Saturday, January 18, 2014

Human Resource Planning and Development P- 12. Management of Libraries and Information Centres & Knowledge Centres * By :PK gupta

इस ब्लॉग्स को सृजन करने में आप सभी से सादर सुझाव आमंत्रित हैं , कृपया अपने सुझाव और प्रविष्टियाँ प्रेषित करे , इसका संपूर्ण कार्य क्षेत्र विश्व ज्ञान समुदाय हैं , जो सभी प्रतियोगियों के कॅरिअर निर्माण महत्त्वपूर्ण योगदान देगा ,आप अपने सुझाव इस मेल पत्ते पर भेज सकते हैं -

Human Resource Planning and Development

P- 12. Management of Libraries and Information Centres & Knowledge Centres *

By :PK gupta

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Multiple Choice Question

0 / 1 Points

Question 1: Multiple Choice

Advantages of job evaluation do not include the following:
  •  Un-checked Uniformity of wages adversely affects the workers who are above average or more efficient
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Ranking of jobs is very easy
  • Wrong Answer Checked Wages for the new jobs can be fixed by management without much difficulty
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Adequate promotion policy can be adopted by the management
1 / 1 Points

Question 2: Multiple Choice

Braille Library (meant for visual impaired persons) falls in the following category
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Academic library
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Public library
  • Correct Answer Checked Special library
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked None of the above
1 / 1 Points

Question 3: Multiple Choice

In regard to staffing function, which combination of activities in sequential order is correct?
  • Correct Answer Checked Job analysis; recruitment; selection; placement.
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Recruitment ; selection; placement; job analysis
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Selection; job analysis; placement; recruitment.
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Placement; recruitment ; selection; job analysis
0 / 1 Points

Question 4: Multiple Choice

Job rotation involves
  • Wrong Answer Checked Upgrading the job to a higher rank
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Making the job more motivating
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Enlarging the activities involved in the job.
  •  Un-checked Moving a person form one job to another job.
0 / 1 Points

Question 5: Multiple Choice

Librarian serves as a ______ of the Library Committee.
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Chairman
  •  Un-checked Member –Secretary
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Ordinary Member
  • Wrong Answer Checked Observer
0 / 1 Points

Question 6: Multiple Choice

Which of the following statements is correct?
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked ‘Library Authority’ and ‘Library Committee’ are the same.
  • Wrong Answer Checked ‘Library Authority’ is subordinate to ‘Library Committee’.
  •  Un-checked ‘Library Committee’ is subordinate to ‘Library Authority’
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked ‘Library Authority’ and ‘Library Committee’ have no relationship at all.
0 / 1 Points

Question 7: Multiple Choice

Which one of the following sources is most relevant for recruiting the University Librarian?
  • Wrong Answer Checked Employment Exchange
  •  Un-checked Advertisement
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Walk-in-interview system
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Indian Library Association
0 / 1 Points

Question 8: Multiple Choice

Which one of the following statements is correct?
  •  Un-checked ‘Job analysis’ leads to ‘Job description’.
  • Wrong Answer Checked “Job description” Leads to “Job analysis”.
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked ‘Job analysis’ and ‘Job description’ are the same
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked None of the above statements is correct
0 / 1 Points

Question 9: Multiple Choice

‘Job Specification’ is also called
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Job description
  • Wrong Answer Checked Job analysis
  •  Un-checked Employees
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Job rotation
1 / 1 Points

Question 10: Multiple Choice

‘Job description’ does not include the following :
  • Correct Answer Checked Physical description of the employee
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Job title
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Job summary (responsibilities)
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Job activities and procedures
3 / 10 PointsFinal Score

0. Introduction

Library is a combination of three components: documents, staff and users. Inspite of  availability of best documents in the library, these  may not  be utilized properly, if  library lacks  the well  trained, well  qualified, experienced and willing staff members. The staff members are known as ‘manpower’ or ‘human resource’. Manpower is the basic work force within the organisation. When this workforce is used for performing the creative and potential tasks to obtain the basic objectives of the organisation, then it is called ‘human resource’. To obtain and retain the human resource of an organisation is called ‘Human Resource Management’ (HRM). Earlier, the term used for the process was ‘Staffing’ or ‘Personnel Management’.
Human resources are the key factor in the effective functioning of any organisation. Of all the tasks of management, managing the human component is the central and most important task because all else depends on how well it is done. One of the most important functions of a manager (e.g. Librarian in case of a library; and else Information Officer in case of an Information Centre) is to provide and coordinate the human resource of the organisation. The various jobs associated with the HRM are: manpower of the organization. The various jobs associated with the  HRM are : manpower  planning;  job analysis ; job  description ; recruitment ; motivation, training, etc. Some  large libraries have  specially trained ‘Personnel Librarians’ or ‘Personnel Officers’, who are sometimes called ‘Human Resource Managers’. They are responsible for staffing function. In small libraries, this function is performed by the librarian or Director of the library. But in all types of libraries, large or small, managers from Librarian /Director down to the first line supervisors, all are involved in the HRM function.

1. Concept of Human Resource Planning

Process  of acquiring, employing, appraising, remunerating and retaining people so that  right  type of people  are available  at right  positions and  at right  time in the  organisation  is called  human  resource planning. It relates to employment of personnel of all types - managerial as well as operative in the organisation. It also includes a variety of activities through which the organisation tries to ensure that various positions remain  filled by the  most suitable personnel. Human resources of an organisation are considered the most vital assets because it is the people who make other resources moving.  It is all the more important in the libraries and information centres.
Planning includes determination of desired goals and objectives with in a time frame in a phased manner, keeping in view the future growth and development of the organisation. It also includes an assessment of the future in relation to environmental changes, professional trends, technological advances and their influence on all aspects of development. Priorities are fixed out of various alternatives. Estimation of financial aspect is also planned. Then a written plan document is prepared, which is finally executed. Without proper planning, the staff development would tend to be arbitrary and ad-hoc  which would not be conducive to  growth and  development  of the organisation.

2. Concept of Human Resource Development

Human Resource Development (HRD) is a process of helping employees in an organisation to acquire new skills and competence on a continuing basis. The organisation should provide facilities to the employees in a planned and systematic way  to acquire and  sharpen skills and capabilities to perform  various tasks associated  with their present and expected future roles. The organisation is also expected to develop the general capabilities of the employees and discover and exploit their inner potential for their own and organisational development purpose. Moreover, it should improve abilities of the staff by introduction of strategic and operational HRD planning and execution.
Human  Resource Development  is necessary for survival stability ; growth  and  development ;  change and  diversity;  returning the activities to become more effective;  providing  highest quality in products and services; and obtaining goodwill and reputation through  clients satisfaction.

3. Need and Purpose of Human Resource Planning:

Human resource planning is essential for more effective and efficient use of human resources. It is also essential to evolve more satisfied and better developed employees. Recruitment scheduling, selection of candidates to match the requirements, deployment and related placement decisions cannot be properly done, if there is no planning of human resources. A plan serves a guide in all the activities that constitute personnel management. Planning leads to great satisfaction of the staff, lower absenteeism, fewer breakdowns and better quality of  work.
Despite best planning, sometime unexpected problems creep up at the stage of implementation. There is always a provision for re-routing and re-structuring the plan activities when there is an emergent situation to handle. This deliberate provision  is essential to keep target to be achieved on schedule, without abandoning any well conceived activity of the organisation

4. Methods and Techniques of Human Resource Planning

Human resource planning  is a  process  whereby  courses of action are determined in advance and continually  updated with the  aim that  the “Library is a growing  organism” and  it will grow  in terms of building, services, equipment and  reading  material  or the sources of information. New developments, new techniques, new systems, new generation of information technology and new data bases/data banks will creep in. All this will require additional staff, updating of training and skills of the existing staff and new positions in the libraries in the near future.
Keeping in view the above mentioned factors, the following methods and techniques of human resource planning can be undertaking:

4.1 Estimating Personnel Resources:

First of all, the staff requirement for the present would be calculated. Therefore, estimation for the near future i.e. the next 5 to 10 years would be done, taking into account the over all objectives of the organisation concerned. Employment planning can be done using the following techniques.

4.1.1 Expert -Estimate Technique

According to this technique, the opinion of the experts is invited based on their personal experience. This technique can be more effective if experts use The “Delphi Technique”, which is a set of procedures to obtain the most reliable consensus of opinion of a group of experts. The questionnaires are sent to the experts for this purpose and personal contact is avoided for obvious reasons. The estimates suggested by various experts are tabulated and the average number is then used for the forecast.

4.1.2 Trend Projection Technique

According to this technique, the trends of services and staff in the past are taken into account. Staff strength can be matched against the staff that is actually involved in the work. Staff strength can be projected from the past experience. Thus, appropriate estimates can be prepared with reference to the number of persons required to perform different functions.

4.1.3 Modelling Technique

Staff requirements can also be estimated using most sophisticated forecasting and modelling techniques. Trend projections are based on relating a single factor or multiple factors. Mathematical models are designed on these relationships. Estimates are projected, using methods such as “Markov Model” and analytical formulations such as regression analysis.

4.1.4 Unit Demand Forecasting Technique

This technique is a bottom-up-approach to forecasting staff estimates. The top management sums up the units forecast to project the total employment forecast. By analyzing the present and future requirements of the job as well as the skills of the incumbents, this method focuses on the quality of staff.
After the estimates of the staff are prepared, the next step is to determine the quality and availability of those staff members who are working presently in the organisation. Skill inventory is used for analyzing the existing internal staff. Skill inventory is a list of names, skills and characteristics of the persons already working in the organisation. This way, additional staff required in the near future is calculated and estimated.

4.2 Induction and Deployment

After the staff is recruited in the organisation, the first phase of induction is an ‘Orientation programme’ of the new incumbents. They are oriented with the colleagues, system, facilities, procedures and rules of the organisation. The questions of the new incumbents are answered and they are familiarized with the working of the organisation.
The second phase of induction is performed by the immediate in-charge or supervisor, who explains the environment, work culture, expectations from the new incumbents and related issues. Acquaintance with other units or sections or departments of the organisation is also given personally. This way orientation of the entire organisation is given in detail. This initial induction to the new staff members pays very rich dividends to the organisation.

4.3 Training and Development:

This is the most important component of personnel planning and development. The training can be of many types, such as: general orientation courses, short–term courses, workshops, in–service training courses, refresher courses, continuing education programmes, etc. of varying durations. These should be organized from time to time after regular intervals. New techniques, new methods and new developments should be taught to the employees.

4.4 Communication

There are many methods of communication to the staff. Oral communication is more informal, which includes meetings, discussions and suggestions. Written communication is also significant, which includes house bulletins, reports, e-mails etc.
Effective communication with the staff leads to cooperation, coordination, cohesiveness, confidence and understanding. It leads to healthy environment and tangible results.
Thus, the steps involved in human resource planning include: estimating the manpower needs for the present as well as for the future, using well recognized techniques. New techniques, new developments and new systems should be taken into account while planning human resources. Induction of new staff is very essential. Staff skills can be enhanced through in-service training and ensuring quality products and services. Retuning the organisation at regular intervals is equally important. If these steps are taken, the organisation will lead to efficiency and satisfaction of the clients.

5.1 Types of Libraries

There are three types of libraries namely (i) Academic Libraries; (ii) Public Libraries; and (iii) Special Libraries. Academic libraries are those which are attached to the academic institutions such as schools, colleges, universities, etc. Public libraries are those which are meant for all categories of people in the society, such as children, housewives, retired persons, professionals, general public, etc. The examples of public libraries are - village libraries, panchayat libraries, district libraries, state libraries and national libraries. Special Libraries are those which are attached to the industries, commercial organisations, research organisations, government departments, societies, associations, etc. Libraries meant for special group of people such as prisoners, visually impaired, physically handicapped, deaf and dumb   persons also fall in the category of special libraries. All these libraries have different objectives, different types of users and different types of services. As such, these have different set of personnel, possessing certain specialized knowledge and skills, to man these libraries.

5.2 Structure of Library Staff and Nomenclature

The large libraries are headed by the Director/Chief Librarian/Information Officer. Each large library/ units such as (i) Readers/Users services department; (ii) Technical services department; (iii) Maintenance department; (iv) Administration department, etc. These units or departments and headed by the Deputy Directors/Deputy Librarians/Deputy Information Officers. Each department is further divided into two or three sections namely: acquisition; periodical; classification; cataloguing; indexing; abstracting; clipping; translation; online searching; circulation/lending; reference service; binding etc. These sections are headed by the Assistant Directors/Assistant Librarians/Assistant Information officers. The staffs working under them are Library Assistants, Semi Professional Assistants, Clerks Library Restores, Janitors, Cleaners, Watchmen/ Security staff, etc.  This staff structure varies from library to library keeping in view the type of the library, size of the library, objectives of the parent organisation, availability of funds and other related factors.

5.3 Salary Structure of the Library staff

The pay-scale/grades /salary of the staff working in the academic libraries are at par with those of the teaching faculty i.e. Professors, Associate Professors, Assistant Professors, and so on, as per University Grants Commission (UGC) norms. The eligibility criteria and academic/professional qualifications for these positions are also laid down as per UGC norms. For example, for the post of Assistant Librarian or equivalent position, in addition to the academic/ professional qualifications, having qualified the National Eligibility Test (NET) conducted by the UGC or State Level Eligibility Test (SLET) conducted by the state governments concerned is compulsory. Other criteria and conditions for recruitment, promotions etc are also as per UGC guidelines.
For public library staff, the pay-scales are as per rules laid down by the state government concerned. Similarly, the staff of the special libraries is paid the pay-scales as approved by the parent body of the organisation concerned/ Government of India/ Central Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)/ Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR), etc. Their promotion criteria are also laid down by their parent bodies concerned.

5.4. Methods of Recruitment

It depends upon the type of library and governing body there of. Universities and Deemed Universities recruit the library staff with the help of selection committees after inviting applications through wide advertisement after inviting application through wide advertisement at national level. Interviews of the candidates are conducted invariably. Recommendations of the selection committees are duly approved by the Syndicate/Executive Committee/ Senate/Competent authorities before the incumbents are appointed.
For the  posts which fall  under the  Government of  India  or State  Governments, the recruitment of library staff  is done  by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) or the State  Public  Service Commission concerned. The recruitment for junior positions  is done either by the Subordinate Service Commission of the state concerned  or through Employment Exchanges of the region. Private colleges, institutes and   small libraries recruit the library staff, after due process, through 
advertisements. The age of retirement and other service benefits of the library staff are also determined by the government concerned or the parent organisation of the library concerned, from time to time.

6. Job Analysis

According to  Edwin B. Flippo,  “Job  analysis is the  process  of studying  and collecting  information  relating to the  operations and  responsibilities for a specific  job. The immediate products of this analysis are job description and job specifications”.  Thus, the job analysis involves the process of identifying the nature of a job (i.e.  job description) and  the qualities  of the likely  job holder (i.e. job  specification).

6.1 Uses of Job Analysis

According to L.M. Prasad, in addition to recruitment, job analysis has many other uses which are as under:
  • Organisational Design:  Job analysis provides the relevant information for completing the total steps of organisational design. It provides the base for identifying the contents of different jobs, their inter relationship and inter–dependence; responsibilities involved in a job; and the authority that may be required  to perform  the job.
  •  Acquisition of personnel:  Job analysis helps in human resource planning; their recruitment & selection; and their orientation & placement. The placement of the staff in specific jobs is determined by their match with job requirements. Job analysis helps in providing information about such job requirements.
  • Human Resource Development:  The human resource development (HRD) is undertaken as a continuous process to match individuals and job requirements. Such is indicated by the information provided by job analysis. Thus it helps in career planning, training and development of the employees in the organisation concerned.
  • Job Evaluation and Compensation: The worth of a job is determined on the basis of ‘Job Characteristics’ and ‘Job Holder Characteristics’. Job analysis provides both in the form of job description and job specification.
  • Performance Appraisal: It involves assessment of actual job performance by an employee in the light of what is expected of him. Such an assessment is used for promotion, training needs, etc. Thus job analysis helps in determining performance standards.
  • Safety and Health: The operational conditions of various jobs such as noise, heat, fumes, etc which are unhealthy and hazardous, are also brought out by job analysis. Hence, steps can be taken for necessary safety from such environments.
  • Employees Counseling : Employees who are  unable to bear the  stress of a particular  job,  may be  advised to  opt for other  sections of the library.

The information for job analysis is collected from various sources and in various forms. Necessary information is collected through interviews, questionnaires, personal observations, etc. The information thus collected is proposed which involves editing, grouping or classification under different relevant categories. This helps in job description and job satisfaction. Thus job analysis is a very useful exercise for all types of organisations, including different types of libraries and information centres.

7. Job Description

After the job is created or established or sanctioned, the next step is to describe the job with regard to the educational and professional qualifications, skills, experience and personal characteristics required to perform the job. Job description may vary from organisation to organisation. According to Stueart and  Moran,  job description generally contains the following  elements.’

7.1 Job Identification

It includes the job title i.e. nomenclature, department, pay scale, etc

7.2 Job Summary

It provides the details of the job’s major  responsibilities  and justification for its existence.

7.3 Job Activities and Procedures

It includes the tasks to be performed by the incumbent. The duties and responsibilities of the job are laid down very clearly and without any ambiguity. The enumeration of the job’s activities and procedures is the most important part of the job description, which identifies the exact job to be performed by the employee. The training required, supervision and task evaluation is also mentioned. This helps the employee as well as the supervisor as to what is to be done,  what is to be supervised and  what is  expected from the  employee concerned.

7.4 Relationship of the job to the Total Institution

It explains the internal as well as external relationship of the employee with various units of the organisation. It also indicates the title of the person to whom the incumbent reports.

7.5 Job Requirement

It includes the requirement of minimum acceptable qualifications, skills, experience, knowledge and abilities for the successful performance of the job. These details should not be un-realistic.
Job description should always be made available to the applicants for their study and review. After an individual has been recruited, job description becomes the basis for determining the training needs and for identifying tasks that require special efforts before the employee can perform them fairly well. It also becomes the basis for employee’s job appraisal at a later stage.

8. Job Specification

It is also called ‘Employee Specification’ as it is a statement of minimum acceptable qualities required in the employee for effective performance of the job.  According to Edwin B. Flippo, “Job specification is a statement of the minimum acceptable human qualities necessary to perform a job properly…. It is a standard of personnel and designates the qualities required for acceptable performance”.
            Job specification is prepared on the basis of job description. It includes personal characteristics of the employee, such as: age, sex, education, job experience, extra-curricular activities, etc. It also includes   the physical characteristics of the employee, such as: height, weight, chest, vision, hearing, health, voice, any physical deformity, etc. Job Specification also includes mental characteristics of the employee, such as:  intelligence, I.Q., Memory, judgment, foresightedness, ability to concentrate, etc. Finally, it includes the social and psychological characteristics also, such as:  flexibility, emotional stability, drive, initiative, creativity, conversational ability, cooperative nature, temperament, etc.
These  characteristics help in  deciding  the allocation of job  in the library-whether it should be  public  dealing (reference service, circulation section, etc) or behind  the  screen work, (Classification, Cataloguing , indexing, abstracting, Clipping  service, etc), or  field work, or work  involving high stacks area, and so on. The employee can be assigned the job within the library or information centre which is best suitable to him/her keeping in view his personal characteristics listed above. Thus, job specification is also important for human resource planning and development.

9. Job Rotation

Movement of the employees from one job to another job is called job rotation. It is also called channel method of development. Such movement may be for a period of  6 months  to  2 years. The  movement should not  be for transfer, but  it should  be meant for  learning the interdependence of  various  jobs so that the  employee  can look  at his  job in broader perspective.
 According to L.M. Prasad, job rotation may be restricted to different jobs falling within in a broad functional area. Normally, job-rotation is useful when it is undertaken in inter-dependent jobs or functions. Job rotation as a means for management development provides certain positive contributions. It allows the employees to appreciate the intricacies involved in different jobs and how their own jobs are affected by such intricacies.  This way, they can develop more cooperative approach to different functions in the organisation. Moreover, the employees may develop broader horizon and perspective of a generalist rather than the narrower horizon of a specialist.
However, job rotation may have certain drawbacks which must be taken care of while designing such a policy. It may create confusion in the mind of an employee and he may not be able to understand the rationale of job rotation, if not properly counselled. This may affect the performance of the employee. Therefore, the employees must understand the rationale behind job rotation. Those moved to different jobs should be helped to learn thoroughly. Moreover, they should view the change as an opportunity for a genuine learning experience.

10. Job Evaluation

Job evaluation is a systematic procedure which measures the relative importance and values of each job on the basis of skills, duties, responsibilities and the like. In other words, job evaluation is the expression of each job in terms of money. The very purpose of job evaluation is to fix wages according to the job done by a person. It means fixing of higher wages for highly risky jobs and vice versa. It is also called job rating.

10.1. Procedure of Job Evaluation

First of all, a detailed study of the requirements for a job such as educational qualifications, skills, training, experience, intelligence etc. is done. Thereafter, the physical and mental efforts necessary for the job and degree of responsibility to accomplish the same is identified. After that job analysis and job description is done. Further, comparison of one job with another job is done. Number of points to be given for each characteristic of a job is determined. Thus, the points for each job are added. In this way, rank of the job is determined on the basis of its   points. Finally, expression of  the value of job in terms  of money  according  to  the points  obtained  is decided. In this way, job evolution is done very conveniently.

0.2 Advantage of Job Evaluation

The major advantages of job evaluation can be enumerated as under:
(i)         Ranking of jobs is very easy.
(ii)        Management can control the labour cost because the wages are fixed on the basis of nature of job.
(iii)       Management can fix same wages for similar jobs. Thus equal wages for equal job principle can be applied easily.
(iv)       Adequate promotion policy can be adopted by the management.
(v)        Improvement of morale among the employees is possible.
(vi)       Job evaluation helps the management in the selection, placement and training of employees.
(vii)      It provides basis for justifying different wages for different jobs.
(viii)     It helps to improve the relations between the employer and the employees.
(ix)      Job evaluation minimizes the labour turn over.
(x)       Wages for the new jobs can be fixed by the management without much difficulty.
(xi)     Management can prepare appropriate incentive schemes for the employees.

10.3 Disadvantages of Job Evaluation

Job evaluation has few disadvantages also, which can be as under:
(i)            Job evaluation studies the job but not the individual doing the  job.
(ii)   Uniformity of wages adversely affects the workers who are above average or more efficient.
(iii)         Job evaluation is just one of the factors for fixing the wages, just like other factors.
(iv)         It is very difficult to convert all the factors in terms of money for job evaluation.
(v)           Points awarded for each characteristic of a job are purely subjective.
(vi)         It ignores the labour market conditions which is also responsible for fixation of wages otherwise.
(vii)       The employees may suspect the intention of management if the job evolution is not understood properly by the employees.
But inspite of the  above  mentioned  disadvantages, job evolution is in vogue in  many organisations  due to  its numerous  advantages  discussed earlier.

11. Role of Library Authority

The term ‘Authority’ implies power derived from office. The purpose of authority is to perform some kind of service by means of administration process. The person/s having power is/are authorized by a competent agency to carry out certain job. The authority may be ‘Local or State Library Authority’, ‘Board of management’, ‘Board of   Trustees’, ‘Executive Council’, ‘Syndicate’ or ‘Senate’ (in the case of University Libraries), etc.
 Library authority has the powers to provide land/ building for the library; sanction new posts; make available funds for the library building, library equipment, infrastructure, salary of the staff, reading materials, etc. It has  the powers  to levy cess (in case of public libraries) ; participate in cooperation with other agencies ; decide  matters pertaining to status, pay–scale, service  conditions, etc. of the  staff ; approval of  appointments, suspension, dismissal punishment, rewards, etc. to the library staff.
            In fact it is a governing body of the library, having overall control over the library affairs. It has the authority to sanction expansion of the library, establish branch or extension libraries and even to close the library. It has the power to approve the recommendations of the library committee and other library related committees.

12. Role of Library Committee

 All types of libraries have library committees, which look after the problems of the library concerned. The library committee is also known as ‘Library Advisory Committee’, ‘Library Management committee’ etc. It is an executive type of committee.

12.1 Constitution of Library Committee

Library committee has generally five to twelve members, depending upon the size and type of library. These members comprise of faculty, local legislators, specialists and representatives of library authority. In certain cases, the representatives of local bodies, library users and government bodies are also associated with the library committee. The chairperson of the library committee is either nominated by the library authority, or the senior most member of the library committee. In case of college libraries, it could be the Principal or Director of the college. Similarly, in case of university library, it could be the Dean or the vice chancellor or Pro-vice Chancellor. The librarian of the concerned library, invariably, serves as the member-secretary of the library committee. The tenure of the library committee is generally one to three years. The members can be nominated or elected. Moreover, it could be self- perpetuating   committee, recommending committee, reporting committee or executive committee.

12.2 Need of the Library Committee

Almost all libraries have library committees because it has many advantages to the librarian, library users and library authority. The following reasons would confirm the need of the library committee:
(i)             The librarian  requires the committee  to serve as  a buffer agency and an interpreter of the need of the library to the  community/society;
(ii)            It is generally felt that the librarian alone should not carry the whole burden of the library.
(iii)           In the  absence of a library committee, the librarian  would  find  himself  defenseless and unprotected;
(iv)           If Library committee is not there, some financial troubles may arise. Librarian  is not  an elected  representative of the society, so he cannot successfully appeal to the  electorate for funds, whereas the committee, being a representative body of the  people, can  successfully and convincingly appeal for more funds;
(v)            The committee can also be made an instrument of politics. In other words, by  putting his ideas into the mind  of the committee  members, can achieve a lot  politically;
(vi)           The committee members being layman, keep the librarian at his guard at all times. Thus the  librarian develops his  personality as  an administrator;
(vii)          Since the  profession  of librariship has gained  its status very recently, it requires some support, which would be  coming  from the library committee ;
(viii)         The committee would assess the financial need of the library as per national library standards. Consequently, the librarian and other library staff would be recruited as per norms. Moreover, the funds would also be  sanctioned more conveniently;
(ix)          The library  committee  ensures a better  understanding between the  library users and the library policies; and
(x)           The committee, having strong public voice, can easily convince the authorities and the public about the policies and needs of the library.

12.3 Power and Functions of the Library Committee

In case the library committee is executive committee, it would have enormous powers. But if it is a recommending committee, then it would have lesser powers. In any case, the library committee, generally, has the following functions to perform:
(i)                 It ensures that the library building is functional and sufficient. If necessary the committee can recommend its expansion or modifications. Lighting, heating, ventilation, maintenance etc of the library building is also taken care of by the library committee.
(ii)               Library furniture, fitting, stacks and necessary machines in adequate quality are also ensured by the library committee.    
(iii)              Library staff is also very significant for the smooth and efficient library services. The Library committee plays a very vital role in the sanction and recruitment of all categories of library staff, as per actual requirements of the library.
(iv)              Library finances are required regularly for books, journals and other reading material. Recurring as well as non-recurring funds are made available by the library committee.
(v)               A library  committee  should  frame a set of  library  rules,  which are not flexible and not rigid, so that  these suit  the library  staff  as well as the  library users.
(vi)             Proper machinery should be provided by the library committee for maintaining the library accounts and auditing thereof. If necessary, a sub- committee can be appointed for this purpose.
(vii)            Library Acts and rules should be kept up-to-date. Redundant provisions should be deleted, while new provisions should be incorporated, as per need of the time. This is also the function of the library committee.
(viii)           Standard library services to the library users should be provided by the library, which is also the responsibility of the library committee.
(ix)             A library committee should  find out  ways  and means of securing cooperation between  various braches within  a locality ; and also between other educational institutions and authorities  for the  benefit  of the library and its  users in  the long run.
(x)             The Library committee is also responsible to lay down a policy for the guidance of the librarian for day-to-day administration of the library.

12.4 Librarian vis-a-vis Library Committee

The Library committee makes the policies and rules, while the librarian implements the same. Thus there should be proper coordination and cooperation between the two. There should be no mutilation or quibbing in implementing the decisions of the library committee. The librarian should prove himself as a reliable guide to the committee for transacting the business of the library committee meetings.
            It is  equally  important  that the  library  committee  should not  interfere in the day –to-day  working of the  librarian who is the executive of the library and he has to get the  work done from  his staff. The librarian should work sincerely to safeguard the interest of the library staff as well as the library users. He should also ensure the safety of the library materials and equipments. In case anything goes wrong, he should immediately report the same to the library committee. The librarian should keep the committee well informed about the day-to-day happenings in the library, in the form of periodical reports. The meetings of the committee should be convened frequently and very regularly.
            The  members of the  library committee  should  visit the  library from  to time  in order  to have  first hand  information  about all  aspects of the library.  The librarian should tender advice to the committee on various matters relating to the library. These include the repair of the library building, fittings, furniture and equipments. He should also work out the financial implications; prepare annual budget estimates and annual report of the Library.
For smooth functioning of the library, the committee should delegate certain powers to the librarian. Authority and responsible should commensurate with each others. Effective communication is also essential. In view of the above, it is evident that there is a dire need of proper cooperation and coordination between the librarian and the library committee for success and efficient functioning of Library.

13. Conclusion

With the growing and changing patterns of information institutions, management plans and formulation of policies exclusively for libraries and information centres relevant to the new conditions seems to be necessary. Besides various compulsions like I.T. application, funds crunch, volume sand variety of information, increasing demand for information and emphasis on quality, etc. are driving libraries and information centres to re-structure their management strategies for human resource planning and development. A designed methodology for human resource planning in the changing context would have to be based on broad goals that would keep the library users and their information needs at the centre, building up library collections and stocks relevant and appropriate to users needs.
            The steps involved in human  resource planning  and development in the libraries and information centres include:  establishing result oriented recruitment procedure;  giving  orientation to the  newly  recruited staff properly; enhancing  the staff  skills  through  appropriate in-service training; evaluating the results  after regular  intervals; estimating  the requirements of  human  resources  for the  libraries and information  centres for the present as well  as the future.
Human resource development process translates the plans and progrmmes into action and it is the means of applying different techniques and strategies. Performance appraisal, in-service training and implementation of new technologies in the libraries and information centres would help to achieve quality of products and services as well as the users’ satisfaction. The stress should be on quality of library and information services, aiming at excellence. Human resource development is an important strategy that might help building up a cadre of highly competent professional staff.


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