Friday, December 19, 2014

Library Resource Sharing and Networking P- 02. Academic Libraries

इस ब्लॉग्स को सृजन करने में आप सभी से सादर सुझाव आमंत्रित हैं , कृपया अपने सुझाव और प्रविष्टियाँ प्रेषित करे , इसका संपूर्ण कार्य क्षेत्र विश्व ज्ञान समुदाय हैं , जो सभी प्रतियोगियों के कॅरिअर निर्माण महत्त्वपूर्ण योगदान देगा ,आप अपने सुझाव इस मेल पत्ते पर भेज सकते हैं -

Library Resource Sharing and Networking

P- 02. Academic Libraries *

By :jagtar singh,Paper Coordinator


The libraries are changing from single platform to network, the collection based system of libraries is becoming access-based, and their services are shifting around from document to information. As well as their physical access services are now in digital and towards virtual. The motto of libraries is to fulfill the information needs of their users. The demands of the users are changing as they are becoming tech savvy. Now they don't demand for document but need specific information. The available of vast information, rising cost of documents and limited budgets forces the libraries for sharing their resources. To overcome from these problems there is possibility of cooperation in various activities of the libraries such as abstracting and indexing, acquisition, bibliographic access, cataloguing, circulation, collection development, literature searching, management and accounting, microfilming, photocopying, processing, referral services, storage and union lists. The library resources are considered to be its staff, documents, infrastructure and services. The sharing of these resources is done to have mutual benefits for providing services to its users to fulfill their demands.

Historical Background

The library resource sharing is not a new phenomenon before it is known as library cooperation. The term ‘library cooperation’ has been confused with resource sharing.  Its history is traced back in the 13th century where cooperation is carried between monastery Libraries (Kraus, 1975). The effects of library of longest were started with cooperative cataloguing, in which the libraries with the other participating libraries enchants and use their each other resources and services. Kaul (1999) quotes that library cooperation traced as early or 200 B.C. between Alexandria library and Pergamum Library. They were sharing mutually each other needs and satisfying their requirements of resources. As per encyclopedia if library and information science there were agreements among the universities of Lund, Abo and Greifswald as early as 1740. The other examples of library cooperation include a projected union catalogue of the libraries of Weimar and Jean and a proposal for a coordinated acquisition scheme for Wolfenbuttel and Gottengen.
Kaul (1992) has reported the first library cooperation activity in India to be the catalogue of manuscripts compiled by whetting stokes in 1868.The Indian cataloged development was one of the major cooperative efforts in Indian libraries up to the 1960. The first major union list entitled A Catalogue of Scientific and Technical Periodicals was compiled by Henry C. Bolton in 1885.  With the advent of time library cooperation has become more systematic.
The international bodies FID, IFLA and UNESCO took initiative and made good efforts. An attempted was made by Paul outlet and Henri La Fontana in 1895 to form the forum of FID for compiling a world Indian to publish information. In this regard UDC comes up as tool for representing published information. The objective was to improve the availability of information. The IFLA started two programmers in the field of library cooperation were UBC and UAP. In the same way UNISIST, began to providing processed information is science and technology to all.
In the past, cooperation amongst libraries was restricted only to books and journals and it was known as 'Library Cooperation'. But when the field of cooperation became wider including acquisition, processing, storage of documents and sharing of expertise of library professionals, the new term was coined i.e. Resource sharing. Murice, B. Line (1980) express that in modern times cooperation is useful in the activities like acquiring selection, ordering and purchase of books etc; recording cataloguing and classification of books; making them available their own books by consultation and lending books not held by them by borrowing from elsewhere; storing of books for present and future use .

