Thursday, February 27, 2014

Major Public Libraries in Other Cities of India P- 13. Public Libraries * By :C P Vashishth

इस ब्लॉग्स को सृजन करने में आप सभी से सादर सुझाव आमंत्रित हैं , कृपया अपने सुझाव और प्रविष्टियाँ प्रेषित करे , इसका संपूर्ण कार्य क्षेत्र विश्व ज्ञान समुदाय हैं , जो सभी प्रतियोगियों के कॅरिअर निर्माण महत्त्वपूर्ण योगदान देगा ,आप अपने सुझाव इस मेल पत्ते पर भेज सकते हैं -

Major Public Libraries in Other Cities of India

P- 13. Public Libraries *

By :C P Vashishth

0.1 Objectives

  • To study the history of the libraries with regard to social condition and need for the establishment. 
  • To know the growth and development.
  • To find out the present position.
  • To elaborate the salient features.
  • To discuss special features.

1.1.1 Library Movement

His Highness the Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad, is the pioneer of the popular library movement in India, the Baroda Raj having been the first to establish state-aided free public libraries in this country.

During his three years’ tenure of office, Mr W.A.Borden conducted a library training class, established the Central State Library in the capital city, and planed a net-work of free public libraries throughout the State. He was succeeded by Mr J S Kudalkar, on whose premature death in 1921, Mr Newton M. Dutt, was appointed.

1.1.2 The Library Department

The Library Department comprised two sections, the Central Library and the County Section. The former includes a free and open access lending library, and a reference library, with a newspaper reading room, as well as a ladies’ library and reading room, and children’s play-room. This play-room is one of the most interesting and original features of the library: it had a large and airy hall, well furnished and decorated, and provided with English and vernacular books and papers, together with a variety of indoor games, amusements and occupations, such as draughts, jigsaw puzzles, word-making and word-taking, mosaic work designing, meccano etc. The Central Library circulates more books than any other library in India and was perhaps the third largest one in the country at that time. It has nearly 1,24,000 books, and in 1932 circulated about 32,500 volumes. (These figures are inclusive of the Travelling Library Section).

1.1.3 The Central Library

  • There is no content on this page. Collection

The nucleus of the Central Library collection, which in 1928 amounted to 88,768 works, was formed by a generous gift of His Highness the Maharaja Saheb, who in 1911 made over for public use, his private library of some 20,000 volumes. His Highness had always been a discriminating reader and an ardent book-lover. The newly created library, therefore, started with a good miscellaneous collection, especially strong in history, biography and social science subjects in which he was taking particular interest. Having thus parted with his own books, His Highness shared them with his subjects. Working Hours

The Lending Library use to be open twice daily, i.e. in the morning, except Sundays, Wednesday mornings and gazetted State holidays. During the hours of issue, the Superintendent of Circulation, aided by 4 clerks, is in attendance.

The circulation in the year, 1927 amounted to 93,367 volumes, or 33.45 volumes per day for 280 working days. This figure is exclusive of 13,639 volumes issued from the Travelling Library Section, one-third of which circulates in the city. The circulation of the Central Library was larger than that of any other public library in India. Collection

The language of the whole county is Gujarati, so that the district libraries have to supply books in that language. However, in the capital city, for which the Central Library was to cater, conditions were somewhat different, because of the 10,000 literate Deccani residents, whose mother tongue was Marathi. Then the needs of the Mohammedans, who liked to read Urdu, was to be considered. Finally, the study of Hindi is encouraged in the schools, as being to some extent the Lingua Franca of Hindustan. It was thus be seen that the Central Library had generously stock of books in English, Gujarati and Marathi and to provide books to a smaller extent, in the two other tongues. The annual circulation if analyzed, show the following results: Gujarati 37.9% ; English 29.6% ; Marathi 27.9 ; Hindi and Urdu 4.6%. Finance

During the first 20 years in which the Library Department was functioning, a total sum of Rs. 20,53,485 had been collected for the erection and upkeep of the State-aided town and village libraries, Rs. 67,07,066 having been the contribution by Government, while the contribution of the local boards and the people themselves have been Rs. 6,53,553 and Rs. 6, 92,866 respectively. This does not include the cost of upkeep of the Central Library, Baroda, which averaged at Rs. 50,000 per annum and was borne entirely by the Government

1.2.1 Foundation

“In all populous places, a free public library is a very great boon; and I am quite sure that where a great number of students and educated natives of India have not got the means of providing themselves with the books that one needed for their study in their business, a want of this kind is very deeply felt;”

“I trust that this want will be supplied by the free public library of the building of which I am now going to lay the foundation stone!” said lord Connemara while laying down the foundation stone.

