Thursday, December 12, 2013

CATALOGUING OF SPECIAL MATERIALS & ELECTRONIC RESOURCES ACCORDING TO AACR2-R(1988 & 2002) P- 09. Knowledge Organization and Processing – Cataloguing *

इस ब्लॉग्स को सृजन करने में आप सभी से सादर सुझाव आमंत्रित हैं , कृपया अपने सुझाव और प्रविष्टियाँ प्रेषित करे , इसका संपूर्ण कार्य क्षेत्र विश्व ज्ञान समुदाय हैं , जो सभी प्रतियोगियों के कॅरिअर निर्माण महत्त्वपूर्ण योगदान देगा ,आप अपने सुझाव इस मेल पत्ते पर भेज सकते हैं -


P- 09. Knowledge Organization and Processing – Cataloguing *

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1.1       Objectives and key words.
1.2       Introduction
1.3       e-text/main content
1.4       Summary
1.5       Chunk Text
1.6       Assessment & Evaluation
1.7       Interesting facts
1.8       References
1.9       Glossary


The above module attempt to provide an overview of cataloguing of various types of special materials and electronic resources according to the prescribed rules and choice of access points of AACR-2R and 2002 edition.

            After going through this module, you must be able to
  • acquaint about the relevant rules of how to cataologue each type of special materials.
  • know the bibliographic information of different special materials and their order of arrangement,
  • differentiate the physical description of each of such materials
  • have the knowledge of importance of NOTES’ section and its orderly occurrence.
  • determine correctly the heading/ choice of access point for each category of non-conventional materials
  • know, significantly about the Electronic Resources and its cataloguing as enumerated in AACR-2002 edition

Key words : Cartographic materials, Graphic materials, microform ,computer files, Three Dimensional Artefacts and Realia and Electronic Resources.


The world is now witnessing an unprecedented growth of information leads to ‘Information flood’ and there is a need to provide instant access to information. The sky touching cost of printing and publishing, the frequent obsolete feature of print media and fast shifting of conventional print media to non-print media. There has been tremendous progress in the advent of modern technologies in computers, fiber optics, telecommunication, Audio visual materials, use of internet and Web resources that virtually affect the locations, access, collection, manipulation, organization, storage and effective retrieval of information. As such the libraries all over the world have acquired the special materials and cataloguing is necessary for optimum utilization of such materials.

1.2.1    Utility of special materials
  • Print materials occupy large space in comparison to the non-print or special materials as conventional documents are “Space eaters” while the special materials are “Space savers”.
  • Special materials possess the quality of long preservatory value.
  • Adorned with the quality of portability leads to easy transportation.
  • Facilitate to store large amount of data and can be retrieved and transferred speedily and accurately.
  • Rare and valuable documents can be stored easily in microform.
  • Audio visual materials, specially create interest in the minds of users as they grasp and remember the facts easily than listening to the lectures.
  • Significantly facilitate for E-learning/on-line learning.
  • On the whole, the special materials have the finest quality of instant accessibility, reliability, quick retrieval of information, easy updating and security.

1.2.2    Problems of cataloguing of special materials
  • Difficult to find most of the information from the recto and verso of the Title page and the information are not found at one place that to information is less for full cataloguing. Hence the cataloguer has to refer many sources for getting adequate information.
  • Problem arises to obtain information with naked eye from special materials like microfilm, micro card, microfisch etc which requires special equipments.
  • Thorough knowledge is necessary to acquaint with cataloguing rules and physical descriptions of various special materials.
  • Determination of choice of access points are some what difficult than that of traditional documents.


Cataloguing of the following types of special materials according to AACR-2R have been            discussed citing relevant rules with examples for better understanding of the students
  • Cartographic materials (Maps, Atlases and Globes)
  • Manuscripts
  • Music & sound recordings
  • Motion picture & video recordings
  • Graphic materials & computers files
  • Three dimensional Artefacts & Realia and microforms.


3.0A    SCOPE : 
            The rules in this chapter 3 cover the description of cartographic materials of all kinds. Cartographic materials include all materials that represent the whole or part of the earth or any celestial body. These include two add three – dimensional maps and plans (including maps of imaginary places) ; aeronautical, navigational and celestial charts ; atlas, globes ; block diagrams ; sections ; aerial photographs with a cartographic purpose ; birds eye-views (map views) etc….. 

            The chief source of information for cataloguing (in order of preference) is :
  • The cartographic item itself ; when an item is in a number of physical parts and all the parts (including a title sheet) be treated as the cartographic item itself.
  • And Container (portfolio, cover, envelope, etc.) or case, the cradle and stand of a globe, etc.

Call No.
            Creator of the work
            Tile [GMD]= Parallel title : Other title information / first statement of responsibility ; each subsequent statement of responsibility. Edition statement / First statement of responsibility relating to edition. Statement of scale, statement of projection. – First place of publication : First publisher, Year of publication.
 Extent of item : Other physical data ; dimension + Accompanying material.
            Note (s) area
            Standard Number and terms of availability

For choice of access point :
According to Rule 21.1A1, : Cartographers are the authors of the maps.
            If a map lacks a personal author, then the main entry will be prepared under ‘Title’ vide     21.1C (1).
            Moreover the cartographic materials are made by cartographers who are either persons or corporate bodies. Maps relating to earth are usually surveyed by corporate bodies like govt. ; associations, societies, etc.
              The choice of heading for Added entries for           cartographic materials are prepared as per Rule 21-29.
3.3       Mathematical data area :
3.3B     Statement of Scale
3.3B1   The scale of a cartographic item as a representative fraction is expressed as a ratio (1:)        Preceded the ratio by scale.