Concept of Resource Sharing and Definition

The sharing is the concept of give and take whenever a need arise with some agreements. “In the field of libraries the history of resource sharing is trace since documents were made available through various forms viz., shared cataloguing, library cooperation, interlibrary loan and union catalogue etc. The term library resources include each and every kind of the materials, functions and services, which constitute a modern library system. It is amalgamation of people, processes, ideas, materials and money which forms the substance of a library and can be described as its resources Kaul (1999). Resource sharing is an agreement amongst participating libraries where each participant library is willing to share its resource to other members when the need arises. As per the definition given in the Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science “resource are a person, thing or action to which one resorts to, when needed”.
Allen Kent provides a description of some of the concepts associated with the resource sharing activity as: “Resource sharing in libraries is defined as a mode of operation where by functions are shared in common by a number of libraries in its most positive effects. Resource sharing entails reciprocity, employing partnership in which each member has something useful to contribute to others and in which every member is willing and able to make available when needed. The term resource is used to designate any or all of the materials, functions, services and the expertise of the professional and non-professional staff. Resource implies a thing, a person or an action to which one turns for aid and help in time of need”.
Secondly the term sharing implies apportioning, allotting or contribution something that is to benefit others. It implies partnership for mutual benefit. Library resources encompass print and non-print materials as well as human resources that are eligible to be shared in ways that enhance the quality of service."
From the earlier explanation of Kent, it must be easy for anyone to understand the meaning and significance of `Resource Sharing'. Obviously it does not mean that individual identity of participating libraries would be affected in any way. In fact, the gains of resource sharing are to be obtained without in any way adversely affecting the objectives or interests of the participating libraries. However, some minor adjustments may have to he made in exceptional situations, with regard to the operational methods.
According to A.L.A. Glossary of Library and Information Science, “A term covering a variety of organizations and activities engaged in jointly by a group of libraries for the purposes of improving services and/or cutting costs. Resource sharing may be established by informal or formal agreement, by contract or may operate locally regionally, nationally and internationally. The resources shared may be collections, bibliographic data, personnel, planning activities, etc. In simply terms library cooperation or library resource sharing is that when two or more libraries in existing and working jointly on agreements to achieve their goals”.

Need of Resource Sharing

Today documents are available in plenty and their cost is kept on increasing. The growth of literature is also increasing day by day in each and every field of knowledge. They are available in variety of formats so there is always scope of being duplicated. The cost of current publications has increased and all the libraries are unable to acquire all the documents that are need. On the other side available of multiplicity of documents in different subjects, languages and formats with upcoming of new subjects and subject specialization. Resource sharing enables libraries to function effectively and efficiently by overcome this difficulty.
They would share the documents by overcoming the problem of increased prices and space for storing them. Libraries by sharing would have access to large number of documents. This way they can satisfy the increasing demand of users. By sharing libraries would provide its users to use documents in different formats. It would also allow them to share the expertise of staff, saving costs and the time of the staff.
There is always increase in number of users and information seeker and for users, it is importance to obtain basic knowledge in their subject fields and in their specialized areas. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the library to acquire relevant documents like books, journals, reference tools, advanced treatises, reports etc., which would provide a comprehensive coverage of literature as per the concerned subject fields. Today’s library has a dynamic and dual role to play and to provide information pin-pointed, exhaustive and ex-peditious to the research community. Many books and other documents usually go out of print within a short time of their publishing, so majority of the libraries are unable to purchase such titles, space for books as well as other library equipment is limited, increase in the number of books and readers necessitates more space for readers in reading hall as well as for library staff. It is impossible for any library to acquire this unlimited and endless knowledge. The need for library resource sharing can also be explained through the five laws of library science by S.R. Ranganathan:
The demand of first law is to fulfill if particular book belongs to a particular library is not in demand by the users. The book must be allowed to send/gave on inter library loan. To satisfy the second and third law of library science is in the context satisfaction of library users assumes new importance. Every reader his/her book and every book its reader requires special care and attention. The user must get his/her reading whether it is available with the library where he/she is registered or any other library. Similarly every book demands its user. In both the cases user demand and the demand of the book to use is require strengthening. For this library cooperation/ resource sharing is an essential activity, for the modern library to maximize library use with minimum resources.
Fourth law speaks for saving of time of readers and library staff. With the introduction of inter library cooperation by using modern technologies like computer, the time is naturally saved. The Fifth law "library is a growing organism" states that collection of library is tend to increase every year by addition of new documents. This leads to a Problem of storage of books. Thus the problem of shortage of space, with/the help of library cooperation/resource sharing can be solved to some extent. Due to knowledge explosion users need of pinpointed, exhaustive and expeditious information sources and services. The increased access to information and services by various users at different places in limited cost at same time and access to the existing information and services timely at less cost is answer to libraries must have resource sharing.

Objectives of Resources Sharing

Resource sharing is done on the bases of collective strength and effectiveness among the group of libraries. The aim is to provide convenient access to information for library users by going beyond their own resources so as to satisfy the demands of the user. This endeavor can be achieved by sharing the resources of other libraries to maximising the availability of library resources and services. This way library can actively have reduction of cost by avoiding unnecessary duplication of information resources, their processing and maintenance; and to have development in the specialised areas of collection building. This will provides larger access to information resources to all categories of users.
  • Sharing of resources to add-on a library's own collection, cataloguing, interlibrary loan services, catalogue production, collection development and avoiding duplication in acquisition to the maximum extent possible.
  • To overcome the economy problems by assisting the member library in common activities such as purchase, catalogue and process library materials.
  • To Assist the member libraries not only in selection of materials but sharing of efforts and expertise by encourage cooperation among libraries, documentation centers and information centers to promote the development of programmes for expanded use of library resources.
  • The improvement of library facilities and services bringing in standardization and Cooperate in the development of library personnel.
  • To provide, through cooperative acquisition by voluntary organisations, materials, beyond the reach of individual libraries.
  • Achieve economy in the use of resources, both human and material. This facilitate sharing of materials among members of the group.

Resource Sharing Tool and Technology

Resource sharing technology cannot work effectively unless appro­priate tools are developed. These tools include the creation of standard bibliographic databases such as union catalogues of books and periodicals, union lists of serials, bibliographic databases of articles and other types of materials such as CDs, video recordings, sound recordings, theses and dissertations. It is important to develop these tools which also include full text of books, articles and other material. It becomes necessary to use the methods and tools that help in quick identification and delivery of documents.

Areas for Resource Sharing

Today resource sharing involves several activities such as interlibrary loan, cooperative acquisition, specialised purchasing programmes, centralised processing, shared cataloguing, sharing of bibliographical data, centralised periodical collection for loan purposes, cooperative microfilming, preparation and maintenance of Union Catalogue and Union List of Serials. By various means of co-operation libraries all over the world can certainly run their operations smoothly and satisfy majority of readers. There are many ways and means to overcome the problems discussed above.  Following are the areas of resource sharing:

Inter-library loan Service
This service is to provide documents as well as information available to every reader whatever he needed and wherever it is available. If some document is not available in one library, an arrangement is made to procure this for the reader, from any other library of locality, region or country. The practice of inter-library loan is confined mainly in big cities because the document can be easily located, procured and returned.

Cooperative Acquisition
While purchasing the books and periodicals all the libraries has to go through purchasing channels and formalities in purchasing like selection, placing the orders, reminders to the suppliers, passing the bills, arranging the foreign currency for periodicals. The libraries of a same region or locality can team up to become a central agency for purchasing of books and periodicals for all the libraries of the region. This way multiple copies of the books can be purchased on behalf of other libraries and on these are distributed as per requirements of each library. Such a practice is beneficial to member libraries in saving the labour of member libraries, brings down the cost of acquisition and can have maximum discount and lot of time saving is also there.

Centralized /Co-operative Cataloguing
Libraries are always facing problems of funds and to reduce the cost and to save the time centralized and cooperative cataloguing the best scheme. Under centralized cataloguing, a central agency or single library does the cataloguing job while in co-operative cataloguing, two or more libraries share the work, Machine Readable Catalogue (MARC) is the best example of centralized cataloging. This improvement of quality and standers with uniformity and saving of time.

Co-operative Storage Programme
In every library there are thousands of books and non book material which are seldom or little used and storage capacity in any library is limited. For this co-operative storage can be done.

Cooperative Reference and Information Services
The importance of reference and information services in any library can't be under-estimated. In research libraries such a service is essential. These days, when the means of telecommunication and computers are available everywhere, providing such a service through internet, telephone or fax, should be fully fruitful.

Sharing of Equipment 
A reprographic facility is the best way as many costly and rare documents of libraries need to be conserved through microfilming or through scanning. There is no need to purchase equipment by all the libraries this can be done on co-operative basis.
Main frame Computers are needed for automation in libraries. It is costly so every library cannot purchase. Co-operating libraries can use such a computer on a time-sharing basis.

Exchange of Staff
There is shortage of expert manpower in the field of library software and operations. Library staff for such specialized jobs is not easily available. It is being felt by all the libraries that expertise of such personnel can be fully exploited by exchange of staff from one library to other. Such experts can train the staff members of other libraries.

Translation Services are necessitated
The published work in foreign languages can be translated in to the local or deism language. For this, research publications can got translated on co-operative basis. The services of translators can be sought by co-operating libraries by pooling resources.

Preparation of Bibliographies/ Databases
Now a day’s every library is in process to computerized, so a computer databases on likeness with interest can be created. Libraries can prepare the bibliographies and exchange these among the co-operating libraries. 