The objectives of the first true public library was thus outlined by Lord Connemara-the then Governor of Madras during 1886-1890 (who happened to be the brother of Governor General Lord May (1869-1872) and son-in-law of another Governor General Lord Dalhousie (1848-1856) – while laying the foundation stone for the Connemara Public Library on 22 March 1890.

1.2.2 Name

The library so founded was named after him to perpetuate his memory in Madras in recognition of his efforts for the purpose as does the Mayo College that of his Viceroy Brother at Lahore. Design

The Connemara Public Library was constructed as a semi-circle and oblong building in Anglo India style and was designed by H Irwin, the then consulting architect to the Government of Madras. New Building

The inverted T shaped three storeyed building was added in 1972 at an estimated cost of Rs. 10 lakhs including the financial assistance of the Government of India of the extent of two thirds of the cost.

1.2.4 Growth

The library was opened for the public from 14 April 1896 through the formal opening ceremony by the Governor Sir Authur Elbank Havelock took place only on 5 December 1896 as an adjunct to the Government Museum. 

1.2.5 State Central Library

It became the State Central Library with effect from 1 April 1950 under the provisions of Madras Public Libraries Act of 1948.

1.2.6 Depository Under the Delivery of Books Act

With effect from 10 September 1955, The Connemara Public Library became one of the three depositories for Indian publications under the provisions of Delivery of books (Public Libraries) Act of 1954 as amended.

1.2.7 Stock

The stock of volumes stood at 3,24,830 as on 30 September 1980. At present it receives about 5000 periodicals and 250 newspapers.

1.2.8 Members

Any person over 17 years who can deposit Rs. 20 with a guarantee can become a member to borrow 2 books at a time for home reading returnable within fourteen days. 1,32,836 volumes were lent to 13,714 members during 1979-80 giving a daily average of 449 volumes whereas it had shot upto 1,057 volumes on Sunday the 27 January 1980.

1.2.9 Services

Working Hours and Days

With effect from 1 April 1980, the Connemara Public Library remains open to the public for 12 hours a day from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. without any break on all days of the year except on three national holidays -Republic day on 26 January, Independence day on 15 August and Mahatma Gandhi’s Birthday on 2 October.

1.3.1 History

The Khuda Bakhsh Library, modestly named as the Patna Oriental Library, is one of the finest collections of Muslim literature in the world. It is the only library of oriental collections in the subcontinent, which has a descriptive catalogue in 31 volumes. The library owes its origin to Maulvi Mohmmad Bakhsh Khan, who at the time of his death in July 1876 left a collection of fourteen hundred volumes. In 1891 when the library was opened to the public, it contained nearly four thousand manuscripts whose number rose to more than six thousand by 1908, the year, the work of cataloguing was undertaken.

Mohammad Bhakhsh Khan, the father of Khuda Bakhsh one of whose ancestors had assisted the Emperor Alamgir in compiling the Fatawa-i-Alamgir, was an advocate at Patna by career and scholar and poet by temperament inheriting three hundred oriental books he built up a collection of fourteen hundred which he left for his son Khuda Bakhsh who was an advocate and judge by profession, were enviable positions in British India.

Salahuddin Khuda Bakhsh the son of Khuda Bakhsh Khan, an accomplished scholar did a lot for the development of the library. He was a scholar of English and French.

1.3.2 Library Building

A magnificent library building was built at a cost of Rs. 80,000.00. It is a double-storied building. There is a big auditorium in it. There are two big rooms by the two sides of first house-top. Floors are built in marble. The library and its building were entrusted to the public through a trust deed on the 29th October. 1891 by the donor on the condition that the books will not be issued out of Patna.

The donor wanted the library to be called Oriental Public Library. But this name was not accepted by the public. They preferred to call it as Khuda Bakhsh Library. So this Library is known by his name in India and Europe.

1.3.3 Collection

The Library’s collection has emerged as one of the richest treasure house of documents in the country with over 16,000 manuscripts, 90,000 old and rare printed books and over 2,000 paintings of the Mughal, Rajput, Iranian and Turkish

1.3.4 Takeover by the Government of India

 Declared as an “Institution of National Importance”

The services of the library have been very much modernized and it renders services of higher learning and research to its readers. To those who cannot visit the Library daily, reference services are reached out through correspondence service. The collections of the library consists of 1,25,000 volumes of books, 30,000 special manuscripts, 500 written records on palm-leaves and about 5,000 rare manuscripts which are not available elsewhere. All these priceless treasures are well preserved for posterity. Besides, the library has an additional collection of about 45 volumes on “Project on Freedom Movement” in Urdu and Hindi languages. An Inter-Lingual-Transliteration Scheme of the best works of creative literature is also organized by the library.

In 1969, the Government of India by an Act of the Parliament declared this library to be an institution of National Importance and, since then, the library is now managed and funded entirely by the Central Government.

1.3.5 Other Features

Specialized Activities
  1. Support to research;
  2. Academic Seminars and Lectures;
  3. Conducting “Associateship in Oriental Librarianship and Manuscriptology”.

Special Features
  1. There are 1,04,374 Urdu works; 32,400 Arabic; and 23,815 Persian works.
  2. There are1,9000 registered users, daily average attendance is 60.
  3. Budget for 2007-2008 was Rs. 1,14,08,135.

1.4.1 Foundation

The Rampur Raza Library is one of the World’s magnificent, unparallel repository of cultural heritage and treasure-house of knowledge built up by successive Nawabs of Rampur State. It contains very rare and valuable collection of manuscripts, historical documents, specimens of Islamic calligraphy, miniature paintings, astronomical instruments and rare illustrated works in Arabic and Persian languages besides 80,000 printed books.

Conceived and personal collection of manuscripts, miniatures specimens of Islamic calligraphy in the last decades of the 18th century, the founder of Rampur State, Nawab Faizullah Khan who ruled the state from 1774 to 1794, established the library with his personal modest collection kept in the Tosha Khana of his Palace.

Subsequent rulers who patronized the library are:
  1. Nawab Ahmed Ali Khan (1794-1840);
  2. Nawab Mohammad Saed Khan (1840-1855)
  3. Nawab Yusuf Ali Khan Nazim (1855-1865)
  4. Nawab Kalbe Ali Khan (1865-1887)
  5. Nawab Mushtaq Ali Khan (1887-1889)
  6. Nawab Hamid Ali Khan (1889-1930)
  7. Nawab Raza Ali Khan (1930-till accession to Indian Union).

1.4.2 After Independence

After the merger of the Rampur State in the Union of India, in 1949 the Library was controlled by the management of trust which was created on 06th August 1951. The Trust management continued till July 1975.

Prof. S. Nurual Hasan, the then Minister of State for Education and Scientific Research, Govt. of India, came repeatedly to the Library and took a serious view of the neglected condition of this precious heritage. At his instance suitable measures were taken for providing better management and sufficient financial grants. As a result, the Government of India took over the Library on 1st July 1975 under the Act of Parliament and assumed the full funding and management of the Library. When the library was taken over by the Central Government, Nawab Syed Murtaza Ali Khan was nominated the Vice-Chairman of the newly created Board for the life under sub-section 5 (1) of the Act. With his sad demise on Feb. 8. 1982, the post of Vice-Chairman was automatically abolished. Now the Library occupies the position of an autonomous institution of national importance under Ministry of Culture. Government of India and is fully funded by Central Government.

1.4.3 Collection of Library

Famous for its varied collection of manuscripts, the library has 17000 such specimen of artistic creation which includes 150 illustrated ones with 4413 paintings in them. The subjects of the manuscripts are related to history, philosophy, religions, sciences, art, literature, medicine, astronomy, astrology, mathematics, geology, fine arts etc.

In addition to them, there are 205 hand written palm-leaves, 5000 miniature paintings, and nearly 3000 specimens of Islamic Calligraphy. The miniature paintings represent the Turko-Mongol, Mughal, Persian, Rajput, Pahari, Awadh and Indo-European schools of art which are of great value for the researchers. (The rich collection also includes art objects and astronomical instruments. Library has a collection of about 75000 printed books. The printed book section has a unique importance as thousands of rare Arabic, Persian, Hindi. Urdu and English books which are now out of print, may be treated as an important material for research work. Such books have been carefully preserved and are being regularly taken care of.