            The scale even if it is already recorded as part of the title proper or other title information.
For e.g. Scale ca 1 : 36,00000
            If a scale statement found in the chief source of information or accompanying materials is not expressed as a representative fraction, then to be given representative fraction in square     bracket e.g. : Scale [1:240,400]          

3.3B3   If the scale within on item varies and the outside values are known then the scales connected by a hyphen. e.g. Scale 1: 12,000-1:25,000
            If the values are not known then scale’ varies’ to be written
3.3C    Statement of Projection
            The statement of projection if found in the item e.g. conic. equidistant project.

3.5B2   If there is more than one map, etc. or one or more sheets, specify the number of the maps and number of sheets. E.g. 6 maps on 1 sheet.

3.5D5  The physical description of maps and globes be mentioned as follows :
            1 globe : col., plastic, on metal stand ; 26 cm. in diam. box 14X12X12 cm.
            1 map : col.; 200 X 300 cm. folded to 20 X 16 cm. in plastic case 25 X 20 cm.


4.0A1   The rules cover the description of manuscripts (including type-script) materials of all kinds, including manuscript books, dissertations, letters, speeches, etc., legal papers (including printed forms completed in manuscript), and collections of such manuscripts for reproductions of manuscripts published in multiple copies.

            The chief source of information for manuscripts is the manuscript itself. Within  manuscripts, use (in this order of preference) information from the :
            Title page, Colophon, Caption, heading etc. Content of the manuscript

            If information is not available from the chief source, take it from the following sources (in this order of preference) :
            Another manuscript copy of the item, A published edition of the item, Reference sources, Other sources.


            The entry is prepared same as works of personal authorship,. Rule 21.1A 1 states that “A personal author is the person chiefly responsible for the creation of the intellectual or artistic content of a work”. Also the main entry can be done under ‘Title’ according to Rules.

21.1C1            Which says enter a work under its title proper or, when appropriate, uniform title, if, unknown (see 21.5) or diffuse (see 21.6C2) and the work does not emanate from a corporate body.
            4.2.B    Edition statement : A statement relating to a version of a manuscript that is different form other versions one mentioned.

            4.4B.    Date of manuscript
            4.5B1   The number of leaves or pages to be mentioned
                        e.g. IV, 24 leaves; leaves 50-74, [3], 102 p.
            4.5C1. The material on which the item being described is written if it is other than paper e.g [2]    leaves: vellum; [1] leaf: parchment be incorporated in main entry.
            4.6.      Series area: This area is not used for manuscripts.

            4.7B1.  Various notes are given

            Title [GMD] = parallel title : Other title information / statement of reasonability. – Date     area.

            Leave or pages : Other physical details; Dimension. – (Series)
            Notes area

Note :
            Edition, place of publication, name of publisher, series, I S B N and materials are not used as these are irrelevant to manuscript. If it is handwritten, the word is used as holograph(s). Ms will be used for manuscript and MSS for collection of the manuscripts.

1.3.3    MUSIC

5.0A    SCOPE
            The rules in the chapter 5, AACR 2 (Music) cover the description of published music. They do not cover the other unpublished music in detail, though the use of an additional term in the physical description (5.58) and the use of specific provisions of chapter 4 (Manuscripts) will furnish sufficiently a detailed description for the general library catalogue. For the description of recorded music, see chapter (sound recording) and microform reproduction of music.

            If the title page consists of a list of title including the title of the item being catalogued then it can be used as the chief source of information whichever of the “list” title page, the cover, or the caption furnishes the fullest information. In all other cases, the title page or title page substitute be used as the chief source of information. If information is not available from the chief source, take it from the following sources (in this order of preference) :

            Caption, Cover, Colophon, Other Preliminaries, Other Sources

21.1A1 A personal author………….. writers of books and composers of music are the authors of the works they create.

Rule 21.9        GENERAL RULE
21.9A  Enter a work that is modification of another under the heading appropriate to the new work if the modification has substantially changed the nature and content of the original or if the medium of expression has been changed. If, however, the modification is an abridgment, rearrangement etc, enter under the heading appropriate to the original. In some cases the wording of the chief source of information is taken into account, in other cases the nature of the work itself is the basis for the decision on entry.


For Musical works rule 21.18A1 be applied :
  1. Arrangement, transcription, versions, settings, etc. in which music for one medium of performance has been written for another.
  2. Simplified versions.
  3. Arrangements described as “freely transcribed”, based on …….. etc, and other arrangements incorporating new material.
  4. Arrangements in which the harmony or musical style of the original has been changed.

21.18B            Arrangements, transcriptions, etc :
            21.18B1 Enter an arrangement, transcription, etc ……… of one or more works of one composer (or parts of one composer’s works) under the heading for that composer (see also 25.35 C). If the original composer is unknown, enter under title. Make an added entry under the heading for the arranger or transcriber.    e.g The eternal friendship/E. Williams, arranged for global orchestra by James Franklin.
            Main entry under Williams and Added entry under Franklin.
            Rule 21.21 for added accompaniments and 21.22 for [Liturgical music’ be also applied]

            Enter a musical work to which an instrumental accompaniment or additional parts have been added under the heading for the original work.

            Enter an edition of music that is officially prescribed as part of liturgy as instructed in 21.39.

Other rules for bibliographic descriptions are same :
5.5B1 – 5.5 B 3 : Extent of item
For Example : 1 score + 1 piano conductor or part (Bp.) + 16 parts.