Levels of Resource Sharing

  1. Local: When the libraries seek resource sharing in the nearby areas in town, city and metropolitan cities, it is called local cooperation. This activity can be monitored through telephone as well as by local manager.
  2.  Regional: In this situation resource sharing libraries do not fall within the single town but belong to a region may be north or west. The whole regional libraries will be benefited to a large extent. 
  3. National: National level resource sharing may be achieved among the libraries in country. If the resources of all the   libraries of a nation are cooperatively used then, inter library loan services will be facility at national level. For example national bodies like INSDOC, ICSSR, UGC academic Libraries public libraries, and National library Kolkata are providing inter library services in the field of sciences, social sciences, respectively.
4.  International: The best example of international cooperation and resource sharing programmed is UNISIST. It has also established world science information system. International agencies like IFLA and FID are also extending their cooperation in this regard.The UNESCO Vitiated deposit and exchange of reading material of their libraries is done among the member nation. 

Resource Sharing through Library Networks

The idea of networking has been given by Dr. S. R. Ranganthan long back about the connecting of libraries at various levels i.e., block, district regional and national level. Networking is new name in using the resources of libraries among themselves by using new information technology like internet with the help of computer.

The meaning and scope of modern networks has been changing since the 1970s when its applications began. According to  ALA glossary of library and information science defines ‘network’ as two or more organizations engaged in a common pattern of information exchange through communication links for some common objective; and interconnected or inter-related group of nodes; a library network. The National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS) in its National Programme Document (1975) defines a network as “Two or more libraries and /or other organisations engaged in a common pattern of information exchange, through communications, for some functional purpose. A network usually consists of a formal arrangement whereby materials, information, and services provided by a variety of libraries and other organisations are available to all potential users. Libraries may be in different jurisdictions but agree to serve one another on the same basis as each serves its own constituents. Computers and telecommunications may be among the tools used for facilitating communication among them". Another definition given in ALA World encyclopedia of library and information services by Alphonse F. Trezza defines it as "…a formal organisation among libraries for cooperation and sharing of resources, in which the group as a whole is organised into subgroups with the exception that most of the needs of a library, will be satisfied within the subgroups of which it is a member ". Library networks is defined by Raynard C. Swank “concept that includes the development of cooperative systems of libraries on geographical, subject, or other lines, each with some kind of centre that not only coordinates the internal activities of the system but also serves as the system's outlet to, and inlet from, the centres of other systems and the concept is also hierarchical."

Characteristics of Library Resource Sharing Network: The library resource sharing network can be carried between two or more libraries having common goals. So that two way communication systems can flow free from one source to another for sharing of information. The distribution of information can be done in many forms; such as catalogue card, print out etc. A library network is used to serve its users by means of storing, transfer and processing and control information. Exchange of information is done through electronic mail, online facility. `Networking' is a complex term and it requires to be studied from a variety of perspectives to have various benefits.

Network Definition
Whenever more than two persons, organisations, or computer terminals are linked and share some common characteristic, a network is formed. In other words, network means modes of interaction between people. Howeverthere are three categories of networking which may be said to have considerable impact on information services. These are communication networks, computer networks and library and information networks. 

Communication Networks
"A telecommunications network is a system consisting of communicating devices, such as terminals, an interconnecting media, such as cable, and a means of establishing communicating' , paths through the ,media between the communicating devices"(John feather, ed., 1997).In other words communications networks are made up of transmission lines, concentrators, switching mechanisms and non-data processing components. Networks are for people who need information for their intensive occupations. The important of getting information through networks is mainly for its compact, powerful and cheap technology need for business communications.

Computer Networks
Two computers are said be interconnected if they are capable of exchanging information i.e., bi- directional flow of information. Computer network means interconnected connections of autonomous computers.  Computers can be interconnected   through various transmission lines such as lasers, optical fibers, satellite, copper wire, telephone cables and microwave cables etc.
A computer network can be defined as “computer network consists of a set of communication channels interconnecting a set of computing devices or nodes that can communicate with each other. The nodes may be computers, terminals, workstations, or communication units of various kinds distributed over different locations. The communication is done through channels that can be leased from common carriers i.e., telephone companies or provided by the owners of the network. These channels may use a variety of transmission media, including optical fibers, coaxial cable, twisted copper 'lairs, satellite links or digital microwave radio. The nodes may be distributed over a wide area or over a local area in which case the networks are called wide area (WAN) or local area. (LAN) networks respectively".

Information Networks
Information networks in the broadest sense can be any formalised system of information exchange. But, in modern information networks, technology is utilised to link libraries, specialised data resources, or individuals to the persons or institutions in need of information. It was not until 1960s, however, that libraries could be linked by telecommunication to central computer facilities built around a bibliographic data base. From this developed a network structure that made new technology available to libraries across the country (Penniman, 1976).
Having learnt about three categories of networks which have impacted library and information services,

Objectives of Library Resource Sharing Network
The main objectives of library resource sharing network are to improve the sharing of resources among the member libraries. The centralize information processing system can be done and it will reduce the communication gap among the libraries. The different types of networks that have been evolved for sharing a set of common objectives are:
  • The network must have connectivity to permit different hardware and software products to be connected and to communicate with each other. That should be simple to allow easy installation and operation of all network components.
  • Modularity to enable building a wide variety of network devices from a relatively small set of mass-produced building blocks;
  • Reliability to permit error free transmission by providing appropriate error detection and correction capabilities;
  • Flexibility to permit the network to evolve as new needs arise or new technologies become available;
  • Diversity of network services that can be easily used and yet isolate users from the technical details of network structure and implementation.

Uses of Resource Sharing Through Networks
  • Library Resource Sharing Network is important for controlling the explosion of literature and knowledge. It also avoids duplication in purchase of costly documents.
  •  It facilitates the adoption of new areas in every field of knowledge and improves the transferring of data fast, reliable, flexible and cost effective.
  •  Library resource sharing network is a helpful way to expand the sources and resources of information between the information centres/libraries and other similar libraries.
  • Through this resource sharing by networking of libraries access the resources available even at distant places and make the resources available to the scholars concerned at their work places.
  • Libraries and their resources which are lying in individual library are now closer to all the libraries of the world, with the use of electronic mail.
  •  The files and databases searched by them can be searched mutually or trans­ferred from one library to another. This way efficiency and productivity of information will increase

Basic Requirements of Library Networking:
  1. Library networking is essential to promote resources sharing available within a group of libraries in order to provide maximum information to users.
  2. Bibliographic tools like union catalogues and union lists based on the resources available in the participating libraries should be there.
  3. Rationalization of acquisitions as well as decision to have one classification scheme in all participating libraries should be taken.
  4. Delivery of documents should be fast, either electronically, through fax or through courier or mail.
  5. The libraries should be willing in participation and should be willing to send professional staff for professional training.They should be willing to pool bibliographic records to the central place of the network.
  6. Libraries should have such activities like acquisition, cataloguing, classification, serials control, circulation, selective dissemination information (SDI), current awareness service (CAS), etc.
  7. The network should be able to recommend to participating libraries the type of hardware they need for their in-house functions and for networking purposes.
  8. All libraries should follow a standard Machine Readable Catalogue(MARC )format, a standard catalogue code like AACR-2, a standard thesaurus like Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), etc. uniformly.
  9. Electronic mail and internet facilities should be available with the libraries with access to international databases.

Type of Networks

A network consists of two or more computers that are linked in order to share resources exchange files or allows electronic communications. The computers on a network may be linked through cables, telephone lines, radio waves, satellites, or infrared light beams. There are two types of library networks:

(a)        LAN (Local Area Networks)
(b)        WAN (Wide Area Networks)

(a)       Local Area Networks (LAN) 
In this case computers within same building or within one limited area are connected with each other. In Local Area Network Mainframe computer of one place is connected with the computer terminals at other places. Data can be fed only at the mainframe only and same data can be retrieved from various points or terminals.

(b)       Wide Area Networks (WAN)
In this case the computer of library/libraries of different libraries is connected with each other. In Wide Area Network, libraries are connected with each other by telecommunication through what is called 'GATEWAYS'. JANET (Joint Academic Network of Great Britain) and DELNET (Developing Libraries Network) are the best examples of Wide Area Networks.

Topology of Networks

In a networked setup the terminals are attached or connected with the 'mainframe computer' by different ways. Based on this there are five types of networks:
Point-to-point connection: It has the advantage of simplifying routing decisions among nodes, but the reliability of the network depends on the reliability of the weakest links.
Alternate Text
Bus Connection: In this type of network, all network nodes have unique addresses and are connected' to a common transmission medium. When a device transmits data on to the bus, it is received by all devices and is ignored, except by the one that is addressed. LANs based on the Ethernet use this type of topology. 
Alternate Text
Ring Connection: In which consecutive nodes are connected by point-to-point links arranged to from a closed path (ring). Information is passed from node to node around the ring until it arrives at the specific node that is addressed. 
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Star Connection: In which all nodes are connected to a node called the central node or hub. The central node can be active or passive. If it is active, it is usually used to control the entire network and performs all the routing. This topology is used in applications where a central computer communicates with remote terminals or work stations. 

