By :PK gupta
1 Concept and Definition of Team
- A team is a permanent task force or committee.
- Teams are meant especially for conducting tasks that are high in complexity.
- Teams normally have members with complementary skills and generate synergy through a coordinated effort.
2 Team Building and Management
- The team has to set goals and objectives as to why it has been set up;
- Define roles and identify right team members;
- Once an idea is finalised what to achieve with team, identify the roles need to fill and types of people for those roles;
- Ensure space for functioning, budget, hardware and software needs and other resources needed;
- Formulate guidelines to work smoothly;
- Define the method of members working in a team.
- Committed to group goals or tasks and feels his or her team membership;
- Cooperative, friendly and concerned of others;
- Patience hearing of others, display empathy, is understanding, values the ideas of others;
- Identifies and respects individual differences;
- Includes others in the decision-making process; and
- Deals positively during interpersonal conflicts and acknowledge them.
2 Team Building and Management(Continue....)
- Functional or Vertical;
- Cross-functional or Horizontal; and
- Self-managed or Self-directed
- Functional or Vertical team is a team in which work is carried out within a functionally organised group, in which people work together to carry out the same or similar functions. Functional teams perform specific organizational functions and include members from several vertical levels of the hierarchy. In other words, a functional team is composed of a manager and his or her subordinates for a particular functional area. Accounting, personnel, and purchasing departments are examples of functional teams. Groups of people from the same work area or department who meet on a regular basis to analyze customer needs, solve problems, provide members with support, promote continuous improvement, and share information.
- Cross-functional or Horizontal teams are made up of experts in various specialties (or functions) working together on various organizational tasks. Team members come from such departments as research and development, design, engineering, marketing, and distribution. This is another example of Self-managed teams. These teams are often empowered to make decisions without the approval of management.
- Self-managed or Self-directed Work Teams are one of the forms of team building. In a self-managed team, a group of employees are made into a team responsible for a set of total task functions. They take decisions on a varied range of issues that govern the task, viz., team morale, division of roles, quality issues, managing conflicts, planning for resources etc. Employees have utmost degree of autonomy and control over their immediate behaviour. Self-directed work teams, or self-managed teams, operate without managers and are responsible for complete work processes or segments that deliver products or services to external or internal customers. Self-directed work teams (SDWTs) are designed to give employees a feeling of “ownership” of a whole job.
- A goal which is commonly decided by its members;
- Interdependence, where team members accept to work together and support each other;
- Commitment, to reach the set goals through group effort; and
- Accountability, where individual member is accountable to top management for achieving or reaching the goal.
- Team relationships: For a team to be successful the members of the team must be able to give and receive feedback.
- Team problem solving: An effective team depends on how focused and clear the goal of the team is. A relaxed, comfortable and accepting environment and finally, open and honest communication.
- Team leadership: Effective team leadership depends on leadership competencies. A competent leader is: focused on the goal, ensures a collaborative climate, builds confidence of team members, sets priorities, demonstrates sufficient “know-how” and manages performance through feedback.
- Organizational environment: The climate and culture of the organization must be conductive to team behaviour.
- A clear vision and mission;
- Efficient leadership;
- Right mix of team members;
- Training; and
- Motivation and appreciation.
3 Role of a Team Leader
- Provide a self-critique early in the post action review.
- Accept feedback and ideas from others.
- Avoid person-oriented feedback; focus on task-focused feedback.
- Provide specific, constructive suggestions when providing feedback.
- Encourage active team member participation during briefings and reviews and not simply state one’s own observations and interpretations of the team’s performance.
- Guide briefings to include discussions of ‘‘teamwork’’ processes, as well as ‘‘task work.’’
- Refer to prior pre-briefs and team performance when conducting subsequent debriefs.
- Vocalize satisfaction when individual team members or the team as a whole demonstrate improvements.
4 Application of Team Management in Library &amp; Information Centres
- Structuring a process for long-range strategic planning for the Library in the context of university-wide planning processes.
- Coordinating the identification of funding needs and preparation of budget requests within the context of the University's budget process, and other funding opportunities.
- Participating in internal resource allocation decisions.
- Sharing information from within and outside the Library to ensure that effects and interrelationships are identified and addressed.
- Establishing task forces and working groups of Library faculty and staff to address specific projects and needs.
- Attending the LMT meetings.
- Reviewing the LMT agenda and materials distributed in advance in preparation for the meetings.
- Completing any special tasks as assigned by LMT.
- Serving on the Staff Training and Development Committee.
- Convening library-wide staff meetings including establishing meeting time, setting agendas and coordinating follow up activities (typically once per semester or more often, if necessary.)
- Consulting with staff to identify staff concerns for presentation at LMT.
5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Teams
Team-based organizations filter decision making down to all levels of management, while traditionally structured organizations rely on top management to make decisions.
Team-based organizations value team performance over individual performance.
It requires that all employees participate in the decision making process.
Lack of individual focus can be a disadvantage of team-based organization.
Employees feel they are part of the total organization rather than members of an individual department.
Motivating individuals in a team-based organization can be more challenging since participants seek recognition for their individual contributions.
They run more efficiently and effectively.
They are decentralised rather than hierarchical.
Teams create an environment of support and propel people towards implementation
Lack of centralisation is a disadvantage of team-based organization.
A team environment can boost the confidence of individual talent allowing them to do their best work.
Decentralisation can lead to coordination and control problems for management.
Team’s membership can provide social facilitation and support for difficult tasks and situations.
Conflict may develop between team members or other teams.
Greater autonomy, variety, identity, significance, and feedback for employees can occur.
Less flexibility may be experienced in personnel replacement or transfer.
Teams can foster greater cooperation among team members
Teams may be time-consuming due to need for coordination and consensus.