1.4.4 Sections of The Library

The Library has the following sections:
  1. Acquisition Section;
  2. Museum Section;
  3. Conservation Section;
  4. Technical Section;
  5. Binding Section; and
  6. Computer Section

1.4.5 Security of the Library

The management is committed to maintain a foolproof security of the library. The CISF has been entrusted the duty of round the clock vigil and watch the library assets. A unit of 37 personnel of CISF has been deputed for this work. With the expansion of library buildings greater vigil round the clock is maintained. Iron grills are provided to all the doors and windows of Hamid Manzil which keeps the rare collections and priceless documents

1.5.1 History

The Kottayam Public Library established in 1882 is one of the earliest libraries in India. It stands out in the centre of Kottayam as a sentinel of its great cultural and educational heritage. It was with the establishment of Grammar School at Kottayam in 1817 that the system of modern education commenced in Kerala. The first printing press of the south also was established at Kottayam.

1.5.2 Beginning

The Kottayam Public Library has had a very humble beginning. Seven cents of land at a cost of Rs. 50/- was purchased and a small building was constructed in 1882 for the Library. Late Mr Rama Rao, the Dewan of Travancore, late Mr P M Chacko, Headmaster of C.M.S High School and the Ven. John Cailey, Archdeacon of the C.M.S Church were responsible for the establishment of the Library. The library building was raised to two storeys in 1931 utilizing the Rama Rao Memorial Agricultural Library Fund and a municipal grant. During the forties and fifties the library did not develop substantially. There were only 8,000 books with a librarian and an attender on the staff, drawing a monthly salary of Rs. 113 and Rs. 48 respectively.

1.5.3 Building

On 15 August 1962, the foundation was laid for the new building by Mr K P S Menon, the distinguished son of Kottayam who was Foreign Secretary to Government of India and also India’s Ambassador in USSR. Other contributions including grants from the Government of India (Rs. 30,000), the Government of Kerala (Rs. 15,000) and the Kottayam Municipal Council (Rs. 5000) totaling Rs. 1,08,000/- were received. A drama festival was also organized which brought a net amount of Rs. 56,000/-. Utilizing the fund, a modern four storeyed building with a floor area of 12,000 sq. feet was completed in 1964 at a cost of Rs. 3 lakh and it was inaugurated by Smt. Indira Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India, on 1 July 1966.

1.5.4 Biggest Library of Kerala

Run exclusively by voluntary effort, the Kottayam Public Library is today the biggest of its kind in the State of Kerala. The remarkable progress of the Library achieved during this period brought to the fore the problem of finding additional space and hence the Library launched a project to construct two new buildings-one for a separate children’s library and the other for the extension of the main library itself.

1.5.5 Expansion of the Building

The library could raise Rs. 9.3 lakh towards this project from two lotteries conducted in 1966 and 1967. A plot to the extent of one acre 11 cents (the ancestral property of Shri K P S Menon) not far from the main library was purchased at a cost of Rs. 1.35 lakh for the children’s library and another plot to the extent of 2 acres and 11 cents, out of which 1.5 acres belonged to C H Mohammad Koya, the then Minister of Education, Government of Kerala on 21 December 1972. The ground floor with an area of 10,000 sq. feet was completed in August 1976 and was inaugurated by Shri C Achuta Menon, the then Chief Minister of Kerala on 17 September, 1978. The expenditure incurred was Rs. 3.5 lakh. The general library, the reference section and the office were shifted to new library building with a floor area of 11,000 sq. feet which was completed by the end of 1977 at a cost of Rs. 4.6 lakhs and has been rented out.

1.5.6 Collection

In 1980 they had a lakh of books and more than 3000 members. In the Jawahar Balbhavan and Children’s Library, there are 8000 children’s books and 1000 members. Regular classes for Vocal Music, Instrument Music such as Veena, Violin, Guitar, Harmonium, Tabala and Mrudangam. Dance-Bharatanatiyam, Classical and folk, Painting; Electronics; embroidery; etc., are conducted in the Balbhavan. More than 300 children participate in these classes regularly.

1.5.7 Management

The management of the Library is vested in a Managing Committee elected by the members of the Library for a period of 3 years. The honorary Secretary of the Managing Committee is the chief executive who is responsible for the day to day affairs. There are 12 persons on the staff: a Librarian, an Assistant Librarian, 8 Library Assistants, an Attender and a Sweeper.

Even though this library is designated as a Public Library and also as a district library, in effect it is only a private subscription library which is not governed by any statute or rules. The Managing Committee of the Library is the real owner and manages the affairs of the Library.

No comments: