Wednesday, January 29, 2014

Total Quality Management in Libraries P- 12. Management of Libraries and Information Centres & Knowledge Centres * By :PK gupta

इस ब्लॉग्स को सृजन करने में आप सभी से सादर सुझाव आमंत्रित हैं , कृपया अपने सुझाव और प्रविष्टियाँ प्रेषित करे , इसका संपूर्ण कार्य क्षेत्र विश्व ज्ञान समुदाय हैं , जो सभी प्रतियोगियों के कॅरिअर निर्माण महत्त्वपूर्ण योगदान देगा ,आप अपने सुझाव इस मेल पत्ते पर भेज सकते हैं -

Total Quality Management in Libraries

P- 12. Management of Libraries and Information Centres & Knowledge Centres *

By :PK gupta

1.1 What is quality ?

The origin of the quality concept and quality management for the production of goods can be traced to the start of industrial mass production. W. A. Sheward’s theory of the Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Products of 1931 (Sheward, 1931) can be regarded as a milestone.

Many people have incoherent ideas about quality and some of them even like to equate quality with expense. However, we know that it is possible to pay a high price for an inferior product or service but a the same time high quality goods and services at a lower price can easily be obtained. Modern concept of quality is defined as a conformance to requirements and requirements are defined as the task to be accomplished in meeting customer needs. Quality cannot be assured by mere inspecting the products or service; the customer satisfaction has to be designed into the whole system. The confirmation check then makes sure that the things are according to a plan.  In other words, the objective of quality improvement is not to screen out bad products, but to develop production processes so that the defects can be eliminated completely.

 According to Michael Maccoby, the definition of quality for the industrial age is meeting or exceeding the customer’s expectations in terms not only of beauty, usability and durability, but also cost and timeliness of delivery (Maccoby, 1993).

 Philip Crosby, a TQM Guru, defines quality as “Conformance to requirements” (though the requirement may not fully represent customer expectations). (Crosby, 1979) .

According to Peter Drucker, “Quality in a product or service is not what the supplier puts in. It is what the customer gets out and is willing to pay for” ( Drucker, 1985).

Another TQM Guru, Joseph M Juran defines quality as “ fitness for use”. Fitness is defined by the customer (Source : Retrieved on 8.12.2012).

As per American Society for Quality, "Quality denotes an excellence in goods and services, especially to the degree they conform to requirements and satisfy customers." (Source : Retrieved on 10.12.2012)

Thus the definition of quality varies. However, one thing which is common among all  the above definitions is the centrality of the customer. Quality is nothing but meeting or exceeding customer’s expectations in relation to use of a particular product or service.  It is the customer (and not the producer or service provider) who judges the quality, irrespective of the cost of the product, its looks or other attractive features.

