Saturday, January 25, 2014

PRINCIPLES OF MANGEMENT AND APPLICATION IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION CENTRES MANGEMENT P- 12. Management of Libraries and Information Centres & Knowledge Centres * By :PK gupta

इस ब्लॉग्स को सृजन करने में आप सभी से सादर सुझाव आमंत्रित हैं , कृपया अपने सुझाव और प्रविष्टियाँ प्रेषित करे , इसका संपूर्ण कार्य क्षेत्र विश्व ज्ञान समुदाय हैं , जो सभी प्रतियोगियों के कॅरिअर निर्माण महत्त्वपूर्ण योगदान देगा ,आप अपने सुझाव इस मेल पत्ते पर भेज सकते हैं -


P- 12. Management of Libraries and Information Centres & Knowledge Centres *

By :PK gupta

Multiple Choice Question

1 / 1 Points

Question 1: Multiple Choice

Characteristics of “ not –for- profit” organisations do not include the following :
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Intangibility
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Heterogeneity
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Perishability
  • Correct Answer Checked Profitability
1 / 1 Points

Question 2: Multiple Choice

Fourteen “General Principal of Management” were propounded by:
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Peter Drucker
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Henry Mintzberg
  • Correct Answer Checked Henry Fayol
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Frederick Taylor
1 / 1 Points

Question 3: Multiple Choice

Role of “Principles of Management’ does not include the following:
  • Correct Answer Checked To ignore the economic factor of the organization
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked To increase the efficiency in the organsation
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked To crystallize the nature of the management
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked To take realistic view of the problems
1 / 1 Points

Question 4: Multiple Choice

The concept of “Scientific Management” was given by
  • Correct Answer Checked Frederick Taylor
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Henry Fayol
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Elton Mayo
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Peter Drucker
0 / 1 Points

Question 5: Multiple Choice

The following is not one of the “ Management styles” :
  • Wrong Answer Checked Authoritarian style
  •  Un-checked Staff style
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Democratic style
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Participative style
1 / 1 Points

Question 6: Multiple Choice

The following is not the alternative term for the “Human Behavioural Approach”.
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Human Relations Approach
  • Correct Answer Checked Situational Approach
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Behavioural Science Approach
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Leadership Approach
0 / 1 Points

Question 7: Multiple Choice

The major contributor of the “Decision theory Approach” was:
  • Wrong Answer Checked Henry Mintzberg
  •  Un-checked Herbert Simon
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Henry Fayol
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Chester Barnard
0 / 1 Points

Question 8: Multiple Choice

Which one of the following roles does not constitute “Management Roles” as proposed by Henry Mintzberg?
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Interpersonal role
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Informational role
  • Wrong Answer Checked Decisional role
  •  Un-checked Training role
1 / 1 Points

Question 9: Multiple Choice

“Mathematical Approach” is also known as :
  • Correct Answer Checked Quantitative Measurement Approach
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Empirical Approach
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Traditional Approach
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Contingency Approach
0 / 1 Points

Question 10: Multiple Choice

“Operational management Approach” is also known as:
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Contingency Appraoch
  • Wrong Answer Checked Socio-Technical Systems Approach
  •  Un-checked Management Process Approach
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Situational Approach
6 / 10 PointsFinal Score:

1. Introduction

Principles and theory provide the framework of science. These are believed to be fundamental truths. These explain the relationship between two or more sets of variables. Principles of management are derived form the working of industry, government, human psychology and social theories. Knowledge of the basic principles and theories of management helps in practicing management efficiently and effectively. With the  development  of management  thought over the  period of  time,  various  approaches  for management  analysis  have been  developed. These approaches are known as style or patterns of managerial analysis or schools of management thought.

There are two extremes of management style, namely: “Authoritarian” style  and “ Democratic” or “ Participative”  style.  Authoritarian style is one characterised by reliance on authority-obedience relationship to get the work done. In this approach, there is a rigid adherence on defined lines of command and centralised decision making. But in Democratic or Participative style, there is sharing of responsibilities, reliance on the employees’ own willingness to take whatever actions required of them. It involves a high degree of employees’ participation in decision making. These are  two basic  styles  at two  extreme levels  on the  combination  of which  different  management  approaches work and different kind of  managers  originate. Each school of thought employs different beliefs, views and formats. Some of these schools are relatively broad in their scope, while others tend to restrict to relatively specialized areas.  Each style has some merits over the other. But there does not seem to be any rational basis for choosing one style over the other. There is neither complete agreement over the number of approaches nor does clarity about what a particular approach suggest. That is why Koontz has called this situation as “management theory jungle”. There are contradictions in various schools of management thought. As such study of a single approach in studying the management is not sufficient. Major approaches to management or schools of thought are as follows:

