Friday, December 5, 2014

07: Collection Development in Digital Library

इस ब्लॉग्स को सृजन करने में आप सभी से सादर सुझाव आमंत्रित हैं , कृपया अपने सुझाव और प्रविष्टियाँ प्रेषित करे , इसका संपूर्ण कार्य क्षेत्र विश्व ज्ञान समुदाय हैं , जो सभी प्रतियोगियों के कॅरिअर निर्माण महत्त्वपूर्ण योगदान देगा ,आप अपने सुझाव इस मेल पत्ते पर भेज सकते हैं -

07: Collection Development in Digital Library

P- 01. Digital Libraries*

By :Jagdish Arora, Paper Coordinator

Multiple Choice Questions

1 / 1 Points

Question 1: Multiple Choice

Information on a computer is stored as what?
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Analog data
  • Correct Answer Checked Digital data
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Modem data
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked None of these
0 / 1 Points

Question 2: Multiple Choice

Report on ‘the development of digital libraries of the past decade’ is categorized as
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Review Report
  •  Un-checked Trend Report
  • Wrong Answer Checked Research Report
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked State of the Art Report
0 / 1 Points

Question 3: Multiple Choice

Which of the following is not covered under Intellectual Property Rights?
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Copy Rights
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Patents
  • Wrong Answer Checked Trademarks
  •  Un-checked Thesaurus
0 / 1 Points

Question 4: Multiple Choice

Which types are most suitable for use in the libraries?
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Analog
  • Wrong Answer Checked Hybrid
  •  Un-checked Digital
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Super
0 / 1 Points

Question 5: Multiple Choice

Z39.50 is a standard for
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Communication formats
  •  Un-checked Search and Retrieval Services
  • Wrong Answer Checked Cataloguing Web Resources
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Library Management Services
1 / 5 PointsFinal Score:


Unmarked 0 / 1 Points

Question 1: Matching (Simple)

Match the Followings
  • Wrong Answer (C) D. Drupal
  • Wrong Answer (D) A. Moodle
  • Correct Answer B. Dspace
  • Wrong Answer (A) C. New GenLib
  • A. Integrated Library Management
  • B. Digital Library Software
  • C. Content Management Software
  • D. Learning Management Software
0 / 1 Points

Question 2: Matching (Simple)

Match the Followings
  • Wrong Answer (C) A. HTML File
  • Wrong Answer (A) B. PDF File
  • Wrong Answer (D) C. JPG File
  • Wrong Answer (B) D. AVI File
  • A. Text Format
  • B. Film Format
  • C. Web Format
  • D. Image Format
Unmarked 0 / 1 Points

Question 3: Matching (Simple)

Match the Followings
  • Correct Answer B. Vidyanidhi
  • Wrong Answer (D) A. TKDL
  • Wrong Answer (C) D. DOAJ
  • Wrong Answer (A) C. E-Prints @ IISc
  • A. Institutional Repository
  • B. Electronic Theses & Dissertations
  • C. Digital Library of Journals
  • D. Digital Archive
0.5 / 3 PointsFinal Score:

fill in the Blanks

Unmarked / 1 Points

Question 1: Open Ended

OCR stands for ___________.
Unmarked / 1 Points

Question 2: Open Ended

______ technology is used in a CDROM Drive.
Unmarked / 1 Points

Question 3: Open Ended

________ is a full-text electronic book collection.
Unmarked / 1 Points

Question 4: Open Ended

________is designed for librarians, vendors, intermediaries and others who require reliable online usage statistics.
Unmarked / 1 Points

Question 5: Open Ended

___________is a storage device that uses rigid, permanently installed magnetic disks to store data/information.
0 / 5 PointsFinal Score:


The most important component of a digital library is the digital collection it holds or has access to. Viability and extent of usefulness of a digital library depends upon the critical mass of digital collection it has. The digital collection infrastructure, typically consists of three components, i.e. collection, digital object and metadata.The collection represent organised set of digital object, object represent the digital material and metadata provides bibliographic or index information for the digital objects and collection. While digital objects are the primary documents that users wish to access, it is metadata that facilitate their identification and location using variety of search techniques. Information contents of a digital library, depending on the media type it contain, may include a combination of structured / unstructured text, numerical data, scanned images, graphics, audio and video recordings. Different types of resources need to be handled differently in a digital library.  