Quality Glossary - Q
QEDS Standards Group: The U.S. Standards Group on Quality, Environment, Dependability and Statistics consists of the members and leadership of organizations concerned with the development and effective use of generic and sector specific standards on quality control, assurance and management; environmental management systems and auditing, dependability and the application of statistical methods.
Q9000 series: Refers to ANSI/ISO/ASQ Q9000 series of standards, which is the verbatim American adoption of the 2000 edition of the ISO 9000 series standards.
QS-9000: Harmonized quality management system requirements developed by the Big Three automakers for the automotive sector. Replaced by Technical Specification 16949 effective Dec. 15, 2006. Also see “ISO/TS 16949.”
Qualitician: Someone who functions as both a quality practitioner and a quality technician.
Quality: A subjective term for which each person or sector has its own definition. In technical usage, quality can have two meanings: 1. the characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs; 2. a product or service free of deficiencies. According to Joseph Juran, quality means “fitness for use;” according to Philip Crosby, it means “conformance to requirements.”
Quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC): Two terms that have many interpretations because of the multiple definitions for the words “assurance” and “control.” For example, “assurance” can mean the act of giving confidence, the state of being certain or the act of making certain; “control” can mean an evaluation to indicate needed corrective responses, the act of guiding or the state of a process in which the variability is attributable to a constant system of chance causes. (For a detailed discussion on the multiple definitions, see ANSI/ISO/ASQ A3534-2, Statistics—Vocabulary and Symbols—Statistical Quality Control.) One definition of quality assurance is: all the planned and systematic activities implemented within the quality system that can be demonstrated to provide confidence that a product or service will fulfill requirements for quality. One definition for quality control is: the operational techniques and activities used to fulfill requirements for quality. Often, however, “quality assurance” and “quality control” are used interchangeably, referring to the actions performed to ensure the quality of a product, service or process.
Quality audit: A systematic, independent examination and review to determine whether quality activities and related results comply with plans and whether these plans are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve the objectives.
Quality circle: A quality improvement or self-improvement study group composed of a small number of employees (10 or fewer) and their supervisor. Quality circles originated in Japan, where they are called quality control circles.
Quality control: See “quality assurance/quality control.”
Quality costs: See “cost of poor quality.”
Quality engineering: The analysis of a manufacturing system at all stages to maximize the quality of the process itself and the products it produces.
Quality Excellence for Suppliers of Telecommunications (QuEST) Forum: A partnership of telecommunications suppliers and service providers. The QuEST Forum developed TL 9000 (see listing).
Quality function deployment (QFD): A structured method in which customer requirements are translated into appropriate technical requirements for each stage of product development and production. The QFD process is often referred to as listening to the voice of the customer.
Quality loss function: A parabolic approximation of the quality loss that occurs when a quality characteristic deviates from its target value. The quality loss function is expressed in monetary units: the cost of deviating from the target increases quadratically the farther the quality characteristic moves from the target. The formula used to compute the quality loss function depends on the type of quality characteristic being used. The quality loss function was first introduced in this form by Genichi Taguchi.
Quality management (QM): The application of a quality management system in managing a process to achieve maximum customer satisfaction at the lowest overall cost to the organization while continuing to improve the process.
Quality management system (QMS): A formalized system that documents the structure, responsibilities and procedures required to achieve effective quality management.
Quality plan: A document or set of documents that describe the standards, quality practices, resources and processes pertinent to a specific product, service or project.
Quality policy: An organization’s general statement of its beliefs about quality, how quality will come about and its expected result.
Quality rate: See “first pass yield.”
Quality score chart: A control chart for evaluating the stability of a process. The quality score is the weighted sum of the count of events of various classifications in which each classification is assigned a weight.
Quality tool: An instrument or technique to support and improve the activities of process quality management and improvement.
Quality trilogy: A three-pronged approach to managing for quality. The three legs are quality planning (developing the products and processes required to meet customer needs), quality control (meeting product and process goals) and quality improvement (achieving unprecedented levels of performance).
Queue time: The time a product spends in a line awaiting the next design, order processing or fabrication step.
Quick changeover: The ability to change tooling and fixtures rapidly (usually within minutes) so multiple products can be run on the same machine.
Quincunx: A tool that creates frequency distributions. Beads tumble over numerous horizontal rows of pins, which force the beads to the right or left. After a random journey, the beads are dropped into vertical slots. After many beads are dropped, a frequency distribution results. Quincunxes are often used in classrooms to simulate a manufacturing process. The quincunx was invented by English scientist Francis Galton in the 1890s.

1.1 What is quality ? Cont....

Quality is not something that is asserted by the manufacturer, its is perceived by the customer. Therefore, quality will happen only when the manufacturer’s specification(s) matches with the customer expectations. Quality is not something that is negotiable, correctable or adjustable. It is doing things right the first time, every time and all the time.