1.1 Traditional Approach

This is also known as “School of Custom”. It is one of the most commonly followed approaches for management of organizations. Many principles given by Henry Fayol underline the basic philosophy of this school. There are four fundamental characteristics in the traditional style:
(1)              The functions of management, such as planning, organising, motivating and communicating are capable of being defined, emphasized and studied.
(2)               There are principles or fundamental truths about organising and management and these are very important in clarifying the study of management and in improving managerial practice.  
(3)              The principles of management derived from the study of  management should be the starting point for research and should  produce even more  useful managerial  theory.
(4)               Management is to a great extent an art concerned with the application of certain principles that are only to a certain degree based on scientific principles.
This approach analyses management as a universal  activity and environment  has a  great impact on the  management and mangers.

1.2. Empirical Approach

This approach is based upon the idea that management process may be analyzed but such analysis must be based on the past experiences. It is also known as case approach or management experience approach. The major contributors of this approach are Earnest Daley, Mooney and Reiley, Urwick and other management practitioners, who opine that management is a study of managers in practice. The intention of studying experience is to draw generalizations and to develop means of teaching experiences to other practitioners and students. Attempts are made to duplicate successful experiences while avoiding the unsuccessful ones. The major features of this approach are:
(1)   Management is basically a study of managerial experiences and can be taught best by case-method.
(2)   Managerial experience can be passed from one practitioner to another or to the students of management for continuous increase in the knowledge of management.
(3)   It is study of success and failures in the application of management techniques by managers in their practice.
Studying large number of experiences because some sort of generalizations can be possible.

1.3. Human Behavioural Approach

Major resource within the organisation is the human resource. Its  behavior towards work can be motivated to fulfill the management  goals  since management involves getting things done with and  through  people, the  study  of management  must revolve  around human behavior. It is also called “Human  Relations”, “Leadership” or “ Behavioural  sciences” Approach . Since it involves human behaviour, it can be divided in two groups: first, “Interpersonal Behaviour Approach”, which is based on individual psychology; and second, “Group Behaviour Approach”, which rely on social psychology and emphasize on organizational behaviour. The main assumptions of Human Behavioural Approach are as under:
(1)  As management  is a process of getting things done by people, managers should  understand  human  behavior;
(2)   Motivation  and good  human  relations should  be the base for  better  productivity;
(3)  Motivation, leadership, communication, participative management and group dynamics are the major themes of this approach.

1.4. Decision Theory Approach

Its focus is on the concept of analyzing the situations and problems in order to make decisions. Manager is the decision maker and organization is the decision making unit. So the basic problem in managing is to make rational decision. The major contributor of this approach is Simon who gave the following assumptions:
(1)   Management  is essentially a decision making  process ;
(2)   The members of the organisation are  decision  makers and problem solvers ;
(3)   Organisation can be treated as  a combination of various decision centres ; and
(4)   Quality of decision affects the organizational effectiveness.
(5)   In the case of libraries and information centres for planning a new building, for  providing  special services  to the  clientele or for making provisions for special members, all these activities require careful analysis  and decision  making,  keeping  in view the library budget,  equipment  and the staff.

1.5. Mathematical Approach

It is also known as “Quantitative Measurement Approach” or “Management Science Approach”.  It visualizes management as a logical entity, the action of which can be expressed in terms of mathematical symbols, relationship and measurement data. The major features of the approach are as under:
(1)   Management is regarded as the problem solving  mechanism with the  help of  mathematical tools  and techniques;
(2)   Management problem can be described in terms of mathematical symbols and data. Thus every managerial activity can be quantified.
(3)   This approach covers decision making, systems analysis  and some aspects of  human  behaviour ;
(4)   Operations research, mathematical tools, simulation models, etc are the  basic  methodologies to solve  managerial problems.
This approach can be applied more appropriately where measurement is easy. In case of Libraries and information centres, the  work of  technical processing  section can be measured  easily, where the  measurable  units  are :  a book or  a bibliographic unit etc.