2.0 Collection Development

The libraries, irrespective of media types, i.e. print, audio-visual or digital, are primarily responsible for identifying, selecting, organizing, preserving and providing access to resources to their users. The traditional libraries will not become digital libraries, but will rather acquire access to ever growing digital collections for their users. Collection management in a digital or hybrid library need to have pre-defined policies and practicies similar to those being followed in traditional library while keeping in view the issues and complexities that are especically related to digital materials. Important processes involved in collection development in digital environment are: identification, selection, licensing or purchase of digital materials.

2.1 Identification

Collection management is a challenging area of activity in digital or hybrid environment. With recent developments in ICT, individuals and institutions publish their own contents on the web and make them accessible for a fee or free. While most traditional publishers make their products available in print as well as in digital format, several new publishers offer their products in digital formats only. The digital contents, therefore, may not be available through well-established distribution and marketing channels that exists for printed publications making it difficult to identify them. Moreover, there is no effective bibliographic control over products and services generated by electronic publishing and selection tools such as national bibliographies and union catalogues that exist for printed publications are not available for electronic resources.

Identification process for an electronic resource can be time-consuming and laborious. Digital materials are often software or machine dependent. It may require a specific software or hardware to function properly. The process of identification and selection of e-resources, therefore, requires an understanding of the library’s existing computing and network environment, as well as understanding of trends in the development of electronic information resources. The Library must ensure that it has adequate technical infrastructure to support access or to host a resource being purchased / leased. Technical infrastructure may have to be evaluated in terms of computer platform and operating system, initial storage capacity and rate of growth, software required to access or manage the resource, frequency of updates, network capabilities, storage and distribution media, cost of maintenance, access limitation (multi-user or stand-alone), site limitation, etc.

2.2 Selection

The selection of e-resources for digital library is a complicated process. The electronic resources have more issues than the print resources such as different access method, infrastructure, pricing and licencing, ownership, format and standards.  This selection process involve collect request from the user for new resources and feedback about the existing resources, usage statistics of the previous year and the selection review based on the collection policy of the organisation. The library should also inform users about new content and services as well as potential temporary problems accessing electronic resources.

2.3 Selection criteria for electronic resources

Selection criteria that are applicable in traditional library apply to selection of electronic resources in a hybrid library.  These criteria include: relevance to actual or potential users, scope and content, depth of the existing collection in the subject, currency and validity of information, cost-effectiveness, intellectual level and quality of information, authority of producer, uniqueness and completeness of information, etc. Some important criteria that should be considered while selection and acquisition of digital information resources are as follows: 

2.3.1 Content

  • The electronic resource must support research needs of the organisation.
  • The resource will add depth to the existing collection
  • Information must be current and updated regularly along with the print counterpart.
  • The resources should come from an authoritative author, publisher with peer and professionally reviewed
  • Accuracy and completeness as compared with print format. This means that the electronic resource should have all the articles, illustrations, graphs and tables as they appear in the print counterpart.

2.3.2 Functionality

  • The electronic resource will provide sufficient added value over the print equivalent or other formats.
  • The interface should be user-friendly. Some common user friendliness features are introductory screens, online tutorials, context-sensitive help, and pop-ups and menus.
  • The search and retrieval software must be powerful and flexible. Some features that should be available include command search, index and title browsing, truncation, auto-stem, thesaurus, history and alert/SDI.
  • Preferably, the user interface should be consistent with other interfaces currently in use.
  • The system should support multiple export options (email, printing, and downloading.) and provision of citation downloads to citation management software
  • The system should provide access to other electronic resources and support resource integration via reference and full-text linking.
  • Interface should provide transliteration facility to search non-roman scripts

2.3.3 Access

  • Preferably, the electronic resource should be available for remote access.
  • The Libraries prefer access to remote hosts via Web to other formats and methods of access, such as CDROM, local Web mount, etc., because it offers optimum access , faster updating, cost savings in storage
  • The Libraries prefer IP filtering to other methods of authentication, such as login and password authentication.
  • The electronic resource should be compatible across different platforms (PC, Mac, etc.)
  • Though local installation and maintenance are not preferred, if chosen, the electronic resource must be compatible with the existing hardware and software.
  • If the electronic resource requires any special hardware, software, audio and/or video capabilities, the Librarian and staff should be consulted.

2.3.4 Technical Support

  • The vendor of the electronic resource should be established and reliable.
  • The electronic resource should be available for trial. Preferably, the vendor will provide product demonstrations if needed.
  • If needed, the vendor should provide initial and, preferably, on-going product training.
  • Customer and technical support should be timely, accurate and professional.
  • The vendor should provide quality statistical reporting. Preferably, the reports should follow international standards for statistical measures of usage of web -based information resources and/or COUNTER (Counting Online Usage of Networked Electronic Resources)'s Code of Practice .
  • The vendor should be prepared to respond to the Libraries' requests for customization, branding and provision of MARC records and URLs.
  • The vendor should provide advance notifications for content and platform changes, as well as system down time.