Chakraborty (a) clarifies the quality concepts as follows :

Quality improvement is not :
Quality improvement is :
Slogans, banners and speeches
A basis of belief in the power of quality improvement
A program overlay or ‘flavor of the month’
An understanding that continuous quality improvement will lead to improving business results
Product quality or output inspection in manufacturing
Woven into the fabric of day-to-day management process
The other person’s responsibility
The integration of business planning, and the objective setting process,  the first important step for a life long journey.
A department or office
A long term investment. Patience is the key
The top telling middle what the bottom should be doing to improve quality
Constant education and training – Total quality starts and ends with training
“Microwave” management
Total involvement – management, employees, suppliers and customers.
Further, Chakraborty (a) says that  the following changes are required in the Indian context to make quality happen :

(i)            Every organization needs to understand that they exist to serve the customers. It is of utmost importance to not only know very precisely and clearly what the customer wants but also have to provide that to him.
(ii)           Feeling that the customer is asking for the moon should go. If he is really asking for the moon, the best option would be to either give him what he wants or politely tell him to go somewhere else instead of trying to make him believe that he should be satisfied with what he is getting.
(iii)          Satisfying the demanding customer is not easy. But it is the demanding customer who implicitly expresses faith and confidence with the ability of the producer. He would stay only if the supplier chooses to stay with his demands. And the demands can be met when the production systems are made viable to cater to the increasing variety of demands.
(iv)         Accounting systems are to be made proactive from the present posture of being only reactive. Accounting systems need to influence thoughts rather than work on Return on Investment.
(v)          Generation of waste can be tackled at the points of their origin. And this can be done by the united effort of the work force when that is consciously developed through   managerial action.

1.1 What is quality ? Cont....

The definitions of TQM are many and varied and the topic is quite often confused with quality assurance. The following definition by Cook (1992) is one that fits well with the principles we have adopted in our quality improvement programme:
Total quality management (TQM) is the term applied to the approach which organizations adopt to improve their performance on a systematic and continuous basis. This is achieved through the involvement of employees throughout the organization in satisfying the total requirements of every customer, whoever the customer may be--either external or internal--and the development of processes within the organization which are error-free.
This definition introduces three important concepts, the first of which is the recognition that customers are not simply the "end users" (our "external" customers) but also colleagues (our "internal" customers). Every department or office has a series of suppliers and customers. Suppliers are people who pass work, information, etc. on to us for some further processing. We then pass work, information, etc. on to someone else who becomes our customer. We must pay equal attention to satisfying the requirements of all our internal customers as well as our external customers.
The second important concept in the definition is "the development of processes which are error-free". Most people in organizations spend a large proportion of their time correcting errors, looking for things, checking why things are late, redoing things, apologizing to customers, trying to find the right person to talk to, etc. TQM seeks to eliminate waste of this type by involving everyone in improving the way things are done. It focuses on preventing errors and waste, rather than putting them right when they occur--getting things right first time. In other words. developing processes which are error-free. There is an attitudinal perspective to this also in that staff are encouraged to think in these terms. "Good enough is not good enough!
The third concept, and one which is of crucial importance, is the fact that TQM is a continuous process. Anyone who thinks this is a technique to use for a year or two should discard any plans to adopt it now. It is often stated that effective TQM programmes lead to a change in organizational culture and that this is one of the most important outcomes of the process. TQM brings a change in attitudes and the development of skills, so that the culture of the organization becomes one of preventing failure and working together as effectively as possible to improve continually on the services offered.
Chakraborty (1996) explains the TQM concept as follows :
TQM is based on three basic ideas of reformation :
(i)            To become customer driven instead of being self focused;
(ii)           To concentrate on the process rather than being pre-occupied with results;
(iii)          To use worker’s heads in addition to their hands
It has to be understood that we are not in the business of finding customers for our product, we are in the business of finding products for our customer. This is precisely the foundation stone on which the entire quality philosophy is built. The customer needs identification has to be done on a continuous and ongoing basis in the changing world of today.
Giving their experience in implementing TQM in a US library, US librarians Crit Stuart and Miriam A. Drake (Stuart and Drake, 1993) give the following advice :
(i)            Involve everyone of staff;
(ii)           Identify internal and external customers;
(iii)          Improve customer satisfaction;
(iv)          Increase opportunities for customer interaction and feedback;
(v)           Provide value added services;
(vi)          Encourage innovation and efficiency;
(vii)         Communicate openly;
Identify staff training, education and development opportunities.