5.5 C 1 : Illustration
5.5 D 1 : Dimensions
5 E 1 : Accompanying material
5. 7 B 1-5.7 B 20, : Note area

            Title [GMD] = Parallel title : Other title information / statement of responsibility ; subsequent statement of responsibility. – Edition statement / First statement of responsibility of an edition ; subsequent edition statement, statement of responsibility relating publication : Name of publisher, Date of publication.
            Extent of item (including specific material designation) : ill dimension + accompanying material. – (Series area)

Notes area
Standard Number


6.0A.   SCOPE :
            In the chapter 6, the rules describe the bibliographic description of sound recordings in all media, i.e. discs, tapes (open reel to reel, catridges, cassettes) piano rolls and sound recordings on film. The use of appropriate specification in the physical description (Rule 6.5) and special notes will furnish a sufficiently detailed description for such items.

            The chief source of information for each major type of sound recording are as follows :
            Disc                                         Disc and Label
            Tape (open reel – to – reel)     Reel and Label
            Tape cassette                           Cassettee and Label
            Tape catridge                          Catridge and label
            Roll                                         Label
            Sound recording on film                     Container and label

            The accompanying textual material or container are the chief source of information if it furnishes a collective title.

            If information is not available from the chief source, then the following sources (in this order or preference can be referred).

            Accompanying textual material, Container (sleeve, box etc.), Other sources.

            Main entry for sound recordings is based on the same principles of personal authorship (Rule 21.1A1). Also 21.1B2 is also applicable for corporate body.

            Enter a work emanating from one or more corporate bodies under the heading for the appropriate corporate body if it falls into the category of :
(e).       “Sound recordings, films and video recordings resulting form the collective activity of a responsibility of the group goes beyond that of mere performances, execution, etc. (for corporate bodies that function solely as performers on sound recordings, 21.23 is most appropriate.
21.23A.  “Enter a sound recording of one work (music, text, etc.) under the heading appropriate to that work. Make added entries under the heading for the Principal performers (e.g. singers, readers, Orchestras) unless there are more than three. If there are more than three principal performers, make an added entry under the one named first”.

            e.g. How many miles to Babylon? Author, John Snow, (Read by Edward Smith). In this case, main entry under the heading for Snow and Added entry under the heading for Smith.
21.23 B1. :  “Enter a sound recording containing two works by different persons under the heading for the person or body represented as principal performer. If there are two or three persons or bodies so represented, enter under the heading for the first named.

            Any day now : songs of David Lewis, (Sung by Allen Stewart), Main entry under Lewis and, Added entry  under Stewart.

6.1F :  Statement of responsibility  :  It relates to the Heading choosen for the types of sound recording which is to be incorporated by giving a diagonal slash after the Title/Sub-title e.g. Melville[GMD]/ written and narrated by Bob Smith.

            It is to be remembered that, the cataloguer is required to add a word or short phrase to the statement of responsibility if the relationship between the title and the person(s) or body (bodies) named in the statement is not clear, e.g. Born to run [GMD]/ [written and performed by] Jack Russel.

Items without a collective title : In case a sound recording lacks a collective title, either it is be described as a unit or separate description for each separate titled part is to be made as mentioned in the notes section (6.7B 21).

6.2B :  Edition Statement : It is to be transcribed if an edition of a sound recording which contains differences from other editions.

Place of publication, Distribution etc. : e.g. London : RCA Victor : Distributed by Jupiter Company

            It is more appropriate to prefer a trade or brand name rather than the name of the publisher if both appear on the label. Prefer label information rather than information appearing in accompanying material or container.
The date of a published sound recording is to be provided after the name of publisher after giving a comma.
But if the date recording appears on a published sound recording, it is to be given in a note under 6.7B7.

6.5B    : Extent of Item :The number of physical units of sound recording be noted as
            1.         Sound disc
            2.         Sound cassettes

            The playing time of a sound recording is to be transcribed as in many cases, playing time is included on the item as pert of the information on the label, container or accompanying material. e.g.2 sound cassettes (50 min. each). 1 sound disc 48) min.

6.5C    :  Other physical details : The type of recording i.e. the way in which the sound is encoded on the item. e.g 1 sound cassette (50 min) : digital In case of a sound cassette, the playing speed can be given. e.g. 1 sound cassette (60 min.) : analog, 15/16 ips.

6.5D5  : Dimension for Sound Cassette :
            Give the dimensions of a cassette if other than the standard dimension width of a tape if other than the standard width (e.g. 1 sound cassette (80 min.) : analog, mono, 71/4 X 31/2 in, ¼ in tape.

6.7B to 6.7B18 Provides Note :
            If the cataloguer decides that a particular information is of importance for the users viewpoint, then it can be mentioned in the order as mentioned in Rule 6.7B of AACRDR starting a new paragraph for each note or precede each note by a full stop, space and dash. The various headings of notes are nearly same as other special Materials.

6.7B1  Nature or artistic form and medium of performance. : Make notes on the form of a literally work or the type of musical or other work.
e.g. Play for child actors.

6.7B2 Language : Give the language of the spoken or sung content of a recording unless this is apparent form the rest of the description.
            Sung in French, In Russian introduced in English

6.7B3 Source of title proper : Make notes on the source of title proper if it is other than he chief source of information or if it is a container or accompanying textual material.
Title from container.

6.7B6  Statement of responsibility :  Names of performers which are not given in the statement of responsibility are of the entry. It, in the cataloguer’s opinion, names of singers, readers, orchestra, etc. are important, these names should be given in a note.
            Based on music by Jack Heath

6.7B9  Publication, Distribution etc. :  Make notes on publication, distribution etc. details that are not included in the publication, etc. area and are considered to be important.
Distributed in France: Paramount.

6.7B10  Physical description : Important physical details that are not included in the physical description area, be mentioned if these affect the use of the item.

Give the duration of each part contained in an item without a collective title and described as a unit.
Duration 20 min.; 18 min.; 8 min.6 sec.

6.7B14 Audience : A brief note of the intended audience for, or intellectual level of sound recording is to be recorded.
Intended audience ; School children

6.7B16 Other formats : In case, the contents of the item has been issued in other formats, then this information is given.
            Issued also as Cassette.

6.7B17  Summary :  Give a brief objective summary of the content of a sound recording.

6.7B18 Contents : List title of individual works catalogued under a collective title if these are considered important. Follow title and statement of responsibility as shown if time is given for individual works, it should be mount  is beautiful--Oh : my God
Contents : Eternal truth/ Ravi Shastri – Indian freedom struggle/ Harish Sen.
Contents : There is no vacuum in the world( 15 min.])– The enchanting music (18 min.).


7.0A.   SCOPE :
            The rule 7 prescribes the description of motion pictures and video recordings of all kinds, including complete films and programmes, compilations, trailers, new casts, news films, stock shots, and unedited material. For sound track film not accompanied by visual material sound recording be referred.

            The chief source of information is the film itself (e.g. the title frames) and its container (and its label) if the container is an integral part of the piece (e.g. a cassette).

            If the information is not found from the chief source, the following sources (in this order of preference) be consulted accompanying textual material (e.g. scripts, shot lists, publicity material)

            Container (if not an integral part of the piece) other sources.

            Since no specific rules are provided in AACR2 for motion picture and video recordings for the preparation of main entry, the same rules which determines the authorship of library materials are also applicable here. Further numerous performers and groups are responsible for the creation of artistic or intellectual content of a motion picture or videorecording.
            So because of this diffused authorship, main entry in case of majority of motion pictures will continue to be under ‘t I t l e ‘ according to Rule 21.1C1 and 21.6C2 and title seems to be the most popular approach of the readers.

            Sometimes a film may be sponsored by society, Institution or other corporate bodies. If the film is of administrative nature dealing with the corporate body itself, the main entry will be  made under the name of the “sponsoring body” according to Rule 21.12 (a) which states that ‘Enter a work emanating from one or more corporate bodies under the heading for the appropriate corporate body, if it falls into one or more of the following categories.
            a.         those of an administrative nature dealing with the corporate body itself;
            b.         or its internal policies, procedures, and/or operations.

Further the same Rule 21.1B2 (e) recommends that, “sound recordings, films and video recordings, resulting from the collective activity of a performing group as a whole where the responsibility of the group goes beyond that of mere performance, execution, etc.”

7.1B to 7.4F are exactly same as in case of other special materials.

7.4G1 :
            If the name of the publisher is unknown, give the place and name of manufacturer if they are        found in the item, give that place and name as instructed in 1.4G

7.5 B1 :
            The number of physical units of a motion picture or video recording can be             mentioned as :
            1.         Film Cassette              2.         Film reels         3.         Videodiscs

7.5 B2 :
            Add playing time in minutes if it is not less than 5 minutes.
            21 film reels (132 min.). if it is less than 5 minutes, then 1 film loop (4 min., 30       sec.).

7.5 C 3 :
            Sound characteristics. Indicate the presence or absence of a sound track by sd.       (sound) and si. (silent).
            1 videoreel (Ampe 7003 (10 min.) : sd.

7.5 C 4 : Colour
            Indicate the colour either black & white or colour as b & w or col. As the case may be 1 film reel (20 min.) : sd., col. with b & w sequences. 1 videocassette (26 min.) : sd., b & w with col.       introductory sequence.           

7.5 C 5 :Projection speed : For a film, provide the projection speed in frames per second.
            1 film reel (2 min. 20 sec.) : si., col., 20 fps.
7.5 D 2 :
            Give the width of a motion picture  in millimeters.
            1 film reel (14 min.) : sd., b& w; 35 mm.

7.5 D 3 :
            Similarly the width of a videotape in inches or milli meters be given
            1 video reel (30 min.) : sd., b& w: in.

7.5 D 4 :
            Give the diameter of videodisc in inches,.
            1 videodisc (26 min.) : sd., b & w; 8 in.

7.5 E 1:           Details of accompanying material.
            1 film cassette (10 min.) : sd., col., standard
            8 mm. + 1 instructional manual

7.6 :     Series area

7.7:      Note area : some of the important notes are mentioned below :

7.7 B 1:
            Nature or form : e.g. : Documentary
                                                TV play

7.7 B 2:          
            Language : In French, French dialogue, English sub-Titles, Dubbed into ?Russian

7.7 B 6: Statement of Responsibility
             Cast : give information about featured player, performers, narrators and presentus             etc.
            Cast : Dilip Kumar Presenter : Robin Smith

Credit : The persons who have contributed to the artistic and technical production of a motion picture or videorecording other than the cast and not named in the statement of responsibility in the main entry.

Credits : Screenplay, Manoj Joshi, Music, Naushad, Camera, Javed Ali.


8.0A. Scope :
            It covers the description of graphic materials of all kinds whether opaque (e.g. two dimensional art originals and reproductions ,wall charts, photographs, flash cards ,technical drawings) or intended to be projected or viewed (e.g. filmstrips, radiographs, slides, post cards, posters, transparencies and collections of such graphic materials.

            It is the item itself including affixed labels, etc. that are permanently affixed to the item or a container that is an integral part of the item. If the item consists of several parts (slide set, etc), treat a container that is the unifying element as the chief source of information, if it furnishes a collective title and the items themselves and their labels do not. If the information needed does not appear on the chief source it can be taken form the following sources (in order of preference) :
            container (box, frame, etc.), accompanying textural materials (manuals, leaflets, etc.)

            The general rule 21.1 A. 1 will be applicable as in case of other type of materials. For all types of original art work, the artist is regarded as the “Author” of the work. So entry will be under the name of the artist. Like wise entry will also be prepared under corporate body vide Rule 21.1B2. However a slide or other mechanical reproduction would be entered under the person who created the original work.

21.16A            :
            Enter an adaptation form one medium of the graphic arts to another under responsible the heading for the person responsible for the adaptation. If the name of the adapter is not known, enter under Title. Make a name title added entry for the original work.

            Worshiping God engraved by A. Thompson from an original painting by John Donald. So prepare main entry under Thompson Added entry (name title) under Donald.

21.16 B : Enter a reproduction of sculpture) under the heading for the original work. Make an added entry under the heading for the person or body responsible for the reproduction.
            Lion and Deer/ Martin Smith, A photomechanical reproduction issued by The National Museum London, Main entry under the heading for Smith Added entry under the heading for the National Museum.
Description of Graphic materials from 8.1B to 8.4 are same like other non book materials However art originals, unpublished  photographs and similar works will not have a publisher, but the date of production should be given.

8.4 F2 :
            Record the date of creation of an art original, unpublished photograph, or other unpublished graphic item.
            Portrait of William Shakespeare -1690

8.4 G1 :  If the name of publisher is unknown, give the name of place and manufacturer if they are found in the item and have not been recorded in a statement of responsibility.
Exam. : (s.l. : s.n., 1966?) (London : Allen press)

8.5 B 1 : Record the number of physical units of a graphic item.
            2 wall charts, 1 filmstrip catridge, 100 slides 6 stereograph reels

8.5 B 2 :  Add to the designation for a filmstrip, etc. like
1 filmstrip (20 fr.), 1 flip chart (8 sheets).
8.5 C :               Other physical details.

8.5 C 1 : Medium specific details.

8: 5C 1 : (a) Art originals. Give the medium (Chalk, Oil, Pastel etc.) and the base (board, canvas, fabric,                 etc.)
            1 art original : Oil on canvas.

            (b)  Art prints : Give the process in general terms (engraving, lithograph, etc.)
            (c)  Art Reproduction : Give the method of reproduction and the colour.
            and Art reproduction 1 art reproduction : Photogravure, col.
            (d)  Charts and flip charts e.g. 1 flip chart (6 sheets) : double sided.
            (e)  Filmstrips and filmslips. Give an indication of the sound, if the sound is integral.

            1 filmstrip (20 fr., 2 title fr.) : sd., col.

            (f)  Flash cards.
            10 flash cards : col.

            (g)  Photographs. If the photograph is a transparency not designed for projection or negative print,                    indicate this along with colour.   
            1 photo : negative, b & w

            (h)  Slides. Give the indication of the sound if the sound is integral. Add the  name of the system                   e.g. (3 M talking slide) after the indication of the sound.
            8 slides : sd. (3 M Talking Slide), col.

            (j)  Technical Drawing. Give the method of reproduction if any (blue print, photocopy etc.)
            1 technical drawing : blue print.

8.5 D : Dimensions. Give for all graphic materials except film strips, filmslips and stereograph the height and the width in centimeters to the next whole centimeter up.
            1 Technical drawing : blue print, 87 X 87 cm.
            18 photographs : b & w ; 10 x 6 cm.

8.5 D5 : Slides. Do not give the dimensions if they are 5 X 5 cm ( 2 x 2 in)
            1 slide : col.
            1 slide : col. ; 7 x 7 cm

8.5 E : Accompanying material.

8.5 E 1 : 30 Slides : col. + 1 sound disc, 30 min. analog 33 1/3 rpm mono. ; 12 in.)

8.7 B 1 to 8.7 B 19 :  Various kinds of Notes are provided for the cataloguer to mention as and when      relevant.


9.0A    SCOPE
9.0A1  This chapter enumerates the description of files that are encoded for manipulation by computer. These files comprise data and programs. Computer files may be stored on, or contained in, carriers, available for direct access or by remote access.

            The electronic devices such as calculators etc. are not coming under the purview of this chapter. Programs residing in the permanent memory of a computer (ROM) considered to be part of the device and should be described in conjunction with the device (e.g. the programming language of a particular computer, such as : Applesoft in ROM).

9.0B1. CHIEF SOURCE OF INFORMATION. The chief source of information for computer files is the title screen (s).  If there is no title screen the information from other formally presented internal evidence (e.g. main menus, program statements) be taken.

            If the information required is not available from the internal sources or the sources existed above, take it form the following sources sequentially if the physical carrier or its labels

            Other published description of the file, Other sources


9.3b1   Designation : When the information is readily available indicate the type of file. Use one of the following terms :
            Computer data, computer data and program (s),

9.3B2. Number of records, statements, etc. if a file designation is given and if the information is readily available, give the number of approximate number of files that make up the content (use file or files preceded by an Arabic numeral) and/ or these other details :

  1. Data. Give the number of approximate number of records and/or bytes. Computer data (1 file : 400 records, 2000 bytes)
  2. Programs. Give the number or approximate number of statement and/or bytes. Computer program (1 file : 220 statements)
  3. Multipart files. Give the number or approximate number of records and/or bytes, or statements and/or bytes, in each part.
Computer data (2 files : 700, 1200 record) and programs (2 files : 7060, 3090, 5006, bytes).