2.3.5 Pricing

  • The vendor should offer a choice of pricing models from which the Libraries may select. These models could be based on various criteria, including the number of simultaneous users and user population.
  • Pricing models that are based on FTE it should be based on the size on the actual user group and not the total user population.
  • A specialized electronic resource should not be charged based on the total user population of the University.
  • The cost of providing access and the cost of content should be separate. Preferably, the subscription fee for a licensed electronic resource should include permanent rights to use the information that has been paid for in the event that the electronic resource is subsequently cancelled.
  • Alternatively, the vendor should offer either a purchase option (e.g. netLibrary PrePaid model) or a combined model with a one-off archive fee and an annual access fee for more current content (e.g. JSTOR model.)
  • The Libraries should not be required to purchase both the print and electronic versions of a resource.
  • The cost of the electronic resource should not exceed that of the print counterpart. An increase in price from print to electronic format, and from CD-ROM to Web, should be reflected in the increase in functionality and accessibility.
  • The vendor should be prepared to offer consortia pricing.
  • Pay-per-use pricing
  • Packaged pricing- requiring purchase of a specific group of titles
  • Back files, archiving and post termination rights- the purchasing or leasing of electronic data should include provision for perpetual access to that data
  • Renewals – the vendor should notify well in advance for renewal. In the consortia based subscription, the publisher seek permission from the individual library before renewal  

2.4 Selection Criteria for Internet Resources

In the world wide web enormous resources available in free of cost in variety of format and document type, such as web pages, blogs, forum, full-text online version of e-book and e-journal, Govt. documents and etc. Apart from the subscribed e-resources the free resources should be identified through subject portal and other website and included in the digital collection. While selecting the free resources the following criteria should be met.

  • The collection should be from the reputed organisation website and authenticated by the reputed organisation
  • Website is reviewed by a reputable source.
  • The website is accessible freely with the existing infrastructure available within the organisation
  • Site is stable with infrequent down times and compatible format available in the market.
  • Policy of periodic review and update of content, with a date of revision statement for websites.
  • E-books, journals, and other documents should have dates of publication or posting.
  • Good design with visual appeal and easy navigation of contents within the site, e.g. site index or search engine.

2.5 Licencing Consideration

Most electronic resources are licensed to the subscribing institutions with a written agreement that contains detailed explanation about user’s rights and restrictions on usage. E-resources are leased or made accessible on annual payment and are not sold, therefore, libraries do not own the material in digital environment, instead they license or lease access to digital material on behalf of their users for a defined period of time and under certain terms and conditions usually defined by the publishers in their license agreements. It is, therefore, necessary that the librarians or purchase personnel have full understanding of terms of license agreement before selection of an e-resource.

Currently, there are no standards for licenses, each producer / publisher have their own proprietary license agreement with terms and conditions set forth by them. The librarians or purchase personnel are, therefore, required to carefully study the license document before signing them. It is a common practice that clauses of license documents are modified or clauses specified by licensee are added to the agreement based on negotiations between licensee and licensor. Sections of agreement that should be carefully understood and modified, if need be are: authorised users, limitations on usage, responsibility of institution for monitoring or controlling access, archival access to subscribed contents (specially for subscribed period), responsibility for actions of users, basic rights of users / institutions under “fair use doctrine”, legal jurisdictions in case of dispute, etc. The library should seek modifications or inclusion of clauses in the agreement that are required to support scholarship and research and educational use as well as those rights that are considered “fair use” for printed materials.

International Coalition of Library Consortia (ICOLC) has developed model license agreements that can be studied before selection of resources and signing a license document. 

2.5.1. Access V/s Archiving

Selection process should also address the issue of remote access v/s local hosting, wherever applicable. Remote access essentially means that the access is provided usually via Internet through the publisher’s web server. There are around 40,000 electronic journals that are made accessible online by some 4,000 publishers.  Several journal publishers do not own the technology that is required to access, search and manage their contents. Publishers either license the technology or contract the entire electronic publishing and hosting to a third-party company specializing in this area. Most publisher- predominantly offer access model.  This model is a threat to the existing role of library as institutions entrusted with the task of archiving scholarly publications.