1.7. Contingency Approach

It is also known as “Situational Approach”.  The basic  idea of this approach  is that  there cannot  be a particular management  action, which will  be suitable for all situations. In  fact an appropriate  action is  one which  is designed on the basis of external  environment as well as  internal  needs. This approach has the following features:
(1)   Management action is  contingent on certain action outside  the system  or sub- systems, as the  case may be ;
(2)   Organizational action should be based  on the behaviour of action outside the system  so that  organisation should be  integrated with  the environment  and
(3)   Because of the specific organisation- environment relationship, no action can be universal. It varies from situation to situation.
This approach is applicable in almost all sections of the libraries and information centres, where decisions are taken keeping in view the  internal needs as well as the external environment.

1.6. Socio-Technical Systems Approach

According to this approach, for solving organizational problems, it is not enough to have cooperative social systems alone, but technical systems (i.e. methods and machines) should also be supportive and interactive. Contributed by E.L. Trist, this approach has the following main features:
(1)   An organisation is a  combination of both social and technical systems which  interact  among  themselves ;
(2)   Social  system of the organisation  is governed by the  social  laws as well  as by psychological  forces; and
(3)  Technical system is governed by technological forces operating in the organization like physical setting of work, rules, proceedings, etc.
In the libraries and information centres, this  approach  is very  much applicable where cooperative social  systems are supported by the  defined  methods, procedures,  machines and other equipment  for solving the  organizational  problems  from time to time.

1.8. Operational Management Approach

This approach is based upon functions of managers in the organisation, commonly known as management process. That is why it is also known as “Management process Approach”. It is frequently followed in understanding management. Major features of operational management approach are :
(1)   Management is the study of what the managers do. It  emphasizes on the  management  factors  and  various concepts and principles involved in performing  these functions ;
(2)   Management  functions are universal  irrespective of the  type of  organisations or level of  management  in an  organisation ;
(3)   The conceptual framework of management can be constructed  on  the basis of  the analysis of management process  ; and
(4)   The central core of managing revolves around planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling, which are the basic functions in management irrespective of the kind of organisation.
Operational management approach is entirely suitable and applicable in case of all types of libraries and information centres.

1.9. Principles of Scientific Management

The term “Scientific Management” was first of all given by Louis Brandeis in 1910. According to him, the workers in the organisation are economically motivated and they would do their best if they are  rewarded financially. The emphasis is on maximum output with minimum strain, eliminating waste and inefficiency.
Taylor’s Principles
 Subsequently, Frederick Winslow Taylor, an American, who is  considered to be the  father of  scientific management, gave the  fundamental principles, underlying the scientific approach to management, which  are given below :
(1)   Replacing the rule-of-thumb method with  science by finding the most  efficient way;
(2)   Obtaining harmony  in  group  action  rather  then discord;
(3)   Achieving cooperation of human  beings rather than  chaotic individualism;
(4)   Working  for maximum  output  rather than  restricted output ; and
(5)  Developing all workers to the fullest extent possible for their own and the company’s highest prosperity.

Efficiency was the central theme of Taylor’s philosophy. He advocated assignment of supervisors by ‘function’, i.e. one for training, one for discipline, etc. He was interested in ascertaining how to get more work out of workers whom he considered   to be naturally lazy. According to him, this attitude was fostered by poor management. He observed that when an energetic person works with a lazy person for a few days, the former also becomes lazy, thinking “why should I work hard when the lazy fellow gets the same pay that I do and does only half as much work”. Taylor proposed using scientific research methods to discover the one best way to perform a job. He felt  that faster  work could  be assured only through  enforced  standardization of  methods; enforced adaption of the best instruments  available  for the work ; adaption of good hygienic working  conditions ; and  enforced cooperation.

1.10 Fayol’s Principles: (General Principles of Management)

Henry Fayol was of the opinion that the principles of management are flexible. Based on his experience, he listed fourteen General Principles of Management, which are discussed below.
(i)                   Division of work or Specialization
There should be a clear division of duties. Breaking jobs into smaller pieces leads to specialization. Management should be separate and distant. This promotes efficiency in the organisation. The supervisor has a better control because of dealing with a smaller range of activities for each person. In a library, the division can be by type of service or by type of material.  Regardless of method, it is important to consider very thoughtfully the objectives and direction of the unit.
(ii)             Authority and  Responsibility
The authority that individuals’ possess should be equal to their responsibility. Any one  responsible for the  results  of a task  should be given  the  authority to take the  action  necessary to  ensure  its success. Responsibility cannot be completed in the best manner unless there is proper level of authority behind it. We can say that authority and responsibility must go together. If  one is  responsible  for the  result of task, the  person  should have the  authority  to take  necessary action to  ensure its success.  This seems obvious but very often only the responsibility is delegated and not the authority.
(iii)           Discipline
It is necessary to have clearly defined limits of the acceptable behaviour. Everyone in an organisation should know as to what is acceptable and what is not acceptable when a rule is violated, the punishment should be given applied equally and fairly by someone who is competent and understanding. Nothing can be achieved without   a level of discipline between workers and management. Discipline requires good supervision at all levels. This is applicable in case of libraries and information centres also. This    principle is often difficult for a supervisor to apply because there is a tendency of leniency and human relations factors.  There should be clear rules and complete obedience to behaviour in the best interest of the organisation.
(iv)           Unity of Command            
An employee should receive orders form only one supervisor in order to avoid confusion and conflict. It should be clear in the organisation as to whom a person would be responsible for a given task. In a library, the work of collection development, technical processing and readers services are inter-related, involving more than one supervisors. If all of them give the orders separately, it can lead to utter confusion. Hence in such a situation, these supervisors should have consensus and only one person should give the instructions or orders. Unity of command is very important for the successful functioning of libraries and information centres too.
(v).  Unity of Direction
 There should be only one head and one plan, in order to ensure a coordinated effort. All activities that have the same objective should be supervised by one person. A body with two heads is a monster and has difficulty in surviving. There are a number of interacting variables in a given job situation which, sometimes, cannot be avoided, but there should be minimum line of authority for a given task. For example, in libraries, the bibliographic checking unit should have one supervisor this work is performed in two departments, namely: acquisition department and technical department. This principle ensures efficiency, economy and uniformity.
(vi).   Subordination of Individual Interest to General Interest
 The employees should place the organization’s concerns before their own. In other words, the individual interests should be subordinated over the general interest of the organisation. Sometimes, it is difficult in certain situations in the organisation. But  if this  principle  is  strictly adhered to, it  would lead  to general well –being  of the  workers in an organisation.
(vii). Remuneration of Personnel
            The pay or wages for work must be fair and adequate which ensures satisfaction for both the employee and the employer. In a library, the task should be identified first and thereafter the appropriate staff should be recruited or hired at the established salary or remuneration. It is not a good idea to find the person who can do the job at the lowest possible salary.  This can lead to lowering the quality of work or service in the library.
(viii). Centralization
Centralization is the most desirable arrangement within an organisation. Both formulation of policy and the generation of basic rules and procedures ought to be centralized. Decisions may be taken at lower or local level but within the framework established by the central authority. Many libraries adhere to this principle rather strongly. This leads to consistency, uniformity and efficiency.
(ix). Scalar Chain
 It is also known as Lines of Command. In an organization, each position is part of a vertical chain of authority i.e.  The Scalar Chain. Communication should move up and down according to this chain of command. The organizational hierarchy must be formalised and it should reflect the flow of authority and responsibility. In libraries and information centres, the hierarchy is Librarian/ Director (overall head), Deputy Librarians/Deputy Directors (divisional heads), Assistant Librarians/ Assistant Directors (Sectional Heads) and so on.
(x). Order
The relationships between various units must be established in a logical and relational manner, so that these units work in harmony. In order to avoid conflicts, there should be a right place for everything and everyone in the organisation  for its successful working.
(xi). Equality
 Equality of treatment must be taken into account in dealing with the employees. Justice should be tempered with kindness. Loyalty and sincerity can be elicited from the employees and only when the manager/ supervisor deal with the individual as a person.  The persons at the equal level should not be treated individually but as a group.
(xii).  Stability of Tenure of Personnel
 Long term stability of for workers is good for an organisation. A high turnover rate is expensive for an organisation. Turnover rate is expensive for an organisation. Turnover is both a cause and an effect of bad management. One way of   evaluating the effectiveness of a manager/supervisor is to examine the turnover (absenteeism) rate of persons working under the manager. A low turnover rate may or may not mean that the individual is a good manager. But a high turnover and absenteeism rate indicates that there is a problem and that the manager/supervisor has failed to take corrective measures. A person who is often absent can create bottlenecks in the flow of material, hindering efficiency of the organisation as whole. Such employee often costs the organisation for more than his/her salary. Every time an employee leaves, there is  a significant  organizational cost. Time and money are spent  on recruiting, selecting and training. As such stability of the staff is very important and must be given due consideration
(xiii). Initiative
Subordinates should be encouraged to give new ideas and take initiative to propose new plans, which should be undertaken after careful review and consideration. In order to stimulate initiative, incentive rewards should be established in all type of organisations including libraries.
(xiv). Esprit de Corps
 Team spirit should be maintained among the individuals within the organisation. There should be complete harmony among the workers in the organisation. Strong sense of morale and unity should be developed among the staff members. Communication is the key to a satisfied working group in the organisation. According to Fayol, viable organizations in  times of  crisis  approach  their  problems  as a team.
As one  can see, all the  above  mentioned general principles of  management  propounded  by Fayol  have validity for all types  of libraries and  information centres also. These principles are being practiced by the modern managers to achieve efficiency in the organization concerned.

