Saturday, December 6, 2014

13. Open Access and Digital Library

इस ब्लॉग्स को सृजन करने में आप सभी से सादर सुझाव आमंत्रित हैं , कृपया अपने सुझाव और प्रविष्टियाँ प्रेषित करे , इसका संपूर्ण कार्य क्षेत्र विश्व ज्ञान समुदाय हैं , जो सभी प्रतियोगियों के कॅरिअर निर्माण महत्त्वपूर्ण योगदान देगा ,आप अपने सुझाव इस मेल पत्ते पर भेज सकते हैं -

13. Open Access and Digital Library

P- 01. Digital Libraries*

By :Jagdish Arora, Paper Coordinator

Multiple Choice Questions

0 / 1 Points

Question 1: Multiple Choice

CCAL stands for___________________
  • Wrong Answer Checked Cloud Computing and Library
  •  Un-checked Creative Commons Attribution License
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Creative Copyright Attribution License
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked None of Above
0 / 1 Points

Question 2: Multiple Choice

Following is open access electronic books initiative.
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Bioline International
  •  Un-checked Project Gutenberg
  • Wrong Answer Checked Coursera
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked OaISTER
0 / 1 Points

Question 3: Multiple Choice

OARiNZ is_________________
  • Wrong Answer Checked Open Courseware Initiatives
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Directory of Ebooks
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Insttutional Respositories
  •  Un-checked Metadata Harvesting Services
1 / 1 Points

Question 4: Multiple Choice

What is U-Now?
  • Correct Answer Checked Open Courseware Initiatives
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Directory of Ebooks
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Insttutional Respositories
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Metadata Harvesting Services
1 / 1 Points

Question 5: Multiple Choice

________________is repository of electronic preprints of scientific papers in the fields of physics, mathematics , Computer Science
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked PubMed Central
  • Correct Answer Checked
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked PLoS
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked d) Oapen
2 / 5 PointsFinal Score:

Question 1: Matching (Simple)

Match Following
  • Wrong Answer (D) A. PLoS
  • Wrong Answer (A) D.
  • Correct Answer B. OAPEN
  • Correct Answer C. U-Now
  • A. Institutional Repositories
  • B. E-Books
  • C. Open Courseware
  • D. E-Journals
0.5 / 1 PointsFinal Score:

1.0 Introduction

Open access has emerged as an alternative model of scholarly publishing which was caused on one hand by the phenomenon called “serials crisis” which refers to the exponential and continuing increase in subscription cost of scholarly journals, and the other hand by advent and proliferation of the Internet, new e-publishing models and standards. The open access movement, primarily launched to break the monopoly of Science, Technology and Medical (STM) publishers, turn out as an inventive mode of scholarly communication. These advances in the open access publishing world are enriching the digital library technology. Open access publishing modes are expanding their presence and realize the digital library idea in various means. (Tsakonas 2007). It provides universal access to rich full-text contents of scholarly works, public funded research, traditional knowledge, and documentary heritage collections in form of digital library. The term digital library is vast, covers many and different applications and has been used interchangeably for systems, like digitized collections, institutional repositories, subject repositories, e-journals platforms, network databases, library websites, etc. Institutional repositories and open access journals are two primary routes to provide open access to scholarly literature. Institutional repositories refer to archives of self-deposited and freely available various kinds of publications, such as, pre-prints and post-prints of journal articles, research reports, conference papers, theses, dissertations, seminar presentations, working papers and other scholarly items. The open access journals refer to free from subscription, legal and technical barrier. The cost of journal publishing is borne by the authors, their institutions or sponsoring organizations. Metadata Harvester and Open Courseware (OCW) are new initiatives in this vicinity. This module briefly introduces the philosophy of open access and digital libraries. It also describes world-wide digital library initiatives to provide open access to scholarly research. It then discusses recent developments in technologies that can help to build digital libraries which facilitate better access to and dissemination of knowledge.

2.0 Digital Library

Digital library is one of the most complex and advanced form of information systems that can serve as a rich resource to its user community. It collects, manages and preserves rich digital content, and provides its access to user communities.

