Multiple Choice Questions
- H P Luhn
- Derik Austin
- Ted Nelson
- William Gibson
- Data Sheet
- Serial Control
- Creation a computerized database of all books that existing in a library
- Cataloguing of new books
- Acquisition of new books
- Acquisition of new journals
- Radio Frequency Indentification
- Radio Frequently Indentification
- Radio Frequency Indentification Tags
- Radio Frequently Indentifications
- Vacuum Tube
- Integrated Circuit
- Search/Retrieve Web Service
- Search/Retrieve Web Source
- Search/Retrieve Web System
- Search/Retrieve Web Syntax
- ISO 9000
- Serial Control
- John Mauchly and J Presper Eckert
- Konrad Zuse
- John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry
- Frederic Williams and Tom Kilburn
Table of Contents
- Need & Purpose
- Planning for Library Automation
- Automation of In-house Operations
- Automatic Indetification
- Next Generation Library Management System
2.0 Definition of Library Automation
3.0 History of Library Automation
- The initial work on library automation began in 1930's when punch card equipment was implemented for circulation and acquisition in libraries. During the 1930's and early 1940's progress on computer systems was slow because of depression and World War II. The library automation progressed along with the developments in computer and communication technology. The landmark developments in history of library automation are as follows:
- From 1946 to 1947, two significant computers were built. The ENIAC I (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator) computer was developed by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert at the University of Pennsylvania. It contained over 18,000 vacuum tubes, weighed thirty tons and was housed in two stories of a building. Another computer, EDVAC, was designed to store two programs at once and switch between the sets of instructions.
- A major breakthrough occurred in 1947 when Bell Laboratories replaced vacuum tubes with the invention of the transistor. The transistors decreased the size of the computer, and at the same time increased the speed and capacity.
- The UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer) became the first computer using transistors and was used at the U.S. Bureau of the Census from 1951 until 1963. Software development also was in progress during this time. Operating systems and programming languages were developed for the computers being built.
- Invention of integrated circuit by Robert Noyce of Intel and Jack Kirby of Texas Instruments in 1960s can be considered as yet another landmark. All the components of an electronic circuit were placed onto a single "chip" of silicon.
- Development of a new indexing technique called "keyword in context" (KWIC) by H.P. Luhn, in 1961 for articles appearing in Chemical Abstracts. Although keyword indexing was not new, it was found to be very suitable for the computer as it was inexpensive and it presented multiple access points.
- Use of computer for the production of machine readable catalogue records by the Library of Congress (LoC) in mid-1960s. Between 1965 and 1968, LoC began the MARC I project, followed quickly by MARC II. MARC was designed as way of "tagging" bibliographic records using 3-digit numbers to identify fields.
- The MARC II format became the basis of a standard incorporated by NISO (National Information Standards Organization) in 1974. This was a significant development because the standards meant that a bibliographic record could be read and transferred by the computer between different library systems.
- ARPANET, a network established by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency in 1969 brought into existence the use of e-mail, telnet and ftp.
- The use of commercial systems for searching reference databases (such as DIALOG) began in 1970s. BALLOTS (Bibliographical Automation of Large Library Operations) in the late 1970's was one of the first and later became the foundation for RLIN (the Research Libraries Information Network).
- The On-line Computer Library Center started its first cooperative cataloguing venture in 1970s. This significant project facilitated technical processing of library materials in member libraries.
- A sub-net of ARPANET made MELVYL, the University of California on-line public access catalogue, available on a national level in 1980. The MELVYL is still used as centralized integrated library software by all the campuses of University of California.
- During 1980s, the size of computers decreased, at the same time, technology provided faster chips, additional RAM and greater storage capacity. The use of microcomputers during the 1980's expanded tremendously into the homes, schools, libraries and offices specially in developed countries.
- The UNESCO started distributing Micro CDS / ISIS in 1980s through its distribution centre in every developed country. Free availability of Micro CDS / ISIS, developed specially for library applications, proved a boon for the librarians in developing countries.
- Several integrated library package started appearing in the market place. The LibSys in India was launched towards the end of 1980s.
- In 1980s, several other software became available to librarians, such as spreadsheets and databases for help in library administration and information dissemination.
- The introduction of CD-ROMs in the late 80s changed the way libraries operate. CD-ROMs became available containing databases, software, and information previously only available through print, making the information more accessible.
- Connections to "outside" databases such as OCLC, DIALOG, and RLIN continued, however, in the early 90's the databases that were previously available on-line became available on CD-ROM, either in parts or in their entirety. Libraries could then gain information through a variety of options.
- The Internet gave rise to yet another era in library automation. The use of networks for e-mail, ftp, telnet, Internet, and connections to on-line commercial systems grew.
- The World Wide Web developed in 1993 became the fastest growing media of information delivery of all kinds.
- Expert systems and knowledge systems became available in the 90s with improvement in software and hardware capabilities. With the development of more advanced silicon computer chips, enlarged storage space and faster, increased capacity telecommunication lines, the ability to quickly process, store, send and retrieve information is causing the current information delivery services to flourish.
4.0 Need &amp; Purpose of Library Automation
5.0 Planning for Library Automation
5.1. Hardware Requirement
5.2. Local Area Network (LAN)
5.3. Integrated Library Software and Criteria for Selection of a Software
Name of Developers
ABCD (Automation of LiBraries and Cen-ters of Documentation)
BIREME (WHO, Brazil)
Georgia Public Library System
Katipo Communications Ltd
Master’s Software, Nagpur
Soft-Aid Computers Ltd
Libtech Software Developers
Kaptron Pvt Ltd
Verus Solutions Pvt. Ltd.
Media Flex Inc
SLIM ++ & SLIM 21
Algorhythms Consultants Pvt Ltd
Virginia Tech Library System (VTLS) Inc
5.4. Creation of Databases of Records
5.5. Retroconversion of Bibliographic Records
Fig.1 Data Input Sheet
6.0 Standards and Protocols
6.2 Machine Readable Catalogue (MARC)
6.3 Z39.50 or OAI-PMH
6.4 FRBR (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records)
6.5 Dublin Core
6.6 ILL Standards
- Simple request (with a reply indicating failure to supply),
- Request for the loan of an item with full tracking of the loan including recall notices, renewal request, reporting of lost or damaged items,
- An unsatisfied request being passed to a backup library for supply.
6.7 Open URL
6.8 Search/Retrieve Web Service (SRW) and Search/Retrieve URL Service (SRU)
7.0 Automation of In-house Operations
- Creation of pre-defined worksheet and input of catalogue records
- Provision for fetching records from Acquisition Module for titles that are “in process” of acquisition but yet to be catalogued
- Provision for appending digital objects including textual and non-textual (image, audio or vidio) files
- Provision for incorporating link to Internet resources including “http” or “ftp” links
- Maintenance of name and subject authority file including provision for construction of thesaurus
- Provision for generating subject bibliography and list of references
- Provision for editing, correction and removal of bibliographic records
- Arrangement of bibliographic records in a pre-defined filing sequence
- Printing of catalogue cards, bar code, spine labels, etc.
- Update holding, i.e. number of books, their collection codes, transferring from one collection to another, etc.
- Generation of current awareness services / recent arrivals, SDI services, etc.
- Listing of catalogue records by specified criteria such as subject, geographical area, date of publication, alphabetical by titles / author or their combination
- Generation of indices (author, title, series, subject headings, words in title / series, etc.)
7.2. Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC)
7.3. Circulation Control
- Membership Record Keeping: Maintenance of a database of authorized users and define their entitlements as per their category, i.e. faculty, students (Ph.D., PG or UG) and staff
- Provision to check-out and check-in library documents as per authorization of a given user
- Handling reservations
- Overdue follow-ups and Recall
- Renewal of loaned items
- Stock verification
- Inter-library loan and transaction of books borrowed through ILL
- Calculation of fines
- Analysis of circulation transactions
- Handling special categories of borrowers and special types of materials
- Notifications to delinquent borrowers (users with overdue books, unpaid fines, etc.)