9.5 B1 Record the number of physical units of the carrier by giving the number of them in arabic numerals and one of the following terms as appropriate.
            1 Computer catridge, 2 Computer disc, 2 Computer cassettes, 1 Computer laser optional card

9.5 C1 If the file is encoded to produce sound, give sd. If the file is encoded to display in two or more colours, give col.

            1 computer disc catridge : sd. col.

            1 computer disc : sd., col., single sided, single density, softsectored.

9.5 D 1            Give the dimensions of the physical carrier
            a.  Disk. Give the diameter of the disk in inches, to the next ¼ inch up.
                        1 computer disk : col. ; 3 ¼  in.
            b.  Catridge.
                        1 computer chip catridge ; 4 ½ in.

9.5E1.  Give the details of accompanying material as instructed in 1.5E. 1 computer disk; 5 ¼ in. +1 instructional manual and addendum. (accompanying materials title : user manual and addendum)

9.7B1  Nature, scope and system requirements.

9.7B2  File characteristics

            In case of work of mixed responsibility, one to which different persons have made contributions by performing different kinds of activity, rules from 21.24 – 21.27 can be applied. However, the principal responsibility belongs to the person who designed, conceived and developed the item rather than the programmer.


10.0A1            In this chapter rules for bibliographic description of three-dimensional objects of all kinds (other than those covered in previous chapter), Braille cassettes sculptures and other three dimensional artworks, exhibits machines and clothing are discussed. They also cover the description of naturally occurring objects, including microscope specimens (or representations of them) and other specimens mounted for viewing.

10.0B1            CHIEF SOURCE OF INFORMATION : The chief source of information for the materials covered in this chapter is the object itself together with any accompanying textual material and container issued by the publisher or manufacturer of the item. Better to lake information found on the object itself (including any permanently affixed labels) to information found in the accompanying textual material or on a container.

10.4C2.           Do not record a place of publication, distribution, etc., for a naturally occurring object (other than on mounted for viewing or packaged for presentation) or for an artifact not intended primarily for communication. Do not record s.n. in such a case.

10.5 B Extent of item (including specific material designation)

10.5B1            Record the number of physical units of a three dimensional artifact or object by giving the number of parts in Arabic numerals and one of the terms listed below, as appropriate.
            Art original, Art reproduction, Braille cassette, Diorama, Exhibit, Game, microscope slide, Mock – up, Model.

            If non of these terms is appropriate, give the specific name of the item or the names of the parts of the item as concisely as possible.

            1 Clockwork toy train, 2. Jigsaw puzzles, 3. quilts

10.5C1.           Material, when appropriate, give the material (s) of which made. If the material (s) cannot be named concisely, either omit the statement or give it in a note. Give the material of which a microscope slide is made if it is other than glass. Such as 2 models (various pieces) : polystyrene, 1 diorama (various pieces): Polystyrene, 1 statue: marble, 1 quilt : cotton

10.5D2.           If the object is in a container, name the container and give it’s dimensions either after the dimensions of the object or as the only dimensions.
            1 model 8 pieces : col. : 16 x 32 x 3 cm. in case 17 x 34 x 6 cm.
            1 Jigsaw puzzle : wood : col. ; in box 25 x 32 x 5 cm.

10.5D3.           if, in a multipart item, the objects and/or their largest or larger size, separate by a hyphen.
            2 sculptures : marble ; 140 – 200 cm. high.
10.7B1.           Nature of the item. Give the nature of the item unless it is apparent from the rest of the description.
            Study of a figure on motion

10.7B10.  Physical description. Make notes on important physical deteils that are not included in the physical description area of entry especially if these affect the use of the item. If the physical description includes various pieces and a description of the pieces is considered to be useful, give such a description.

            Four times actual size – The parts of the ear are painted to show anatomical structure.

            Contains 1 small stage, 3 foreground transparencies, 2 backgrounds, 2 story sheets.

            Choice of access point : Consult the Rule 21.1C(c) which recommends that, “Enter work under its Title proper, or, when appropriate, uniform title if it emanates form a corporate body but does not fall into any of the categories given in 21.1B2 and is not of personal authorship”.

Rule 21.16B : Enter a reproduction of an art work (e.g. a photograph, a photomechanical reproduction, or a reproduction of sculpture under the heading for the original work. Make an added entry under the heading for the person or body responsible for the reproduction , unless the person or body is merely responsible for manufacture or publication. “Further, replicas of sculpture that are intended to simulate the appearance of the original piece are entered under the heading for the original work, whether they are the same size as the original or not”.


11.0A1            SCOPE :
            It includes microfilms, microfiches, microopaques and aperture cards. Microforms may be reproductions of existing textual or graphic material or they may be original publications.

            The chief source of information for microfilms is the title frame (i.e. a frame, usually at the beginning of the item, bearing the full title and, normally, publication details of the item.) The chief source of information for aperture cards is, in the case of a set of cards, the title card, or, in the case of a set of cards microfiche, and microopaques is the title frame. If there is no such information or if the information is insufficient, treat the eye-readable data printed at the top of the fische or opaque as chief source of information.

            If information is not available from the chief source, take it from the following sources (in order of preference) :

            The rest of the item (including a container that is an integral part of the item), Container, Accompanying eye-readable material, Any other source.