Digital libraries are organizations that provide the resources, including the specialized staff, to select,  structure, offer intellectual access to, interpret, distribute, preserve the integrity of, and ensure the persistence over time of collections of digital works so that they are readily and economically available for use by a defined community or set of communities [DLFS99].

The digital library is not a single entity; The digital library requires technology to link the  resources of many services that are transparent to the end users; Universal access to digital libraries and information services is a goal; Digital library collections are not limited to document surrogates: they extend to digital artefacts that cannot be represented or distributed in printed formats (ARL, 1995).

The digital library is the collection of services and the collection of information objects that support users in dealing with information objects available directly or indirectly via electronic/digital means (Leiner, 1998)

3.0 Open Access

Open access is scholarly publication model which provides  unrestricted, free, immediate and online access to peer-reviewed scholarly research along with the rights to use it. Users are free to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full-texts of scholarly literature available through open access platform. The only role of copyright is to control over the integrity of author’s work.
According to Suber, “the Budapest (February 2002), Bethesda (June 2003) and the Berlin (October 2003) definitions of ‘open access’ are the most central and influential for the OA movement.” He defines open access literature simply as “digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions.” 

The American Research Libraries Association (ARL) Task Force defines open access as “a cost effective way to disseminate and use information. It is an alternative to the traditional subscription-based publishing model made possible by new digital technologies and networked communication”.

4.0 Characteristics of Open Access

The characteristics associated with open access are as follows (Arora, 2004):

i)       Pay to publish, not to access. Cost of publication and distribution of articles is borne by from producers of scholarship (authors or institutions), or funding organizations, rather than by users / readers;

ii)       Access to publication in open access is more democratic. Web-based open access repositories are accessible to all users without any restrictions;

iii)       The author rather than the publisher owns copyright in the open access model. Users are granted permission for unrestricted reading, downloading, copying, sharing, etc. Authors may choose to block commercial re-use of contents;

iv)       Open access journals, like traditional journals, conduct peer review of submitted articles; and

v)       Most of the publishers of open access journal are non-profit (e.g. Public Library of Science or PLoS) while a few are for-profit (e.g. BioMed Central or BMC).

5.0 Major Open Access Declarations

There major international statement made on open access  are namely i) The Budapest Open Access Initiative statement in the meeting of the Open Society in 2002, ii) The Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing in 2003, and iii) The Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities in October 2003. Other major statements, declaration or commitment of open access made by several societies, national and international institutions, universities, library associations and other organizations are as follows:

  • ACRL Principles and Strategies for the Reform of Scholarly Communication, August 2003

  • Australian Group of Eight Statement on open access to scholarly information, May 2004

  • OECD Declaration on Access to Research Data from Public Funding, January 2004; (Signed by more than thirty nations)

  • UN World Summit on the Information Society Declaration of Principles and Plan of Action, December 2003

  • The Washington DC Principles for Free Access to Science, March 2004

  • Wellcome Trust Position Statement on Open Access, October 2003.

  • ERCIM Statement on Open Access (European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics)

  • NKC Statements on Open Access (National Knowledge Commission, India)

6.1 Open Access Journals

Open-access journals is considered as golden route for providing access to peer-reviewed literature in electronic format free of charge without any restriction of access over the Web. Major open journals initiatives are as follows:

Sl No
No. of Journals
Directory of Open Access Journals
BioMed Central
PubMed Central
Bioline International
Electronic Journals Library
Society Publishers with Open Access Journals
Open J-Gate
Indian Initiatives:
Indian Academy of Science
Indian National Science Academy
The National Academy of Science, India
Indian Medlars Centre
NISCAIR Research Journals
Medknow Publications
Kamla-Raj Enterprises
Open Journal Systems@INFLIBNET Centre

6.2 Institutional Repositories (IR)

Institutional repositories are a web-based archive of scholarly material designed to organize and provide seamless access to scholarly publications produced by faculty or researchers of an institution in all subject disciplines. It is also define as institution-based digital-asset management system. Institutional Repository is cost-effective and immediate route to provide access to scholarly literature such as research papers and electronic versions of documents, theses and dissertations as well as digital assets generated by an institution such as annual reports, course notes, or learning objects, etc.  There are total 3594 world-wide repositories indexed by Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR) which includes 99 Indian repositories. Directory of Open Access Repositories has indexed total 2500 world-wide repositories including 62 Indian repositories. Top ten world-wide and Indian repositories are as follow.

