Operating Systems: Concept and basic features of Windows, Linux with a very brief passing descripti...
Features of Different Operating systems
Types of O.S
- Mainframe Systems
- Desktop Systems: - Computer system dedicated to a single user. The preferences are User convenience and responsiveness. Main OS in use –Windows, UNIX, LINUX, MAC. It can adopt technology developed for larger operating system and often individuals have sole use of computer and do not need advanced CPU utilization of protection features.
- Multiprocessor Systems: - More than one processor in close communication, sharing the computer bus, the clock and sometimes memory and peripheral devices. Advantages of parallel system are: Increased throughput, Economical, Increased reliability, graceful degradation, fail-soft systems.
- Distributed Systems: - Distribute the computation among several physical processors. It is a loosely coupled system–each processor has its own local memory; processors communicate with one another through various communications lines, such as high-speed buses or telephone lines. It enables parallelism but speed up is not the goal. Advantages of distributed systems are: Resources Sharing, Computation speed up –load sharing, Reliability, Communications. Types of Distributed Systems are: Client-Server Systems and Peer-to-Peer Systems
- Clustered Systems: - Usually performed to provide high availability. In Asymmetric clustering one machine will be in hot stand by mode while other is running the application. In Symmetric clustering 2 or more hosts are running applications and they are monitoring each other. This mode is more efficient. Parallel clusters allow multiple hosts to access the same data on the shared storage.
- Real-Time Systems: -Often used as a control device in a dedicated application such as controlling scientific experiments, medical imaging systems, industrial control systems, and some display systems. Embedded Operating Systems: - OS is embedded on the System itself. It is fast and application specific. Examples are processor in modern washing machines, cell phones, control systems etc.
- Handheld Systems: - The major considerations are: Power consumption and weight must be low, memory ranges from 512KB to 8MB. Thus speed of the processor can not be very high because of the power consumption.
- Internet Explorer: Use to access the Internet. Found in Start menu > Programs > Internet Explorer.
- Windows Media Player: Use to listen to a CD. This program allows you to listen to your favorite CDs while you work. It includes programming features and volume controls. You will need to bring your headphones to listen while you work in the BGSU computer labs. Found in Start menu > Programs > Accessories > Entertainment -> Windows Media Player.
- Calculator: Use to do math on the computer. The Windows Calculator can be used by pointing and clicking the calculator on the screen, or by typing in the numbers on the keyboard. Found in Start Menu > Programs > Accessories > Calculator.
- Notepad: Used to create text documents. It is an easy and simple editor
- Paint : - used to draw and paint
- Sound recorder: simple sound recorder.
How Linux is Different
- Linux is a cross-platform operating system that runs on many computer models. Only Unix, an ancestor of Linux, rivals Linux in this respect. In comparison, Windows 95 and Windows 98 run only on CPUs having the Intel architecture. Windows NT runs only on CPUs having the Intel architecture or the DEC Alpha.
- Linux is free, in two senses. First, you may pay nothing to obtain and use Linux. So, Linux is free in an economic sense. Second, Linux and many Linux applications are distributed in source form. This makes it possible others to modify or improve them. This not possible with most operating systems, which are distributed in binary form.
- Linux has attractive features and performance. Free access to Linux source code lets programmers around the world implement new features, and tweak Linux to improve its performance and reliability. The best of these features and tweaks are incorporated in the standard Linux kernel or made available as kernel patches or applications. Not even Microsoft can mobilize and support a software development team as large and dedicated as the volunteer Linux software development team, which numbers in the hundreds of thousands, including programmers, code reviewers, and testers.
- Free software
- Copyleft: FSF protects software freedom by copylefting its software. If the FSF placed its software in the public domain, others would be free to transform it into a proprietary product, denying users the freedom intended by the original author of the software
- The Linux kernel: Linus Torvalds writes Linux kernel for the first time. GNU software integrated with Linux kernel, producing a fully functional operating system. Since the initial production release, the pace of development has accelerated as Linux has been adapted to include support for non-Intel processors and even multiple processors, sophisticated TCP/IP networking facilities such as IP masquerading, and more.
- The X Window System: X is a unique graphical user interface in two major respects. First, X integrates with a computer network, letting users access local and remote applications. Second, X lets you configure its look and feel to an amazing degree.
Popular Linux Distributions and Their Web Home Pages
Red Hat Linux
- Single user.
- single tasking
- not supports networking
- Supports only character line interface (CLI).
- Simplicity and transparency.
- dir - The dir command is used to display a list of files and folders contained inside the folder that you are currently working in.
- chdir/cd - The chdir command is used to display the drive letter and folder that you are currently in. Chdir can also be used to change the drive and/or directory that you want to work in.
- mkdir - The mkdir command is used to create a new folder.
- del - The del command is used to delete one or more files.
- copy - The copy command does exactly that - it copies one or more files from one location to another.
- date - The date command is used to show or change the current date.
- rename - The rename command is used to change the name of the individual file that you specify.