            Entry under the single person responsible for the intellectual content – 21.1 A1, 21.1 A2 and 21.4A. Also entry can be prepared under the corporate body 21.1B1, 21.1B2. It does not affect in the choice of main entry. Generally it is the same as for the original work.
Rule 11.3 :
            Special data for cartographic materials, music and serials
11.3A  : Cartographic materials.
11.3A1 : Give the mathematical data of a cartographic item in microform as instructed in 3.3.
11.3B  : Music and give the physical presentation of music in microform as instructed in 5.3.
11.3C  : Serials and Record the numeric and /or alphabetic chronological or other designation of a serial microform or a serial reproduced in microform as instructed in 12.3.
11.5B1            : Record the number of physical units of a microform as : 10 aperture cards, 2 microfilms reels, 2 microfiches etc.
11.5C1            : If a microform is negative, then indicate as : 1 microfilm : negative.
11.5C2            : If it consists of, illustrations, then indicate as 2 microfiche : ill. 3 microfilm reels : col.
11.5D  : Dimensions.
11.5D2            : Aperture card. Give the height and the width of an aperture card mount in cm.
              e.g. 12 aperture cards 9 X 19 cm. 10 aperture cards. 6 X 16 cm.
11.5D3            : Microfiches. Give the height X width of a microfiche in cm.
              e.g .4 microfiches ; 10 x 15 cm – 14 x 17 cm.
11.5D4            : Give the width of a microfilm in millimeters.
              1 microfilm reel ; 16 mm.
              1 microfilm catridge ; 35 mm.
11.5D5            : Microopaque (Same as microfiche)
11.5E  : Accompanying material
              1 microfilm reel ; 16 mm + 1 pamphlet 20 p : ill., 24 cm.)
11.7B  : Note
11.7B1            : Nature, scope, or artistic or other form of an item,
11.7B2            : Language
              German, with English translations
11.7B3            : Source of title proper. Make notes on the source of the title proper if it is other than the chief               source of information.
              Title from container.
11.7B14: Audience. Make a brief note of the intended audience.
                For high school students.
11.7B17: Summary and Contents.

1.3.10. ELECTRONIC RESOURCES (According to AACR-2, 2002 Edition)

9.0A1  Scope
            In AACR-2002 Edition, Rule- 9, the ‘COMPUTER FILE’ of AACR-2R has been changed to’ Electronic Resources’. Chapter-9 describes the description of electronic resources. Electronic resources consist of data (information representation numbers, text, graphics, images, maps, moving images, music, sounds, etc.) programs (instruction, etc., that process the data for use), or combinations of data and programs.

9.0B1. Chief source of information : For an electronic resources, the resource it self and the information from any formally presented evidence within the entire resource.

9.0B2. Prescribed Sources of Information :
            Information issued by the publisher, creator, etc., container
            From 9.1B up to  9.24 for the title and statement of responsibility, GMD, parallel titles, other title information, Edition are same as in case of other non-book materials. But if an electronic resource lacks an edition statement but is known to contain significant changes from other editions (e.g., changes in the data involving content, standardized coding, etc.; changes in the programming including changes in the program statements, programming language, and programming routines and operation; the addition of sound of graphics; improvement of graphics), a suitable brief statement in the language and script of the title proper to be mentioned and enclose it in square brackets.

9.3.      Type of resource : The term for the electronic resource to be catalogued be indicated. e.g. Electronic data and program (s)
Extent of Resource :             The number of records be given
                                    Electronic data (1 file : 300 records, 160,000 bytes)
                                    Electronic program (2 files : 1050 statements)
                                    Electronic data (3 files : 900, 1250 records) and programs (2 files :                                      5060 and 2090 bytes)
                                    Electronic data ( 3 files : 3.5, 2 megabytes)

9.43-4F           . Publication, Distribution, ETC., AREA
            The bibliographic description of the above areas are exactly same as other materials. How ever do not record the place of publication, distribution, publisher, distributor for an unpublished electronic resources, so do not record s.l. and s.n. in such cases.

9.5B1  Extent of item : The number of physical units of the carrier be given
            e.g.      1 computer, 1 computer optical disk, 1 computer card, 2 Photo CDs, 1 DVD
9.5C.   Other physical details
            e.g.      1 computer disk: sd., col., single sided,. single density, soft sectored
                        1 computer optical disk: col. ; 4 ¾ in., 1 computer tape cassette ; 3 7/8 x 2 ½ in., 1                          computer card ; 9x6 cm.
            For accompanying material :
                        1 computer disk; 3 ½ in. +1 user’s guide + 1 e-book
                        1 computer tape cassette : col.;3 ½ x 2 ½ in. +1 sound cassette (15 min. : analog, stereo).

9.7B.   Note Area
            Altogether 22 types of notes are provided to facilitate to mention relevant notes by the cataloguer. Most of the notes are just like the other non-book materials. How ever, some of the notes are different as enumerated below :

9.7B1. Nature and scope, system requirement, and mode of access

9.7B8. Type and extent of resources.
            e.g. Hierarchical fill structure
            File size : 420, 300,260,400,310 records
            File size : unknown

9.7B16. Other formats Issued also for IBM PC and PC-compatible hardware.

9.7B19. Numbers . Give important numbers associated with the item other than ISBN or ISSN eg. APX-10050.

9.7B20. Copy being described, library’s holdings and restrictions use Library’s set lacks disk 11, Restricted to scholarly use.

9.7B22. Item described.  For remote access resources, always give the date on which the resource was viewed for description.
            e.g.      Description based on contents viewed Jan. 28, 2013.

1.4.      Summary :
            The problems of cataloguing of special materials encountered by the cataloguer and the advantage over traditional materials have been discussed. Exhaustively mentioned the various specific rules presented for each item of relevant information to be incorporated in an entry. Right from scope, chief source of information and other areas of description up to notes section have been clearly discussed along  with suitable examples, wherever necessary for better understanding of the students. At the end of bibliographic description of each special materials the appropriate rules for choice of access point/ determination of heading have been mentioned along with examples followed by the specimen of on “Entry format” as and when necessary. Besides at length the bibliographic description of Electronic Resources with determination of heading have also been explained.

1.5.      Chunk Text :
  • Problems of cataloguing are less information found in the ‘Item ’ to be catalogued, determination of heading and well versed with the rules of AACR-2R.
  • Special materials are preferred over conventional materials due to their quality of portability, preservation, transportability, massive storage and easy retrieval.
  • 8 Areas of bibliographic description.
  • Physical description Area mainly differs from each special material.
  • Elaborate ‘NOTES’ section have been prescribed.
  • Significant notes to be given which are not mentioned earlier in the body of the entry.
  • Explanation and examples of items of information and choice of access point mentioned.
  • Organization of entry element of special materials.

1.6.      Assessment & Evaluation :
1.6.1.   Multiple Choice Questions :                                                                 Correct answer     
            a.         Rule 8 or chapter 8 of AACR2-R        a.         Sound recordings              
                        covers the special materials                 b.         Computer Rile                    d
                                                                                    c.         Microform
                                                                                    d.         Graphic materials
            b.         Rule 3.5 mentions which area              a.         Statement of Responsibility
                        of bibliographic description of                        b.         Physical description              b
                        cartographic materials                          c.         General material designation
                                                                                    d.         Notes
1.6.2.   True & false statements :
a.Extent of item is a part of physical description                                                              True
            b.Cast in case of motion picture is given in statement                                          False
                        of Responsibility area
            c.         Chapter ‘Graphic material’ provides bibliographic                                  False
                        description for microcard
 d Choice of access point for manuscript goes to personal author          True

1.6.3.   Sequencing : Arrange the following according to AACR-2R
            a.         Statement of Responsibility                                                               c
            b.         GMD                                                                                                 b
            c.         Title                                                                                                   a
            d.         publication, Distribution, etc                                                              e
            e.         Edition statement                                                                               d
            f.          ISBN                                                                                                  g
            g.         Physical description                                                                           f
1.6.4.   Match the columns :
            a.         Scale                            1.         Graphic materials                             2
            b.         Microfisch                   2.         Map                                                  3
            c.         Transparency               3.         Microform                                        1                                                                      
            d.         Technicolour               4.         Sound recordings                              5
            e.         Revolution per minute 5.         Motion Picture                                  4

1..7.     Interesting facts :
  • In AACR-2R specific rules for bibliographic description of special materials have been given from rule-3 to 11
  • AACR-2R has been published in 1988.
  • In 2002, AACR-2 has incorporated ‘Electronic Resources as chapter-9 replacing’ computer file of AACR-2 revised, 1988.
  • Entry format consists of 8 areas of description.
  • Each item of information is being separated/ demarcated by .  _ (full stop, space and dash)
  • In IT era special materials preferred to conventional materials. 
  • AACR-2 follows ISBD.

1..8.     Learn more/ supporting materials :

1..8.1.  References :
  1. ALAALCTS CC : DA Task force in specific characteristics of electronic resources, 2001. “Final Report”, at <
  2. Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd ed., 1988 revision.  Ammendments. Chicago; American Library Association, 2001.
  3. IFLA. ISBD(CF) : International standard for bibliographic description for computer files. London : IFLA Universal Bibliographic control and International MARC program, 1899.
  4. IFLA. ISBD(ER) : International standard for bibliographic description for electronic Resources. Munchen : K. G Saur,    , 1997              also at <
  5. International programme for UBC. ISBD (NBM) : International bibliographic description for non book. London, International program for UBC, 1977.
  6. Fleischer, Eugene and Godman, Helen. Cataloguing Non-print media : A manual based on AACR-2. New York : Neal Schuman, 1480.
  7. Jay, E Daily.  Organizing nonprint materials. 2nd ed., New York : Marcel Dekker, 1986.
  8. Rout, RK and Choudhury, B.K. Illustrative Examples in cataloguing of Non-Book materials (According to AACR-2, 1988 Revision). New Delhi : Reliance publishing House, 1996.
  9. Swanson, Edward. A manual of AACR-2 examples for manuscripts. Lake Crystals : Soldier Greek press, 1981.
  10. Teague, S. Jhon. Microform, video and electronic media librarianship. London : Butterworths, 1985.


1.9       Glossary

Access point
A name, term, etc under which a bibliographic record may be searched and identified.
Accompanying Materials
Material issued with and intended to be used with, the item being catalogued.
Any object made or modified by one or more persons.
Art Original
An original two – or three – dimensional work of art created by the artist (e.g. a painting, drawing or sculpture).
A generic term designating a sound recording on magnetic tape.
Computer file
A file (data and / or programs) encoded for manipulation by computer.
Refers to the use of discrete signals for representing data in the form of numbers or characters. Most forms of digital representation in data processing has been done on the basis of binary numbers.
Film strip
A length of film containing a succession of images intended for projection one at a time, with or without recorded sound.

A generic term for any medium, transparent or opaque, bearing micro-images.

An artifact or a naturally occurring entity, as opposed to a replica.
A series of staves on which all the different instrumental and/or vocal parts of a musical work are written.
Sound recording
A recording on which sound vibrations have been registered by mechanical or electrical means so that the sound may be reproduced.

Title frame
A frame containing printed or written material not part of the subject content of the item.

Video recording
A recording on which visual images, usually in motion and accompanied by sound, have been registered; designed for playback by means of a television set.

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