Sl No.
Institutional Repositories-World
1 e-Print Archive
Social Science Research Network
(1) Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System
Europe PubMed Central
Research Papers in Economics
HAL Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique Archive Ouverte
University of California eScholarship Repository
CERN Document Server
Virginia Tech University Digital Library and Archives
Indian Initiatives
Open Access Repository Publications of Fellows of the Indian Academy of Sciences
Indian Institute of Science Bangalore Institutional Repository
Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Institutional Repository
National Institute of Oceanography India Digital Repository
Information and Library Network Centre Institutional Repository
National Institute of Technology Rourkela eThesis
Openmed National Informatics Centre India
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics Open Access Repository
Indian Institute of Astrophysics Institutional Repository
National Aerospace Laboratories Institutional Repository

6.3 Electronic Books

An Ebook is an electronic version of a printed book which can be read on a computer or a specifically designed handheld device. Major initiatives towards open access electronic books are as follows:
Sl No.
Name  of Resources
No. of E-books
Project Gutenberg
Open Content Alliance
Google Book Search Library Project
HathiTrust Digital Library
American Association of University Presses
Directory of Open Access Books
Indian Initiatives
Digital Library of India

6.4 Open Courseware

Open Courseware is the name given to open educational resources that are presented in course format, often including course planning materials, such as syllabi and course calendars, along with content, such as textbooks, lectures, presentations, notes and simulations. Open Educational Resources are materials developed by experienced educators that are available for use, repurposing, and modification, in whole or in part, by everyone, everywhere in the world.

Sl No.
Open CourseWare Initiatives
 Open Yale Courseware
 MIT OpenCourseWare
University of Michigan Open Courseware
Open CourseWare Consortium
 OpenLearn (OU)
Indian Initiatives
4.6.4 ePG Pathshala
4.6.1 NPTEL
4.6.2 e-Gyankosh
4.6.3 Learning Object Repository CEC

6.5 Metadata Harvesting

Harvesting refers to the activity of searching and collecting metadata from Open Archives Initiative (OAI) Institutional Repositories whose content is indexed and posted for open use from a World Wide Web server.  A metadata harvesting service harvests or indexes metadata from open access initiative (OAI) compliant archives or repositories through harvesting software that supports a protocol known as the Open Access Initiative Protocol  for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH).

Sl No.
Indian Initiatives
Search Digital
SJPI Cross Journal
Search Service
Open J-Gate

7.0 Copyright and Open Access

Copyright is the principal issue facing by authors, publishers and readers of open access publications.  The work published in open access journal can be made available to the public under Creative Commons Attribution License. CCAL gives right to authors to retain their ownership of the copyright for their article. Users are allowed to download, reuse, reprint, modify, distribute, and copy the article as long as the original authors and source are credited. Readers are also free to make commercial use of works on the condition that the user gives credit to the original author. This broad license was developed to facilitate free use of original works. 

8.0 Cloud Computing and Open Access Digital Libraries

Cloud Computing refers to both the applications delivered as services over the Internet and the hardware and systems software in the datacenters that provide those services. (Armbrust et al 2009). It creates, manage and use information without requiring individual users or institutions to invest in a massive ICT infrastructure. Digital libraries based on cloud computing architecture can facilitate shared use of computing and networking resources. There is no need for individual institutions to make large investments for setting up the ICT infrastructure to set up the repositories. Cloud-based service of open access repositories, linking with other specific cloud research and content services, provides better access to research and scholarly literature.   Moreover, Cost of digital library services can be reduced by amortizing the overall cost of building the data centres for institutional repositories. Cloud computing technologies can significantly improve the economic and environmental sustainability of open access resources and institutional repositories.  

9.0 Summary

Institutions are facing barriers of subscription to peer reviewed journals as the cost journals have increased manifolds over the time. Open access movement makes the dramatic changes in accessibility to scholarly literature. Research, published in open access journals and archiving in open access repositories, can easily accessible to the research communities of the world. However, the advance of open access systems increases the complexity and diversity of digital libraries which need to take seriously by enhancing the research in digital library.