Alternate Text
Mash Connection networks: In this type of networks nodes are connected by point-to point links in an arbitrary fashion, with each node connected to at least two others. This improves reliability and reduces the likelihood of congestion, but makes routing much more complex since many paths are possible between any two nodes. The above discussed topologies are illustrated in the following diagram. 
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Libraries have start using computers for collection, storage, processing and dissemination of information as far as possible for informa­tion usage. The rapid growth of information is not easy to control and disseminate, therefore the task like online access to databases of information generation has been done with the computers. Research scholars and scientists obtain information faster. For this services cooperation through network among libraries is essential for resource sharing. Reduction in the hardware prices, availability of library person­nel with specialisation in computer handling and the pressure for resource sharing increased at a reasonable pace. With this network, libraries can pool together all resources of other libraries, resources of all universities, colleges, research institu­tions, various departments and also the resources of individuals. It will be possible for us to acquire a greater number of information sources taken together in all the libraries in the country. These can interconnect people, i.e. students, teachers, researchers, users, etc.


ALA World encyclopedia of library and information services.2nd ed. Chicago: ALA, 1986.p.472
Bavakutty (M) etc, Ed. Organisation of Libraries and Information Centers in 21st Century, New Delhi: Ess Ess Publication, 2002, p.39.
Chaturved, D.D., Ed. Academic Libraries New Delhi: Anmol Publications, 1994, p.232
Feather, Joha and Sturges, Paul (eds.). (1997) International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science, London: Routledge.
Garkoti (G.K.) Concise Encyclopedia of Library and Information Technology, New Delhi: Ess Ess Publications, 2001, p.504
Kaul, H.K. (1992). Library Networks, an Indian Experience. New Delhi: Virgo Publications. Kaul, H.K. (1999). Library Resource Sharing and Networks. New Delhi: Virgo Publications.
Kaul, H.K. Library Resource Sharing and Networks, New Delhi: Virgo Publications, 1999, p.336
Kraus, Joe (1975) “Prologue to library cooperation”. Library Trends, 24(2), Oct 1995, p.109
Kent, A and Galvin, T. (eds). (1979). Structure and Governance of Library Networks: Proceedings of the 1978 Conference in Pittsburg. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Kent, Allen (ed) (1978). Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. New York: Marcell Dekker. V25.
Line, Mairice, B. (1980) Is Cooperation is Good Thing? In Fjalibrant, Nancy, ed Library Cooperation; Trends, Possibilities and Conditions. Proceedings of the Eight meeting of IATUL, enchede, 1979 Gotebagg; IATUL, Chalmers University of Technology, 1980, pp 5-14.
Penniman, WD, [et al (1976). Technology Assessment of Information Networking Technology, Report to the U.S. National Science Foundation. Battelle. NSF. 

Further Readings:

University Grants Commission (1988) Development of an Information and Library Network (INFLIBNET) Report. Delhi: UGC
Satyanarayana, R and Rajan, T.N. (1995). Information Networks: Structure and Operation with Reference to India. INICAE, Vol. 4, No.2, 1985, pp. 155-168.
Seshagiri, N. (1984) Modernisation of Library services and informatics for the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90). Report Submitted to the Government of India by the Working Group on Libraries and Informatics of the Planning Commission.
Rowley, Jennifer (1998). The Electronic Library. 4th Edition of Computers for Libraries. London: Library Association Publishing.
Mc Dougall, Allan F. and Pryterch, Ray (ed.) (1991). Handbook of Library Cooperation. U K: Gower. Resource Sharing in Libraries. In :
Kaul, H. K. (2002). Networking of Libraries in India: A Critical Review. InSardana, J. L.(ed). Libraries in Retrospect and Prospect: Essays in Honour of Prof D. R. Kalia. Delhi: Concept. V2, p.411-22.
Kaul, H. K. ( 2002). From Printed Bibliographies to Online Databases: Roleof Library Networks. In: Sardana, J. L.(ed). Libraries in Retrospect and Prospect: Essays in Honour of Prof D. R. Kalia. V2. Delhi: Concept. p. 423-37.
Cholin, V. S. and Karisiddappa, C. R. (2002). Library Consortia for Academic Libraries in the e-Publishing Era. InCALIBER 2002. H Anil Kumar (ed).Internet Engineering for Libraries and Information Centres. Ahmedabad: INFLIBNET. p 362-74.

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