04. Analysis of Circulation data, including the quantitative methods to evaluate collection
- To highlight the importance of circulation data, most often neglected
- To know the elements of a circulation transaction record
- To examine the studies on analysis of circulation data and their applications
- To profile some studies on Circulation data evaluation and Pittsburgh Study
- To study implications of quantitative methods in the evaluation of collection
- To profile the elementary types of Library Statistics.
Study of Circulation transactions:
A brief Literary Review:
Analysis of Circulation Data
The Pittsburgh Study:
The SLIS Study:
Evaluation of Collection
- Determination of the object and reason for evaluation.
- Setting the level of performance according to the objective.
- Selection of technique for evaluation.
- Preparation of scale to measure the level of performance.
- Measuring and determining the extent of achievement.
- Evaluation as per the measurement of achievement.
Trueswell’s 80:20 Rule:
Examples of Collection Evaluation Studies
- Baker and Lancaster (Baker & Lancaster,1991) have applied collection use studies. They discuss two types of quantitative data, mostly applied in use studies. They are; interlibrary loan statistics which reflects unmet demand and circulation statistics, which is a met demand. The evaluation addresses the role of collection use studies in identifying core collection and materials for weeding and dormitory storage (remote storage).
- The identical authors have in another study utilized the “in-house use” in a public library (Baker and Lancaster, 1991a). The methods applied to collect data are, a) Table Count b) Slip method c) use of questionnaire, and d) interviews.
- Lancaster has attempted yet another study on evaluating collection by their use. The study covers the quantitative data pertaining to circulation records, in-house use, document delivery and shelf availability. The study has explained with methodological approaches adopted. Lancaster observed in this context that “a major limitation of this approach is their focus on ‘expressed demand’ of actual user, while neglecting the ‘needs’ of non-users. One of the important points highlighted by him is that ‘the potential of automated system for generating use data has not been explored’.
- In another study, Lancaster on the analysis of use data has explained that circulation follows a hyperbolic distribution, that is a small number of items circulate a lot, while most books seldom circulated. A point of ‘relative use’ is explained as “comparison of proportion of subject documents” to its “proportion of holdings”. The implications of ‘under use’ and ‘over use’ points are analysed and explained.
Evaluation of Electronic Resources
- Full-text (aggregated) databases
- Indexing and abstracting databases
- Reference books (biographies, dictionaries, directories, encyclopaedias, etc.)
- Numeric and statistical databases
- E-audio/visual resources
- i. Content
- ii. Technical requirements
- iii. Functionality and reliability
- iv. Vendor support
- v. Supply .
- Support the main research aims and goals of the organization.
- Complement or add depth or breadth to the existing collection supported by
- Be of a certain quality, e.g., peer reviewed, or have a reputable producer.
- Support the requirements of the/a key audience.
- Generate an acceptable level of use.
- Method of Access
- Authentication –
- Trial evaluation and product demonstration
- User training and support
- Technical/customer support and system notification processes
- Customization –
- Data security and archiving –
- Bibliographic data provision –
- Purchase models and pricing
- Separate pricing for content and access.
- Combined model –One-off archive fee and an annual access fee for more current content.
- Pay-per-use pricing.
- Rental models.
- Consortia pricing.
- Print plus electronic – Where the publisher requires the purchase of both formats. Where possible the choice to acquire in both formats should be that of the purchasing library and not a condition of purchase.
- Packaged pricing - Requiring purchase of a specific group of titles (usually subject based).
- Big deal – Where all the content is made available for a price and not just the content the library has actively selected.
- Introductory pricing - Where an introductory price is offered consideration
- Multi-year deals with fixed price caps.
- Patron-Driven Acquisition pricing models, e.g. pricing based on usage triggers (e-books of aggregators)
- Number of users and sites –
- Back files, archiving and post termination rights -
- Cancellation rights –
Library Statistics – Need, importance and standards
Source or mode of collection of Library statistics:
Standards of Library Statistics:
3 . National Information Standards Organisation
4. Bureau of Indian Standards:
5. American Library Association: Office for Research and Statistics
Type of Library Statistics
a) Statistics in Classification and Cataloguing Sections:
b) Acquisition section – Books and Periodicals:
c) Statistics from Circulation Section:
- 80:20 Rule: The concept evolved by Trueswell. According to this rule “Approximately 20% of library holdings will account for about 80% of circulation” evolved by conducting several investigations.
