Tuesday, August 20, 2013


1. You have come across several ethical approaches to problem
solving in this module. One of those approaches has been the
most influential in the history of medicine. Was it a:
a) Utilitarian ethical approach
b) Deontological ethical approach
c) Virtue ethical approach
d) Legal approach
e) Categorical ethical approach
2. The deontological ethics requires that you never treat trial
participant as a mere means to your end. This does not mean
that you can’t use people as trial participants at all. However,
it means that you must usually get:
a) Approval from an ethics committee to do the research
b) The prospective participants un-coerced informed
c) Some assurance that the utility (for society) generated by
the research outweighs the cost (for participants)
d) Approval from the Health Department for your trial
e) Approval from the Medical research Council for your trial
3. Historically speaking, ethical review of research came about,
a) People discovered that that would generate badly needed
jobs for ethicists
b) Of serious failings by some researchers throughout
history to ensure that trial participants are not exploited
or harmed one way or another during the trial
c) Researchers discovered that without ethical review they
would have problems seeing their findings published in
important international biomedical journals
d) Legislators deemed it necessary to force ethical review
processes upon clinical researcher and anyone else
involved in using human participants for research
e) People were sceptical that self-regulation by scientists
would be the appropriate answer to ethical concerns in
biomedical research involving human participants
Developing World Bioethics ISSN 1471-8731 (print); 1471-8847 (online)
Volume 5 Number 1 20054. The historically first international guideline pertaining to
research involving human participants was the:
a) Declaration of Helsinki
b) Declaration of Japan
c) Nuremberg Code
d) WHO Ethical Guideline
e) Set of CIOMS Guidelines
5. The two primary tasks of ethical reasoning are:
a) To inform people about the legal situation and historical
context as they pertain to their work
b) To inform people about what they ought to be doing, and
why they should do it
c) To ensure that people act ethically and within the boundaries of the law
d) To ensure that researchers become good ethicists in
their own right and do the right thing by their trial
e) To guarantee good clinical practice and application of
sound clinical methodology during biomedical research
6. Informed consent is important because
a) It enables the participant to understand vital information
on the proposed trial
b) It provides the participant will all the information regarding remote risks
c) It enables the investigator to recruit participants of his
d) It promotes clinical research
7. Informed consent refers to:
a) Principle of autonomy
b) Voluntary but uninformed decision-making
c) A voluntary decision to participate in research, by a competent individual who has received and understood the
necessary information
d) Permission to participate in research
8. Capacity to consent to trial participation may not be diminished by:
a) Poverty
b) Source of research funding
c) Lack of understanding
d) Cultural barriers
e) Situational pressure

No comments: