Monday, January 19, 2015

Economic and Financial Databases P- 05. Information Sources, Systems and Services

इस ब्लॉग्स को सृजन करने में आप सभी से सादर सुझाव आमंत्रित हैं , कृपया अपने सुझाव और प्रविष्टियाँ प्रेषित करे , इसका संपूर्ण कार्य क्षेत्र विश्व ज्ञान समुदाय हैं , जो सभी प्रतियोगियों के कॅरिअर निर्माण महत्त्वपूर्ण योगदान देगा ,आप अपने सुझाव इस मेल पत्ते पर भेज सकते हैं -

Economic and Financial Databases

P- 05. Information Sources, Systems and Services *

By :R Arora,Paper Coordinator

0 / 1 Points

Question 1: Multiple Choice

Capitaline Plus has which type of financial and non-financial information on Indian Industries?
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Intensive
  •  Un-checked Extensive
  • Wrong Answer Checked All the above
0 / 1 Points

Question 2: Multiple Choice

Datanet promotes which kind of database?
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked CMIE
  • Wrong Answer Checked Capitaline Plus
  •  Un-checked India stat
1 / 1 Points

Question 3: Multiple Choice

In which year Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) was established?
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked 1972
  • Correct Answer Checked 1976
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked 1981
1 / 1 Points

Question 4: Multiple Choice

India Statistics is a socio-economic online database brought by which ministry?
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Ministry of Defence
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Ministry of Physics
  • Correct Answer Checked Ministry of Statistics
1 / 1 Points

Question 5: Multiple Choice

Which kind of organization is CMIE?
  • Correct Answer Checked Commercial
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Non-commercial
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked None
3 / 5 PointsFinal Score:

  • True or False

    0 / 1 Points

    Question 1: True or False

    CEIC Data Company Ltd specializes in providing high quality databases, focusing on American economic, industrial and financial time-series data.
    Wrong Answer Checked True
     Un-checked False
    1 / 1 Points

    Question 2: True or False

    Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) is a leading business information company established in 1976
    Correct Answer Checked True
     Un-checked False
    1 / 1 Points

    Question 3: True or False

    CMIE Database provides services to the entire spectrum of business information consumers that includes governments, academia, financial markets, business enterprises, professionals and the media
    Correct Answer Checked True
     Un-checked False
    0 / 1 Points

    Question 4: True or False

    India Statistics is another socio-economic online database brought out by Ministry of Defence and Programme Implementation
    Wrong Answer Checked True
     Un-checked False
    1 / 1 Points

    Question 5: True or False

    Internet Securities, Inc. (trading as ISI Emerging Markets), was founded in 1994
    Correct Answer Checked True
     Un-checked False
    3 / 5 PointsFinal Score:

1. Introduction

Social science researchers often need data and statistics to support their work. A subject like economics and finance largely consists of empirical evidences and rely on statistics heavily. Even sociologist and psychologist look for socio-economic indicators in support of their findings. It has been rightly said that in old days, people drived their understanding of society from history, literature and personal experience.  Now they base their conclusions on numerical or statistical evidence which are provded by Central Statistical offices or international agencies like OECD.  As a result, economists have become more econometric, political scientists more numerate and sociologists more systematic.
Though data is collected by governmental agencies but several database vendors have emerged who organize, add further value and sell them commercially. Similarly there are  several  national and international  organizations  or agencies which  have developed   databases of  different indicators and  provide access to these data on subscription basis.
Now a days, statistical agencies serve many users.  These users are heterogenous in terms of their information needs, the way in which they use statistical data, their analytic abilities to manipulate data etc.  In order to become responsive to the needs of various types of users, a stistical agency must be able to identify its clientale, be aware of their needs and also tailor its products and services accordingly.  In the past, the basic function of government statistical agencies in majority of developing countries was to support planning and decision making activities of the state.  The situation has now changed.  New users’ groups have emerged and as a result, the agencies are now required to determine demand and optimize their data collection, processing and dissemination procedure.  The major role of government statistical office is the production and supply of accurate consistent and timely data for use. 