- Circulation Section: The section of the Library where books are lent out and received back. It is technically termed as Charging and Discharging. Its functions also include reservation of books, inter-library lending and other activities related to loan of books to the members of the library.
- Electronic Information Resources: Those information resources that require facility to access, either through a personal computer or through network, either accessed on desktop or remotely via the Internet
- Evaluation Research: Evaluation research is an attempt to measure operations in terms of the goals of libraries and is undertaken to assess the performance of an existing system or activity. It enables to identify strengths and weaknesses and suggests remedial measures to bring about improvement.
- Librametry: The term coined by Ranganathan . It is a process of compiling and to develop the application of statistics on different library activities.
- Quantitative Method: A research method that focused much more on the collection and analysis of numerical data and statistics.
- Transaction Record: A manual or a computerized record of data where the details of the member of the library, bibliographic details of the book lent and date of return/loan period and number of times the document is lent out.
- Baker, Sharon L and Lancaster, F. Wilfrid (1991): Collection Evaluation:Use-Centered Approaches. In Management and Evaluation of Library Services. 2nd ed. Information Resources Press, Arlington. 411p. ISBN 0-87815-061-7
- Baker, Sharon L and Lancaster, F. Wilfrid (1991a): Evaluation of In-House Use. In Management and Evaluation of Library Services. 2nd ed. Information Resources Press, Arlington. 411p. ISBN 0-87815-061-7
- Burrel, G.L. and Cane, V.R. (1982): The analysis of library data. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A. Vol. 145. Pp. 439-71. Quoted in Ravichandra Rao, I.K. (1992): Bibliometric approach for evaluation of library collection : A case study . A paper presented at the “DRTC Workshop on Library and Information Management” Paper B1. Mimeographed.
- Busha, Charles H. and Harter (1980), Stephen P. Research methods in librarianship: Techniques and interpretations. New York, Academic Press. 418p.
- International Journal of Scientometrics and Informetrics..Vol. 1, No.1, pp.15-21.
- Johnson, Sharon with with Ole Gunnar Evensen, Julia Gelfand, Glenda Lammers, Lynn Sipe and Nadia Zilper . Edited by members of the Acquisition and Collection Development Committee, including Jérôme Fronty, Joseph Hafner, Judy Mansfield and Regine Schmolling. '' Key Issues for e-Resource Collection Development: A Guide for Libraries.
- Acquisition and Collection Development Section, IFLA, January, 2012
- Lancaster, F. Wilfrid (1988): Evaluation of the collection : Analysis of use In If you can Evaluate Library. Champaign, University of Illionois. 193p. ISBN 0-87845-078-5
- Mittal, R.L(1984). Library administration: Theory and practice. 5th ed.(Reprint) Ess Ess Publications, New Delhi. pp. 653-674.
- Nisonger, Thomas E.(1992) Collection evaluation in Academic Libraries: A literature guide and Annotated Bibliography. 1969-1981. Libraries Unlimited, Englewood. http:// books.google.co.in/books?isbn=0872879259 Accessed on 22 April 2013.
- Morse, P.M.(1968); Library effectiveness. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. Quoted in Ravichandra Rao, I.K. (1992): Bibliometric approach for evaluation of library collection : A case study . A paper presented at the “DRTC Workshop on Library and Information Management” Paper B1. Mimeographed.
- Ranganathan, S.R.(1973): Documentation: Genesis and development. Vikas, Delhi. p.71. (Sarada Ranganthan Endowment for Library Science Series, 3.)
- Ravichandra Rao, I.K. (1984). From Ranganath’s librametry to bibliometrics. DRTC Seminar on Ranganathan’s Ideas (1984). Paper D. Mimeographed.
- Ranganathan, S.R.(1995): Librametry and its scope (Reprinted). JISSI: The International Journal of Scientometrics and Informetrics, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 15-21.
- Ravichandra Rao, I.K. (1981): Documents and user distribution of transaction records of Canadian University Libraries. Ph.D. Thesis. Faculty of Graduate Studies, School of Library and Information Science, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
- Ravichandra Rao, I.K. (1983). Quantitative Methods for Library and Information science. Wiley-Eastern. New Delhi.
- Trueswell, Richard W.(1965): A quantitative measure of user circulation requirements and its possible effect on stack thinning and multiple copy determination. American Documentation, Vol. 16. pp.20-25.
- Trueswell, Richard W.(1969): Some behavioural patterns of library users: The 80:20 Rule. Wilson Library Bulletin, Vol 43, Jan 1969. Pp. 458-61.