It is possible for libraries to negotiate local archiving and hosting rights with individual publishers. Publishers may deliver the content only without providing the technology to search, browse and navigate. Even if the publisher provides a mirror site, it is impractical for libraries to maintain the contents locally with an array of distributed contents on different software and technology platforms.  Local hosting of contents from different publishers may require significant infrastructure in terms of computing and network resources as well as local technical expertise. 

  • Authorized Users' should be defined as broadly as possible. ( all person with current authenticated affiliation with the subscription organisation include employee, student, visiting researcher and etc.)
  • Authorized Sites' should be defined as broadly as possible. Authorized users should be permitted to access the electronic resource from anywhere via the University's secure network.
  • Access should be permitted via IP authentication for the entire institution, including simultaneous access for multiple user.
  • Archiving policy-The resource provider should provide a clearly articulated archiving policy for the licenced resources
  • Perpetual access-The provider shall grant access to the licensed content of the resource for the mutually agreed time period. The purchasing or leasing of electronic data should include provision for perpetual access to that data. Following any termination of the license agreement the institution’s perpetual electronic access to the previously subscribed content should be guaranteed.
  • Institutional archives / self-archiving- the resource provider should allow an individual institution of author to upload its faculty’s work to its IR either in pre or post print format

2.5.2 Use of the Electronic Information Resources

  • The license should permit fair use of all information for non-commercial, educational, instructional, and research purposes by the Libraries and authorized users. These include viewing, downloading, and printing.
  • Other uses permitted under fair use are ILL, e-reserves and course packs.
  • Pay-per-view services to access articles which are not available in the library’s print or digital collection
  • Courser packages- the vendor should permit to user electronic resource in the course pack and other educational purpose
  • User statistics- the information provider give user statistics in the appropriate format to the concern library or consortia administrator
  • In general, the vendor should employ a standard agreement that describes the rights of the Libraries in easy-to understand and explicit language.

2.5.3 Flexibility and Enhancement

Consideration needs to be given to the terms and conditions around cancellation. This might be cancelling a bundled deal and moving to selected content or moving to outright cancellation or cancellation of linked print products. Models that impose ‘no print cancellation’ clauses or impose limits on the number of titles or financial penalties should be avoided.

2.5.4 Legal issue

The following legal issue should be addressed in any licencing agreement which an organisation sign. The consortium should consult with legal authority before any license agreement. The organisation payment liability should commence from the date of the resource is accessed. The provider shall maintain access to the organisation at least one month as grace period before cancel the subscription. The licence agreement should not restrict any legal rights of the organisation or consortium according to the governing laws of the organisation or consortium

3.0 Review of Electronic Resources for Cancellation

The electronic resources are not permanently available in the library. The resources are subscribed by various pricing model. The consortium committee or library regularly review the e-resources so that we can avoid the cost wastage and utilise the fund to subscribe new resources. The subscription may be cancelled if
  • Usage statistics are consistently low over a significant period of time.
  • The product is no longer cost-effective
  • The content provided is no longer meeting the needs of  the users.
  • A competitive or better product becomes available.
  • The vendor fails to hold up their end of the agreement and/or provides poor service.
  • A product’s price inflates such that it no longer is considered affordable.
  • The product’s content is found to duplicate content in another database.
  • A new vendor can deliver a superior product, including a more user-friendly search interface, providing greater and more reliable access at a reasonable cost, or meet other key criteria not being met by current database provider.

4.0 Review and Renewal Process

The rapid changes in the electronic resources and usage pattern, the library or the consortium frequently review the user need and renew the subscription. So that the organisation continue to get the relevant information for their research needs. The electronic resources subscribed from various publisher by various pricing model. The provider give advance notification to the library about the renewal date at least one month time period to avoid unnecessary anomalies of subscription.

5. Sourcing Digital Contents

A digital library is not a single entity. It may have digital contents that are i) acquired in digital formats and stored locally on servers, ii) buy access to e-resources from external sources (electronic publishers); iii) capture contents that are “born digital” or iv) converted from legacy documents. A digital library may also host a portal site providing access to digital collections held elsewhere. The digital constituents of a digital library are shown in Figure 1 and are described below:
Fig.1: Digital Constituents of a Digital Library

5.1. Acquisition of Collections available in Digital Formats

Availability of CD ROM, and more recently DVD ROM, as a media with high-storage capacity, longitivity and ease of transportation, triggered production of several CD ROM-based information products including several bibliographic databases that were earlier available only through online vendors or as abstracting and indexing services in printed format. Thousands of CD ROM databases are currently available from multitude of CD ROM producers including Silver Platter which alone produces more than 250 CD ROM information products. Moreover, several full-text databases also started appearing in late 1980s and early 1990s launching the beginning of a new digital era.  Some of the important full-text digital collections available on CD ROM include: ADONIS, IEEE / IEE Electronic Library (IEL), ABI/INFO,  UMI’s International Business Database, UMI’s General Reference Periodicals, Espace World, US Patents, etc. CD ROM networking technology is now available for providing web-based simultaneous access to CD ROM databases on the Local Area Network (LAN) as well as on Wide Area Network (WAN).  More evolved technology allows caching of the contents of CD ROMs on to a  server, which, in turn, provides  web-based simultaneous and faster access to the information contents of CD ROMs. The libraries have an option to subscribe to these full-text databases as a part of  their digital library. The Silver Platter’s Electronic Reference Library (ERL) technology facilitates uploading of contents of ERL-compliant CD ROM databases onto the harddisc of an Intranet server, which, in turn, provides integrated access and search of ERL-compliant databases through an Intranet server. Moreover, individual research articles in the ERL-compliant database are linked to their full-text articles using Silver Platter’s Silver Linker. Databases on CD ROM can also be cached on web server and provide access through software like IRIS on the Intranet. Moreover, several publishers allow local hosting or establishing mirror sites of their digital contents. For example, IIT Delhi hosts ACM Dingital Library under the consortial arrangements made by the INDEST-AICTE Consortium. Besides, several publishers allow local hosting of metadata to full-text of backfiles of electronic journals purchased by the libraries. Some of the publishers who offer their backfiles of electronic journals include:  ScienceDirect, Institute of Physics, Wiley InterScience, Springer’s Open Journals Archives, Nature, Science, American  Chemical Society, etc.

5.2. Buying Access to External Digital Collections

The libraries will not become digital libraries, but will rather acquire access to ever growing digital collections on behalf of their users. Majority of these collections are being made available by external sources like commercial publishers, collections mounted by scholarly societies, resources offered by other institutions, electronic journal sites, etc. The electronic journals have become the largest and fastest growing segment of digital collections for most libraries. There are more than 40,000 electronic journals that are now available in electronic format through the Internet. The Internet has long been a favourite media for experimenting with electronic publishing and delivery.  The technology is now available that allow creation of fully digitized multimedia products and make them accessible through the Internet.  Technological changes, especially the Internet and web technology, continue to attract more and more traditional players to adopt it  as a global way to offer their publications to the international community of scientists and technologists. Most of the important publishers now have their web-based interfaces to offer full-texts of their journals.

5.3. Converting Datasets that are “Born Digital”

The libraries or the institutions implementing digital libraries may have datasets that are originally created in digital format. It is important that an institution deals with the increasing flood of materials created and delivered solely in digital format.  Doctoral dissertations submitted to universities and research institutions are undisputedly highly valuable documents that qualify to be an important component of any digital library implementation. Moreover, institutions may have  in-house journal(s), annual reports, technical reports, or other datasets, that may be included in digital collection. Items listed above are invariably composed in one of the word processing programme or in a desk-top publishing package.

The documents composed on word processing packages or desktop publishing packages can be converted into HTML, PostScript and PDF using tools like Acrobat 7.0 or Acrobat Exchange.  Online converters are also available through Adobe’s site. HTML, as a de facto language of the web and PDF as a de facto standard for online distribution of electronic information, can be deployed to facilitate  transition from computer processible files to a format accessible on the web. 

Publishers are increasingly adopting XML to provide structure and functionality to their publications and to ripe the benefit that XML format offers. XML documents provide benefit of a database management system without being one. Publishers code the accepted submissions in XML in a semi-automated process using assortment of software packages available to them or using custom-made software specially designed for this purpose.  The database of XML documents are used for providing search by authors, keywords, etc. and browse the content pages of journals. Behind the web interface lies a relational database like Oracle that store XML documents.  Search and browse operation on highly structured XML datasets provides dynamically generated web pages (HTML-on-fly). These HTML files provides link to full-text of documents in HTML / PDF / PostScript, most formats are generally generated dynamically from the same XML datasets using pre-defined DTDs.

Research institutions and univerities may set-up and maintain their OAI-compliant “institutional repositories” to host theses and dissertations submitted to their institutions / universities and research articles published by their researchers and faculty. These institutions and university may also mandate submission of electronic version of theses, dissertations and research articles. Several OAI-compliant digital library software such as Dspace, e-prints, FEDORA, CDSWare, etc. are available as open source software. 

5.4. Conversion of Existing Print Media into Digital Format

Several digital library projects are concerned with providing digital access to materials that already exists with traditional libraries in printed media. Scanned page images are practically the only reasonable solution for institutions such as libraries for converting existing paper collection (legacy documents) without having access to the original data in computer processible formats convertible into HTML / XML or in any other structured or unstructured text. Scanned page images are natural choice for large-scale conversions for major digital library initiatives.  Printed text, pictures and figures are transformed into computer-accessible formats using a digital scanner or a digital camera in a process called  document imaging or scanning.  The digitally scanned images are stored in a file as a bit-mapped page image, irrespective of the fact that a scanned page contains a photograph, a line drawing or text.  A bit-mapped page image is a type of computer graphic, literally an electronic picture of the page which can most easily be equated to a facsimile image of the page and as such they can be read by humans, but not by the computers, understably “text” in a page image is not searchable on a computer using the present-day technology.  An image-based implementation require a large space for data storage and transmission.  There are several large projects using page images as their primary storage format, including project JSTOR (  at Princeton University funded by the Melon Foundation. The project Jstor has a complete set of more than 800 journals scanned and hosted on web servers that resides at the University of Michigan and is mirrored at Princeton University. Using technology developed at Michigan, high resolution (600 dpi) bit-mapped images of each page are linked to a text file generated with Optical Character Recognition (OCR) software. Linking a searchable text file to the page images of the entire published record of a journal along with newly constructed table of contents, indexes, permits  high level of access, search and retrieval of the journal material previously unimaginable.

Capturing page image format is comparatively easy and inexpensive, it is a faithful reproduction of its original document maintaining page integrity and originality. The scanned textual images, however, are not searchable unless it is OCRed, which, in itself, is highly error prone process specially when it involves scientific texts. Options and technology for converting print to digital and the process of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) are elaborated in section on “digitisation”.

5.5. Creating Vitual Library, Library Portal or Subject Gateways

The web, being a hypermedia-based system, allow linking amongst electronic resources stored on servers dispersed geographically on distant locations. The portal sites or gateways redirect a user to the holders of  the original digital material. It may provide its own indexing and search services and it may combine original resources from a number of different providers. The portal sites or the gateways restrict their operation to providing linkages to independent third-party sources. Home pages of all the major education and  research institutions, specially in developed world, provide an organized and structured guide to electronic resources available on the Internet as well as those available to library hosting the portal site. Librarians can proactively develop subject portals on their library’s web site. 

6. Pricing Model

One of the major issue that the publishers are concerned with is to save their economic interest in the process of providing electronic access to their printed publications. The publishers make a significant investment in the process of production of a journal which involves activities like peer-review, administration, editing, layout design, production, subscription management and distribution. Most  activities that are performed for publishing  a journal are common to both electronic and paper media, except for production and distribution where the cost involved is relatively low. Moreover, electronic version of journals generally provides additional features like link to corrections, link to additional materials, e-mail link to author(s), etc. which require additional work on part of the publisher. Tenopir and King (1997) in a study concluded that the cost of electronic journals can not be substantially lower than their printed versions.

Journals are made available by the publishers through the web at varying price models. In a survey of 8001 peer reviewed electronic journals conducted by EBSCO, it was found that 50% of journals are free with their print journals, 34% require additional payment over their print subscription and 16% are available online only without their print counter-part. Overall, 84% of journals require a print subscription to journals as a prerequisite for online access to their electronic version. (Boteler, 2001). The prevalent pricing models are (Sathyanarayana, 2004) described below: 

i) Print + E Model

Print + electronic model was evolved by the publishers as a natural extension of their print subscription model. The publisher provides electronic access to all subscribed as well as un-subscribed titles or part of un-subscribed titles of a given subject collection on additional payment of certain % on their current print spending. The additional percentage payment may vary from publishers to publisher in the range of 5% and 30%. Libraries are expected to retain their print subscription that existed at the time of signing-up the deal with the publisher. It is obligatory on the part of the libraries to maintain their current level of subscription for the print journals. In a library consortium, a member library in the consortium may have liberty to drop subscription to the journal but should replace it by another journal of same or higher value. Managing this model may pose significant operational problems to both consortia and the publishers. The print + electronic model also provide access to back-files in addition to the current year access. Moreover, depending on the deal, the publisher may also allow cross sharing of subscribed titles across members of the consortium. Archiving rights in such cases are generally limited to titles that are subscribed in print.

ii) Electronic Only

The e-only models offer electronic access to journals irrespective of their print subscription. Under such offers, publishers offer a pre-defined set of journals of pre-determined cost to libraries. In case of consortium, publishers develop consortium-specific offers taking into account current print spending by the member institutions to ensure that they do not lose of revenue from print cancellations. The proposal is made more attractive by offering discount to those members of consortium who wish to maintain print subscription.

Responding to the demands from libraries and library consortia, publishers are moving gradually towards e-only model. E-only models grant consortia-wide archiving and perpetual access rights for the subscribed years’ content. Access and archiving rights for back-file content is offered either as an inclusive value of the offer price or for a one-time additional payment.  

iii) Full-Time Equivalent Models

Full-Time Equivalent (FTE) models are offered based on population of total number of potential user per site. Generally entire population of the organization including students, faculty, researchers and employees of an organization are counted for FTE. Publishers like Nature and Science who had several multiple subscriptions across the campuses follow this model considering that online access could lead to extinction of their print version over time.  

iv) Concurrent-Users Model

The concurrent user model provides a fix number of concurrent accesses to all the members of consortium treating all members of the consortia as one single entity or site.  The database providers such as, web of Science, use this model predominantly. Universities having multiple sites and national consortium can negotiate this kind of model.

v) Perpetual Access V/s Annual Lease

The libraries and library consortium are increasingly demanding perpetual access to the contents based on subscription model followed by the libraries in print environment.  However, the cost that is charged for perpetual access, especially by aggregators like Ovid and OCLC is prohibitive. Annual Lease models, on the other hand, offer significant cost advantage. 

vi) Back-file Access

Access to back-file of journals is a critical necessity especially for scholarly journals. Several leading publishers have embarked on the project of digitising their complete back-files of journals. Several publishers, like Elsevier Science, Springer, ACS and IOP, have already launched their complete journal archives.

While several publishers, like ACM and IEEE offer access to their entire back-file collection, as part of the current print subscription, a number of publishers, however, offer free online access to only the current year’s content as part of the print subscription and back-file access is charged separately. Some publishers, who have created back-files from volume 1, offer the back-files on “one-time purchase and perpetual access” basis. 

vii) Document Delivery and Pay-Per-View Models

Document delivery is an extension of inter-library-lending practice for resource sharing which has been widely practiced world over as exchange of photocopy of articles among libraries. The emerging pay-per-view model, made available by several publishers and third-party aggregators, is likely to replace the old document delivery model.

The pay-per-view model charge US$10-50 per article, but offer the benefit of instant access to full-text and is economic advantageous over subscription models. In this model, the library does not subscribe to the complete journal but pays for what is used.  This is an ideal model for the contents of non-subscribed journals. Consortia negotiations can look at the opportunities for using this model for less used journals and engage the publishers for advance purchase of articles for a lower fee per article. Pay-per-view model is driven and promoted by the publishers. It may replace document delivery completely in future. 

7.0 Conclusion

Collection development in the digital library environment is a complicated task. The library should make the collection development policy based on the mission and objective of the organisation. While selecting the e-resources, the library should be careful considering the depth of the content, authenticity, pricing model, access mechanism, etc. Some of the publishers provide bundled access, such cases the selection committee should be careful about no of journal included in the bundle and authenticity of the journal. The selection committee ensure that, the publisher has advanced the current technology to provide access to participating institution including compatible for federated access management, adopt international standard to provide usage statistics through SUSI protocol and Z39.50 search and retrieval of information from remote server. The library committee should evaluate the usage of the existing collection and consider them to add remove news e-resources to the collection and remove unused and less used resources. Licencing and pricing model differ from each publisher, selection committee should evaluate the various licencing model &  pricing model and formulate the proper policy to access the current e-resources, back volume, concurrent user, print only, print + electronic-model, electronic model, etc. 

8.0 References / Readings

1.  Tenopir, Carol, and Donald W. King (1997). Trends in scientific scholarly journal publishing in the United           States. Ontario: Journal of Scholarly Publishing. 28 (April): 135-70.

2. BOTELER (J). An e-mail dated Feb. 28, 2001 to listservDIG_REF@LISTSERV.SYR.EDU

3. Arora, J. (2001) Building Digital Libraries: Data Capture. Joint Workshop on Digital Libraries. DRTC, Bangalore (12th–16th March, 2001). Bangalore: DRTC 

4. Satyanarayana, N.V., Krishnan, S. and Arora, J. (2004) Library consortia and resource sharing initiatives in India: A White Paper. Bangalore, Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, pp.54.