- Printing of due date slips, no dues, routing slips, etc.
- Queries handling: both on borrowers and collection
- Report generation: overdue and recall notices, reserved titles, checkouts to borrowers, stock verification list, delinquency records, loan statistics by category of users, etc.
- Book selection
- Pre-order searching
- Approval processes: printing of approval list and subsequent follow-up (approved, not approved, duplicate, etc.)
- Print or e-mail purchase orders for books
- Query letters to vendors
- Print or e-mail reminders / cancellation
- Handle standing orders, blanket orders, prepaid orders, gifts and exchanges, membership, etc.
- Receipt and accessioning of documents (system-generated accessioning / manual accessioning)
- Invoice processing
- Payment requisition to accounts for releasing payment
- Reminders and follow-ups for non-receipted documents
- Handle budgeting / distribution of budget amongst Departments / Centres / Schools and Division, etc. and generating budget status reports
- Print accession list
- Notification to users (arrival of books / out-of-stock / out-of-print, etc.)
- Vendor performance report
- Report on out-standing orders / orders under process / books under process
- Handling queries on acquisition such as title in process, pending and overdue orders, pending titles, etc.
7.5. Serial Control
- Input of serials data
- Ordering: ordering of new journals, and renewal / cancellation of existing journals, handle approvals (approved and rejected journal titles)
- Receipt: Receipt of individual issues of journals
- Claims Monitoring: Sending reminders for missing issues of journals
- Routing and circulation of individual issues of journals
- Holding Information: With information about complete volumes, volumes with missing issues and missing volumes
- Services: List of periodicals received in a month / fortnight / week, list of periodical renewed / added, list of periodicals cancelled, report on serials holding
- Management service: Keeping track of amount spent on subscriptions, binding of volumes and holding information, etc.
- Queries Handling: Queries pertaining to new serials, renewal of serials, their receipt, vendors, their performance, recent arrivals, etc.
- Report generation: report on missing issues, complete volumes, binding orders, accession register for bound volumes, budget and expenditure analysis
7.6. Other Modules
8.0 Automatic Identification
8.1. Bar Code Technology
8.2. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
9.0 Next Generation Library Management System
1. Cloud-based Application: Moving away from conventional 'hosting' locally on to a server to 'cloud' based implementation, i.e. Integrated library software is offered as Software-as-a Service (SaaS), or further, Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) on a platform hosted by vendor which is shared by many separate and distinct libraries.
2. Comprehensive Library Resources Management: The next-generation ILS should respond to the shift from physical to digital collection in today’s library. As such, it should be able to manage all library materials regardless of their formats or location. The library database should be able to integrate all electronic resources subscribed by a library with physical resources it possesses seamlessly. In other words, the next-generation ILS should integrate functionalities of an Electronic Resource Management System (ERMS) adopting workflow of a library including acquisition and licensing.
3. Service-oriented Architecture: To facilitate migration from conventional library automation system to “library services platform” where various components and sub systems are 'loosely' coupled using web-based Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) model. The SOA model would facilitate interoperability of components of library system with other systems facilitating easier integration with 'admin' systems such as student registry, faculty directory and finance. Use of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) leads to platform independency allowing its users to pick-up software and hardware of their choice without getting locked to a single vendor.
4. Ability to Meet the Challenges of New Library Workflow: The process of acquisition and licensing of e-resources is not only different from acquisition of physical resources, it is also complex involving multiple decisions and multiple steps at various stages in the process of acquisition and delivery of e-resources. As such, the next generation Library System should not only be different from the existing library system, it requires completely new workflow facilitating customization and flexibility. The next generation systems should be able to unify the acquisition of electronic information resources, such as e-books and e-journals as well as traditional print materials in the same system.
5. Next Generation Discovery Service: One of the most important feature of the next-generation library system is ‘discovery service’ that will offer the possibility of unified search to local print holdings (OPAC), specialized and commercial databases subscribed by the library, local repositories and open access resources with built-in social networking capabilities.