1.1 What is quality ? Cont....

Main differences between ISO 9000 and total quality

The fundamental difference between the ISO 9000 standards and total quality is that the latter, as a philosophy of management, has a broader spectrum. The most outstanding characteristics referring to the basic priorities, key factors and principles of action, are as follows.

Contrary to the quality assurance towards which the ISO 9000 standards are directed, total quality searches for excellence. In this sense, the basic priorities of total quality are to achieve customer satisfaction and efficiency, while the ISO 9000 standard is centred only on completing contractual commitments with the customers. In order to guarantee the quality of the product or service offered to the customer, the standards consider that it is necessary to work with raw materials and processes of quality. Based on this they attach great importance to the management of quality in suppliers and in all the manufacturing process including the design and the specifications that the products or services should achieve. Also, they undertake the process of revising the contract or management of orders, since they not only consider it necessary to operate with raw materials and processes of quality, but they should also understand and transmit appropriately what the customer wants, in order to avoid delivering something of quality but different to the product ordered.

The key factors for the success of total quality are the commitment of the managers and the co-operation of all the people that form part of the organization. For ISO 9000, what is fundamental is the rigorous application of procedures and the adequate composition and motivation of personnel.

The foundations or principles of action of total quality are to act on the process of the business, procuring continuous improvement and incorporating the "best practices" of the sector or of leading companies outside the sector. On this point, ISO 9000 limits itself to the productive or service processes and serves also as a base for continuous improvement, understood as the continuous reduction of non-conformities.

A frequent complaint about ISO 9000 is that the concept reflects a conservative inspection philosophy, not incorporating the advances of TQM. TQM, at its most  fundamental, involves dedicating all activities of an organization towards delivering a quality product or service. ISO standards, on the other hand, is narrow, static, and in-house oriented, emphasizing conformance to specifications, and thereby being very different from TQM which is based on a broader, more dynamic and customer – oriented quality concept.  ISO 9000 is a standard for quality systems – and not – as many believe – a standard of product or service quality.  To quote Chakraborty (b), the sum substance of ISO 9000 is : do what you document and document what you do.  Indeed, it would be possible even for a badly performing library to obtain the ISO 9000 certificate, if alone conformance to specified requirements can be assured.  Therefore, the real weakness of the ISO  concept is that a library aiming at ISO 9000 registration is not bound to use the user-centered quality definition , while the TQM emphasizes only that.

Another aspect of criticism against the application of ISO 9000 to libraries is that ISO standards are tailored to industrial manufacturing as well as public services characterized by routine tasks, programmed activities, and regular and repetitive processes such as postal services, banking services, train reservation, etc.  In such contexts, the ISO requirements are recognized as effective and efficient means to assure conformance to specifications. On the contrary, the standards are regarded less appropriate in contexts wherein professional  judgments are required, such as, medical services, legal services, educational institutions  or in libraries

References :

  1. Chakrabortty (S)a. Quality : how to make it happen. Source not known.
  2. Chakraborty (S) b. Will quality happen if we got !SO 9000 ? BMA Review, pp. 37-42 (Year and volume not known).
  3. Chakraborty, S (1996). TQM and organizational learning. Productivity. Vol 37(1).
  4. Cook, S., Customer Care: Implementing Total Quality in Today's Service Driven Organization, Kogan Page, London, 1992.
  5. Crosby, Philip (1979). Quality is free. New York, McGraw Hill.
  6. Drucker, Peter (1985). Innovation and entrepreneurship. Harper  and  Row.
  7. Maccoby, Michael (1993). To create quality, first create the culture. Research – Technology Management. Vol 36(5).
  8. Sheward, W. A. (1931). Economic control of quality of manufactured products. London, Macmillan.
  9. Stuart, Crit and Drake, Miriam A (1993). TQM in research libraries. Special Libraries. Summer 1993.

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