5. NISO Framework Advisory Group (2004), A Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections. National Information Standards Organization, 2nd ed., available

6. Sharon Johnson, Ole Gunnar Evensen, Julia Gelfand, Glenda Lammers, Lynn Sipe and Nadia Zilper (2012),  Key Issues for e-Resource Collection Development: A Guide for Libraries. Netherlands: International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions

7. E-Resources Collection Development Policy. Available at (Accessed: 15 March 2013)

8. Electronic Resources Collection Development Policy. Available at (Accessed: 20 March 2013)

Did you know?

The Digital Library is Organized collection of multimedia and other types of resources.
Resources are available in computer processable form.
The function of acquisition, storage, preservation, retrieval is carried out through the use of digital technology.
Access to the entire collection is globally available directly or indirectly across a network.
Support users in dealing with information objects
Helps in the organization and presentation of the above objects via electronic/digital means etc.
The digital library is an electronic or virtual library where information is selected, acquired, processed, organized, stored and retrieved in digital form.
The users of digital libraries are the universal users who should have facility to access to all created and acquired digital sources of information in the form of electronic text, image, map, sound, video and multimedia.
Digital Library of India (DLI) is the first major government funded Digital Library project in India in collaboration with other countries. DLI Portal is a project piloted by Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, Government of India. The Portal was launched in September 2003 and being maintained by ERNET, India.
Digital Libraries (DL) are now emerging as a crucial component of global Information Infrastructure, adopting the latest information and communication technology. Digital Libraries are networked collections of digital texts, documents, images, sounds, data, software, and many more that are the core of today's Internet and tomorrow's universally accessible digital repositories of all human knowledge.
Hybrid Library Provides services in a mixed-mode, electronic and paper, environment, particularly in a co-coordinated way. Derived from a strand of Electronic Library which explored the issues surrounding the retrieval and delivery of information in these types of environment but also investigated the integration of different electronic services so that single search approach could be offered to the End user.
The term “Hybrid Library “was first coined in 1998 by Chris Rusbridge.
Virtual Library Provides Access to electronic information in a variety of remote locations through a local online catalogue or other gateway, such as the internet.

Interesting Facts

The term Digital Libraries was first popularized by the NSF/DARPA/NASA Digital Libraries Initiative in 1994
“Digital Library Initiatives” funded by the US National Science Foundation, the Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the United States. In 1994, these agencies granted US$ 24.4 million to six universities in US for digital library research impelled by the sudden explosive growth on the Internet and web technology. 
All the six IITs (Indian Institute of Technology) created as centres of excellence for higher training, research and development in science, engineering and technology, have automated their libraries and now they have access to more than one thousand electronic journals
Digital Library of India, part of the online services of the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore and partner in the Million Book Project, provides free access to many books in English and Indian languages. The scanning of Indian language books has created an opportunity for developing Indian language optical character recognition (OCR) software. The publications are mainly in PDF or Quick Time format.
Digital Library is Collection of electronic resources that provides direct/indirect access to a systematically organized collection of digital objects.
Digital Libraries can help move the nation towards realizing the enormously powerful vision of ‘anytime, anywhere’ access to the best and the latest of human thought and culture, so that no classroom, individual or a society is isolated from knowledge resources.
At present most of the university libraries have taken steps to provide web-based reference and information services in digital environment in addition to their traditional library services.

Points to Ponder

Digital Library is to enhance the digital collection in a substantial way, by strategically sourcing digital materials, conforming to copyright permissions, in all possible standards/formats so that scalability and flexibility is guaranteed for the future and advanced information services are assured to the user community right from beginning.
The digital library should also be able to integrate and aggregate the existing collections and services mentioned above with an outstanding client interface.
Digital libraries do enable the creation of local content, strengthen the mechanisms and capacity of the library’s information systems and services. They increase the portability, efficiency of access, flexibility, availability and preservation of content.
A digital library owns and controls the information, it provides access to information, not just a pointer to it;
A digital library has a unified organizational structure with consistent points for accessing the data; 
A digital library is not a single entity, it may also provide access to digital material and resources from outside the actual confines of any one digital library; 
Digital libraries support quick and efficient access to a large number of distributed but interlinked information sources that are seamlessly integrated;  
Digital libraries offers access to its content to multiple users simultaneously, these content can be listed in multiple ways by different users simultaneously;
A digital library owns and controls the information, it provides access to information, not just a pointer to it;

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