By :PK gupta
2 Motivation – Concept, Definition and Meaning
- the process used to allocate energy to maximize the satisfaction of needs (Pritchard and Ashwood)
- the psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction (Kreitner, 1995)
- a predisposition to behave in a purposive manner to achieve specific unmet needs (Buford, Bedeian, and Linder, 1995)
- an internal drive to satisfy an unsatisfied need (Higgins, 1994);
- and the will to achieve (Bedeian, 1993).
- all those inner-striving conditions described as wishes, desires, drives, etc. (Donnelly, Gibson, and Ivancevich 1995)
- the way urges, aspirations, drives and needs of human beings direct or control or explain their behavior (Appleby 1994)
- some driving force within an individual by which they attempts to achieve some goal in order to fulfill some needs or expectations (Mullins, 1996).
- Motivation is commonly assumed to be a good thing.
- Motivation is one of the several factors that go into a person’s performance.
- Motivation is in short supply and in need of periodic replenishment.
- Motivation is a tool with which managers can arrange job relationships in organizations.
- Intrinsic / Internal Motivation: Intrinsic motivation is related to motivation that is driven by an interest in the task itself, and present within the individual rather than depending upon external pressure. Intrinsic motivation is based on taking pleasure in an activity rather than doing for a reward. Intrinsic motivation is defined as the doing of an activity for its inherent satisfactions rather than for some separable consequence. When intrinsically motivated a person is moved to act for the fun or challenge entailed rather than because of external prods, pressures, or rewards.
- Extrinsic / External Motivation: Extrinsic motivation refers to motivation that comes from outside an individual. The motivating factors are external, or outside, rewards such as money or grades, and threat of punishment. These rewards provide satisfaction and pleasure that the task itself may not provide. Extrinsic motivation refers to the performance of an activity in order to attain an outcome, which then contradicts intrinsic motivation.
3 Theories of Motivation
- Content Theories: These theories will have methods for analyzing staff in terms of ‘needs’.
- Process Theories: They provide insights into what and how people think about and give meaning to organizational ‘rewards’.
- Job characteristics Theories: They work around the concept of making the job interesting to an employee by way of job enrichment, role enlargement etc.
- Environmentally-based Reinforcement Theories: They deal with guidance about the way that people learn patterns of behaviour that finally leads to environmental reinforcements.
3.1 Content Theories: What motivates people?
- i. Physiological;
- ii. Safety;
- iii. Social;
- iv. Esteem; and
- v. Self-actualization.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
- Motivators give positive satisfaction, for example challenging work, recognition, responsibility, etc.; and
- Hygiene factors do not motivate if present, but, if absent, result in demotivation, for example status, job security, salary, fringe benefits, etc.
3.2 Process Theories: How does motivation operate?
- The reward must be valued by the person (valence);
- The person must believe that higher performance will result in greater rewards (instrumentality); and
- That additional effort will lead to higher performance (expectancy).
- i. Set speciﬁc goals;
- ii. Make goals sufficiently difficult (but not too difficult);
- iii. Involve employees in goal setting to ensure commitment;
- iv. Provide feedback; and
- v. Link goal accomplishment with rewards that are valued by the employee.
3.3 Job Characteristics Theory: How can we make jobs interesting?
- Skill variety - the degree to which a job requires a variety of activities that draw on diﬀerent skills and talents of the employee.
- Task identity - the degree to which the job requires completion of a task, from beginning to end.
- Task signiﬁcance - the degree to which the job has a signiﬁcant impact on the lives of other people.
- Autonomy - the degree to which the job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling work and determining the procedures to be used.
- Feedback - the degree to which workers are provided with direct and clear information about their performance.
3.4 Environmentally-based Reinforcement Theories: How can we reinforce and maintain motivation?
4 Leadership and Motivation
- Supporting; and
- Be motivated yourself;
- Select people who are highly motivated;
- Treat each person as an individual;
- Set realistic and challenging targets;
- Remember that progress motivates;
- Create a motivating environment;
- Provide fair rewards; and
- Give recognition.
5 Application of Motivational Theories in Libraries and Motivating Library Employees
Table No. 1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Application in Libraries
Examples in the Academic Library Workplace
- Opportunity to learn new skills and groom;
- Opportunity for career development; and
- Having authority and responsibility in the positions they hold.