2. Use of Statistics for Research

Statistics is a term generally used for the results of an enumeration or more technically for the science or drawing valid inferences from mumerical data.  Originally, as the word itself indicates, its meaning was confined to matters of state, mainly economic and demographic.  Later, the subject extended to cover numerical data of all kinds.
Also, statistics should not be viewed as a purely mathematical discipline isolated from life.  It is by and large a practical science whose main concern is promotion of human welfare for socio-economic development.  Following are the important functions of statistics:-
i)                    Statistics presents facts in a definite form.always more convincing than vague utterances.
ii)                  Statistics simplifies mass of figures, condensing data into a few significant tables and presenting a meaning for overall information.
iii)                Statistics facilitates comparison.  As we can realize, unless figures are compared with others, they are often devoid of any meaning.
iv)                Formulation and testing of hypothesis can be done with the help of statistics and this can lead to development of new theories.
v)                  Forecasting future events and formulation of suitable policies is done with the help of statistics.
For a country like India, the signlemost important evidence that plays a crucial role in entire planning process is statistical information.  While several other sources are important for the formulation of plans, statistical data are considered basic ingredient.  The planners convert the data and priorities of the decision makers into a plan by means of a model.  A great variety of data are required for constructing the model as well as for testing the assumptions underlying the model.  The results of planning are also measured with the help of statistical information. 

3. Data bank

Data are now collected through various statistical operations such as consuses, surveys etc.  Administrative records as well as statistical returns submitted by various agencies under the government also create data on different socio-economic variables.  Now the agencies develop databanks with the help of available data in a manner so that multifarious needs of various groups of users can be met. 
Statisticians attached to databanks are required to determine what type of data is to be made available, now they should be collected and presented and to which valid inferences.  They can lead.  A databank is normally endowed with following functions:-
  1. Data collection; i.e. data capture from the results of censuses, surveys, administrative records, observational data etc.
  2. Data storage; i.e. storage of raw primary data in registors, files, databases etc.
  3. Data manipulation; i.e.
c.1             data management; editing, sorting, matching, merging and file maintenance.
c.2             storage of processed data; working files, matrices, tables, summaries etc.
c.3             presentation and analysis which also include optimization techniques and packaging of data in the interest of groups of users according to determined rules.
c.4             data use; i.e. interpretation of data as information to guide action on the operations.
As a utility service, data are made available for use by different people.  The users are requested to be objective.  However, the question to which the user want to find answer vary  as well as their degree of prior knowledge on the subject matter and their level of competence in dealing with data.  Hence the chances of misunderstanding of data exists.
In India, just twenty years ago, the only way to retrieve government produced statistical data was to consult printed reports.  Many of them were released as serial publications all over  the country in a dispersed manner.  These publications did not have adequate bibliographic control.  These were not covered by indexing and obstracting services and had fewer access points.  Also there was minimal production of in house finding aids and automated retrieval systems.  Private sector vendors of databases took advantage of this factor and started developing their own databanks. 

4. Major Databases

Most of the economic, social and financial databases have their origin in the government run statistical system.  There are agencies at national levels that have been set up only for collection, processing and dissemination of data or various socio-economic variables.  Following are the major national level agencies:-
  1. Central Statistical Office (CSO).
  2. National Sample Survey (NSS)
  3.  Registrar General of India (RGI)
  4. Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics (DGCIS)
  5. Labour Bureau (LB)
  6. Reserver Bank of India (RBI)
  7. Department of Education, Ministryof Human Resource Development (MHRD)
  8. Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture (DES)
Major databases developed by these agencies include: a) National Income Data b) Sample Survey Results (on various socio-economic subjects) e) Foreign Trade f) Labour Statistics g) Banking and Financial Statistics. H) Education Statistics etc.
Apart from these national level agencies, most of the government departments at the centre have statistical division or section.  Many public sector organizations have their own arrangement for collection and maintenance of statistics.  Similarly, in states and union territories, there are statistical offices; and many states have district statistical offices.  On the whole, India has a vast network of statistical agencies.  There are statistical units under the central government whose main objective is to process administrative records and produce databases that are by products of administration.  Example of such units are i) Income Tax Department ii) Railway Board iii) Department of Posts and Telegraphs iv) Textitle Commissioner’s Office v) Central Excise Commissioner’s Office etc.
It is apparent that statistical information in India is produced in a distributed manner by many agencies.  There are certain private bodies, trade, associations and autonomous research organizations in this endeavour.  Their aim is to catch the over growing market for tailor-made user specific business/commercial information products and services in a liberalized economy.  Some of the important economic financial and other databases produced largely by the private agencies are described below. 

5. Indiastat 

Promoted by Datanet, New Delhi, collects, collates and compiles in ready to use socio-economic information about India and its states and to make it available online.

Currently is a cluster of 57 sites including India-specific, Sector specific and State specific sites rendering its dedicated services to the research fraternity from academic, professional and corporate world with authentic and comprehensive compilation of secondary level socio-economic statistical data about India and its states on more than 35 variables. The details are as under:

Sector-specific Sites

National/State-specific Sites


Further data is available in tabular form for the following areas.

                      i.            Agriculture
                    ii.            Banks and Financial Institutions
                  iii.            Civil Supplies and Consumer Affairs
                  iv.            Companies
                    v.            Cooperatives
                  vi.            Crime and Law
                vii.            Demographics
              viii.            Economy
                  ix.            Education
                    x.            Electoral Data
                  xi.            Environment and Pollution
                xii.            Foreign Trade
              xiii.            Forest and Wildlife
              xiv.            Geographical Data
                xv.            Health
              xvi.            Housing
            xvii.            Industries
          xviii.            Insurance
              xix.            Labour and Workforce
                xx.            Market Forecast
              xxi.            Media
            xxii.            Meteorological Data
          xxiii.            Mines and Minerals
          xxiv.            Per Capita Availability
            xxv.            Petroleum
          xxvi.            Power
        xxvii.            Social and Welfare Schemes
      xxviii.            Sports
          xxix.            States and Union Territories
            xxx.            Telecommunication
          xxxi.            Tourism
        xxxii.            Transport
      xxxiii.            Urban Areas
      xxxiv.            Villages

Alternate Text

6. India Statistics 

India Statistics is another socio-economic online database brought   out by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, government of India and   contains official data on a wide array of subjects. The data is freely available and covers following sectors.

                      i.            India An Overview
                    ii.            Agriculture Sector
                  iii.            Industry Sector
                  iv.            Service Sector
                    v.            Social Sector
                  vi.            Miscellaneous Sector
Further data is available on each sector in tabular format and can be downloaded and saved for use.
Alternate Text

7. CMIE Databases 
Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy is a leading business information company established in 1976, it straddles the entire information food-chain - from primary data collection through analytics and forecasting. It provides services to the entire spectrum of business information consumers that includes governments, academia, financial markets, business enterprises, professionals and the media.
CMIE produces economic and business databases and develops specialized analytical tools to deliver these to its customers for decision making and for research. It analyses the data to decipher trends in the economy.
CMIE is a commercial organization and its databases are available on subscription basis only. Some of the important databases useful for social scientists are as under:
a. Economic Outlook
Economic Outlook consists of macro-economic forecasts and insights.
b. Prowess
Prowess is largest database of financial performance of Indian companies and corporate sector
It is powered by versatile software that empowers the user.
c. CapEx
Tracking the creation of new capacities, from Intentions through implementation and completion.
d. Industry Analysis Service
A forward-looking analysis of 70 industries, presents forecasts of changes in capacity, production, sales, trade and prices.
e. Commodities
The most comprehensive and reliable source of Indian commodity prices, market intelligence, crop forecasts and time-series data for agricultural commodities.
f. Consumer Pyramids
This database compiles results from India's largest survey of households with over 140,000 households surveyed every quarter
g. States of India
A comprehensive compilation of State-level statistics, supported by official statistical documents from state governments
Alternate Text

8. Capitaline Plus 

Capitaline Plus provides fundamental and market data on more than 20,000 Indian listed and unlisted companies, classified under more than 300 industries, along with powerful analytic tools.  Company section of Capitaline Plus has extensive financial and non-financial information on Indian companies. Coverage of data on each company includes Balance Sheet, P & L, Segment Finance, Funds Flow, Cash Flow, Forex, R & D, Key Ratios, Quarterly Results, Finished Products, Share Price data, Raw Materials, Price Chart, Share-holding Pattern, Corporate events, Directors' Report, News, Research & Analysis and much more.
Alternate Text

9. ISI-Emerging Market 

Internet Securities, Inc. (trading as ISI Emerging Markets), was founded in 1994 and acquired by Euromoney Institutional Investor PLC in 1999. It delivers hard-to-get information on more than 80 emerging markets through its online Emerging Markets Information Service. It aggregates and produces unique content including full-text news articles, financial statements, company information, industry analyses, equity quotes, macroeconomic statistics, and market-specific information, which are derived directly from more than 13,000 local and global publications.

Type of Information

  • Company information (Analyst reports, News)
  • Country information (Country profiles, Economy, Emerging markets, News, Statistics)
  • Industry information (Industry reports: Agriculture, Automotive, Banking, Beverages, Business and professional services, Chemical, Computing, Construction, Cosmetics, Electronics, Energy, Financial services, Food, Healthcare, Household appliances, Information technology, Insurance, Leisure, Machinery, Metal, Mineral and mining, Paper and packaging, Printing and publishing, Petrochemical, Pharmaceutical, Telecommunication, Textile, Tobacco, Transport, Utilities).
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10. CEIC Asia Databases

CEIC Data Company Ltd. specializes in providing high quality databases, focusing on Asian economic, industrial and financial time-series data, and company fundamental data.

  • Cover 13 Industry Sectors, including
  • Agriculture
  • Automobile
  • Banking
  • Cement
  • Chemical and Petrochemical
  • Energy
  • Metal and Steel
  • Mining and Manufacturing
  • Pharmaceutical
  • Textile
  • Tourism
  • Transportation, Post and Telecom
Alternate Text

11. World Bank Online

Statistics forms the foundation upon which sound policy is built. The mission of the World Bank's Data Group is to provide high quality national and international statistics to clients within and outside the Bank and to improve the capacity of member countries to produce and use statistical information. 
  • World Development Indicators Online (WDI)   provides direct access to more than 800 development indicators with time series for 209 countries and 18 country groups from 1960 to 2008, where data are available.
  • Global Development Finance Online (GDF) provides direct access to more than 200 debt and financial flows indicators for the 128 countries that report public and publicly-guaranteed debt to the World Bank Debtor Reporting System. These data run from 1970 to 2016, where available. (updated February 3, 2010)
  • African Development Indicators Online (ADI) contains over 1,400 indicators and time series from 1960 for 53 countries, where data are available. Data include social, economic, financial, natural resources, infrastructure, governance, partnership, and environmental indicators.

There are other databases available on the websites of international organizations like Univeed Nations Statistical Office (UNSO), International Monetory Fund (IMF), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Asian Development Bank (ADB) etc.  However, the problem with the data provided by international bodies is that they are often reconstructed rather than directly observed.  The reconstruction is done with more guesswork than proper analysis.  As such, there is arbitrariness in the figures provided by them.
In fact the nature of data being generated by different authorities varies with the nature and range of executive functions which they perform.Before converting them into statistical series of utility to outsiders and achieving record linkages for analytical purpose ,each new dataset should pass examination with respect to the following:
A Reliability of data contents
B Compatibility with other records
C Flexibility with regard to aggregation
D Timeliness and Regularity including periodical up-dating.
F Sensitivity or Confidentiality
As regards large scale macro level socio economic data particularly census or survey type,the authority to manage the data is traditionally centralized in most of the countries.

12. Conclusion:

Thus it can be seen that there are several database available online to researchers containing statistical information in different areas of economy. These databases allow researchers with solid empirical evidence in support of their work and immense value to it. Most of the Universities subscribe to these databases for the use and benefit of their students and teachers. The biggest advantage of these databases is that they are updated on daily basis and contain highly up-to-date information.

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