support services dedicated to ensuring  print and electronic collection meets current teaching needs and supports current research priorities
  • offers a quota of standard interlibrary-loan requests each year
  • values transparency and has published a Collection Development Policy
available on the library website

  • Strengthen relationships between Learning and Research Services Librarians and academic staff
    • Promote the achievements and specialties of librarians through library publications
    • Increase the physical presence of librarians in the Faculties and Schools
    • Promote the librarian consultation service
  • Increase use of the library’s support services for research, teaching and learning
    • Promote services through faculty emails, web pages and other publications
    • Continue the library’s involvement in induction sessions
    • Continue to promote submission deadlines and policy on the library’s electronic reserve and Institutional Repository
    • Continue to develop research support services with academic staff
    • Continue to promote the library’s inter-library loan service and quota system
  • Promote the use of library facilities and the library as a central ‘hub’ of the university
    • Promote library exhibitions, events and facilities through a number of alternate communication channels
    • Investigate further the possibility of holding lectures/talks by authors and academics in the library
  • Increase and promote participation from library patrons
    • Improve library feedback channels
    • Inform patrons of policy and procedural changes in a timely fashion
    • Build upon relationships  with all stakeholders

General Staff

The Library...
  • values relationships with general staff and their specialties, and values their input and feedback
  • provides free access to a wide range of current electronic and print resources relevant to a range of professions across the instituions
  • has a range of specialist staff who provide support for patrons when
using library resources and facilities
  • has a range of in-house facilities for use by general staff

  • Increase the awareness of services and resources offered to general staff and increase their use
    • Continue the library’s involvement in induction sessions
    • Promote services through web pages and other publications
    • Send an email to all general staff to remind
them of their borrowing privileges
  • Promote the use of library facilities and the library as the ‘hub’ of the University
    • Promote library exhibitions, events and facilities through a number of alternate communication channels
    • Investigate further the possibility of holding lectures/talks by authors and academics in the library
    • To strengthen relationships between library and general staff
      • Promote library staff achievements and specialties through library publications
      • Increase overall communication with general staff

Table 3: Planning and Strategizing Communication

10.0 Barriers to Communication

Many problems encountered in our business and personal lives result from miscommunication. What the recipient understands by a message may not always be the message which the sender intended. Several communication barriers exist between sender and recipient, and they may be responsible for a message not being understood correctly, or a message becoming distorted (see Table 4). The table explains the nature of barriers to communication and suggest the ways to maximise the import of a communication (NIPCCD 2001).

What happens
How to maximise communication
a) Physical:
A learner may not be able to see or hear properly.
It is the responsibility of the communicator to be clear in speech and visual presentation.

b) Intellectual

A learner may not be willing and eager to receive the message. Their interest may not lie in what you have to say.

As a communicator, it is important that we design our communication in such a way that it takes into account the educational levels of the people, their experiences and backgrounds. We need to select appropriate examples and situations for explaining issues. The material that we use should also be carefully selected so that no ambiguous messages are given. Speak slowly if people are having difficulty in following you. Illustrate your points with lots of examples so that they are able to relate to what you say.

c) Emotional

A learner may not be able to understand what is being said or shown. This may happen because of lack of schooling, lack of functional literacy of different experiences and situations (for example you may be speaking about a city to a rural farmer)

People are interested and willing to change when they are given suggestions rather than lecture. So as a communicator, we need to learn the art of suggesting rather than telling. We need to offer our suggestions in a way that people recognize that the change will meet a need that they have recognized.

Table 4 Barriers to Communication


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