American Library Association. Scholarly communication tool kit.  (

Arora, J. Open Access Publishing: An overview…..

Armbrust, M., Fox, A., Friffith, R., (et. al.) (2009). Above the clouds: a Berkeley view of cloud computing. Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California Berkeley,
Technical report No. UCB/EECS-2009-28. Available at

Association of Research Libraries (1995), “Definition and purposes of a digital library”, available at:

Budapest Open Access Initiative. Available online at

Directory of Open access Repositories.

Chowdhury, G, & Foo, S. (2012). Digital Libraries and Open Access. In Chowdhury, G, & Foo, S. (Eds). Digital libraries and information access: Research perspectives, Facet Publishing, UK.

Digital Library Policies, Organizations, and Practices. Digital Library Federation Survey, 1999

Ghosh, S.B., & Das, A. (2006). Open access and institutional repositories: A developing country perspective: a case study of India. World Library and Information Congress: 72nd IFLA General Conference and Council. Libraries: Dynamic Engines for the Knowledge and Information Society, Seoul, Korea. Available:

Leiner, B.M. (1998), “The NCSTRL approach to open architecture for the confederated digitallibrary”,D-Lib Magazine , available at: 

Open Archives Initiative. Available online at

Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metatada Harvesting. Available online at

P. Suber, (2004). “A very brief introduction to open access,” available at

Registry of Open Access Journals.

Tsakonas, G. Papatheodorou, Christos (2008). Exploring usefulness and usability in the evaluation of open access digital libraries, Information Processing and Management 44, 1234–1250

Webometrics (Ranking Web of Repositories).

Interesting facts

A digital library is nothing but a large database of organized collection of multimedia, data that are globally available directly or indirectly across a network and eventually act as a portal site providing access to digital collections held elsewhere for the people who are working on hypertext environment.
By using digital library one will be able to retrieve information specifically for e.g. a particular image, photo, a definition, etc.

Digital libraries can be accessed at any time, 24 hours a day and 365 days of the year
Digital library provides access to much richer content in a more structured manner i.e. we can easily move from the catalogue to the particular book then to a particular chapter and so on.
Open access (OA) means unrestricted online access to peer-reviewed scholarly research.

Points to Ponder

  1. A digital library is an organized collection of digitized material or its holding in the digital form which can be accessible by a computer on the network by using TCP/IP or other protocol.
  2. Digital libraries are needed to provide quality based service at the user desktop.
  3. In case of digital libraries by using hypertext it is possible to structure and organize the same digital information in a variety of ways which serve multiple functions.
  4. A digital library is not confined to a particular location or so called building, it is virtually distributed all over the world. The user can get his/ her information on his own computer screen by using the internet.
  5. The cost of maintaining a digital library is much lower than that of a traditional library. A traditional library must spend large sums of money paying for staff, book maintenance, rent, and additional books.
  6. Digitization violates the copy right law as the thought content of one author can be freely transferred by others without his acknowledgement. One difficulty to overcome for digital libraries is the way to distribute information.

Web links


OCW: Open Courseware
DLF: Digital Library Federation
ARL: American Research Libraries Association
PLoS: Public Library of Science

ACRL:  Association of College & Research Libraries

OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

IFLA: International Federation of Library Associations
LERU:  League of European Research Universities
SPARC:  Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition
ALLEA:  Federation of All European Academies
OER: Open Educational Resources
ERCIM: European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics
NKC: National Knowledge Commission
DOAJ: Directory of Open Access Journals
NISCAIR: National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources
OAPEN: Open Access Publishing in European Networks
NPTEL: National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning
OAI-PMH: Open Access Initiatives Protocol for Metadata Harvesting
OAister: OAIster is a union catalog of millions of records representing open access resources that was built by harvesting from open access collections w
OARiNZ: Open access Repositories in NZ
NCSTRL:  Networked Computer Science Technical Reference Library
SEED: Search Engine for Engineering Digital-repositories
CCAL: Creative Commons Attribution License

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