1.11. Barnard’s Principles

Chester I Barnard viewed that the task of executives (mangers) was of maintaining a system of cooperative effort in a formal organisation. The logic of this analysis can be seen in the following steps:
(i)     Physical  and biological  limitations of individuals  lead them to cooperate and work  in groups;
(ii)  The act of cooperation leads to the establishment of  cooperative  system, in which  physical, biological, personal and social  factors or elements are present;
(iii)  Any cooperative system  may be divided into two parts :  organisation (which  include only the  interactions  of people in the system) and  other elements ;
(iv)  Organisation can be also  be divided in to two  kinds : ‘formal’ organisation (which is consciously coordinated social  interactions that have a deliberate and joint  purpose) and ‘informal’ organisation (which refers to those social  interactions without  a common or consciously  coordinated joint  purpose);
(v)   The formal organisation cannot  exist unless there are  persons who are able to  communicate with one  another,  are willing to contribute to group action, and  have  a conscious  common  purpose;
(vi)   Every formal  organisation must include  the following  elements 
(a) a system  of functionalization so that people can specialize,
(b) a system of  effective and  efficient incentives that will  induce  people to contribute to group  action ,
(c) a system of power  which will  lead the  group  members to accept the decisions of executives,  and
(d) a system  of logical  decision  making .
(7)       The executive functions enter the  process  through the  work of the executive in integrating the whole and in finding the best  balance  between conflicting  forces  and events ;  and
(8)       To make the executive effective requires a high order of  responsible leadership
The above  mentioned principles of management given by Barnard are based on social  systems  approach , concentrating on major  elements of the  managerial job, emphasizing on decision  making and  leadership.
Keeping  in view the management  theories, principles and procedures , it is obvious that these are very much relevant in managing  libraries and  information  centres also. Yet  it is very important to note that the  libraries are basically paternalistic,  service oriented and not- for- profit organisations. In fact, it is  that part of management which is called ‘Service-management’,  which is  more important to libraries than the management of industrial commercial  and profit oriented organisations.

2. Characteristics of “Not - for -Profit” Organisations

The basic characteristics of services rendered by the ‘not -for – profit’ organisations are as under:
(i)                Intangibility : The services  may not directly appeal  to the  services of the customers;
(ii)              Inseparability :  The services are generally produced in the  presence of the customers. In other words, there is customer participation in the service production. As such the service production  and consumption are inseparable;
(iii)           Heterogeneity: The services rendered cannot be fully  standardized. As a  result, there  would  be variations in the quality of service rendered to different  customers ; and
(iv)            Perishability : The  services, many  times,  cannot  be stored  and an inventory developed for later  physical  distribution.
In addition to the above four characteristic of the not- for- profit  organisations, there  are some other characteristics also which are as follows:
(a)   It is  difficult  to measure and compare  the performance of  service organisations ;
(b)  It is equally difficult to inspect quality, determine and  implement  specifications, take samples  and try in  advance and also  determine the cost  of a service ;
(c)   The relationship  between cost (input) and benefit (output) is blurred ;
(d)  There  is  no title or ownership  transfer when  a service  is rendered ;
(e)  Service  organisations  are labour and equipment intensive and are  dominated by professionals ;
(f)    Excellence is rare and mediocrity common, and the dissatisfaction is rarely  conveyed by the customers ;
(g)   Service organisations  are generally small and  operate  at a single location; and
(h)  Market forces play a less significant role in service organisations

3. Management of Libraries and Information Centres

Management of libraries and information centres as services organisations (i.e.  not- for-  profit organisations)  is accomplished by a  combination  of basic  management  functions  and skills as discussed earlier. We  can think  of three  important  roles for a library  manager  as under ;
(i)     Interpersonal Role :  (a) As figurehead with duties of a ceremonial nature ; (b)  Leading role, and (c)  Liaison role ;
(ii)  Informational Role :  (a)  Perpetually  scanning and monitoring  the information, (b)  Disseminator role  and (c) Specific  role  of informing  and satisfying .
(iii)  Decisional Role : (a) As entrepreneur looking for new ideas  and adopting  them for  change, (b) Solving the  unanticipated  problems  and handling disturbances, (c) Resources allocation  role of dividing work and delegating the authority, and (d) Negotiator role .
Modern libraries and  information  centres  are not  merely  store houses  of knowledge  and information, but  are also live and active institutions involved in a vital service to the society. Today knowledge and information are considered as important as energy and biotechnology. As such these have to be taken care of and managed very well. Therefore, scientific management theories, principles and practices are increasingly being applied to mange the libraries and information centres to provide effective and quality service to the clients.
 Now- a –days,  management principles and techniques are being  used in the  libraries and  information centres for a variety  of functions such as : information products and services;  document delivery; information and documentation services (such  as current  awareness service, selective dissemination of information service, indexing service, abstracting service, clipping service etc.);  planning and plan implementation, forecasting evaluation of operations, budgeting, house keeping routine operations ; and  general management.
Today’s  managers  face a  number of challenges According  to  Stueart and Moran, management  presents great  opportunities and  allows the manager to make changes in the libraries and  information  centres. There is a dire need of people who are both willing  and able to serve as managers in order to ensure the  success of libraries and  information  centres in the future.

4. Role of Principles of Management

Principles of management are theoretical in nature. When these are put into practice, there is a tremendous impact on the functioning of the organisation. These increase the efficiency and lead to better results. According to L.M. Prasad, the need and importance of management principles can   be visualized as follows:
(i)     To Increase the Efficiency:  Since the principles of management  are based on experience  and are established, these lead  to efficiency in the working of the organisation. The managers can understand the problems in a better way. Principles are time tested. As such there is no need of hit and trial any more. Costly trials can be avoided. However, certain modifications can be made while applying the management principles, keeping in view the environment, as per situation and need of the organisation. Thus, the efficiency and effectiveness in the organisation is definitely increased.
(ii)  To crystallise the Nature of Management: Without the knowledge of management principles, it is difficult to analyse the management jobs and know the managerial functions. As such management principles, procedures, rules and methods are necessary to crystallize the nature of management and to train the future managers.
(iii)  To Carry on Research:  When we have fundamental principles, these make the basis for further research. In the absence of such principles, future research becomes very difficult. It is due to these principles of management only that lot of empirical research is being carried out in all areas of management during the recent years  all over the world.
(iv)  To Attain Social Objectives :  Management deals with  people and is a part  of the society. It takes input from the society and gives output to the society. Thus the standard of the society depends upon the quality of management. In order words, managerial principles play an important role in improving the quality of life of people in the society.
(v)  To take Realistic View of the Problem: A manager comes  across  many problems while managing the organisation. If he knows and understands the principles of management properly, he can take a more realistic view of the problems and find their solutions appropriately.

Thus, it is evident that understanding of management principles enables the managers to manage the organisation more efficiently. In case of management of libraries and information centres also, this holds good. Knowledge and application of principles of management lead to better planning, better staffing and better organisation. It leads to effective and efficient management. The satisfaction rates  amongst  the library staff  as well as the library users is much higher. As such the  management principles play a very  important role in increasing the efficiency in the use of  human as well  material  resources in the organisation like libraries and  information  centres.


1. Barnard, Chester I The functions of the executive. Cambridge:  Harvard University Press, 1938.
2. Evans, G. Edward. Management Techniques for librarians. 2nd ed.  New York: Academic Press, 1983.  pp. 6-8.
3. Fayol, Henry General and Industrial administration. London: Pittman, 1949.
4.Koontz, Harold. Management. 7th ed. Auckland: Mc Graw – Hill, 1982.
5.Mintz berg, Henry The nature of managerial work.  New York; Harper and Row, 1980
6.Prasad, L.M. Principles and practice of management. 6th Ed, New Delhi: Sultan Chand & Sons, 2006.  pp. 42, 51.
7.Rizzo, John R. Management for librarians: Fundamentals and issues. Westpot ; Greenwood press, 1980.
8.Stureat, Robert D. and Moran, Barbara B. Library and information centres management. 7th ed. Westport: Libraries u0nlimited, 2007. pp. 26-27.
9.Taylor, Frederick W. Principles of scientific management. New York; Harper and Row, 1941. pp. 36-37.

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