By :C P Vashishth
2. Public Libraries: Developmental Plans
2.1. Planning Methods
3. Public Libraries in Post Independence Era: Planning and Development
4. Public Libraries: Planning Models
4.1 Model Public Libraries Act of Dr. S R Ranganathan
- Establishment of public libraries in city, rural and other areas;
- Constitution of State Library Authority i.e. Minister of Education;
- Constitution of State Library Committee as an advisory body of the State Library Authority;
- Constitution of Local Library Authority for each city and one for each district;
- State Library Authority, Government and Local Library Authority may determine
- Library rate in such a manner and may determine collection of library cess from time to time.
4.2 Model Public Libraries Bill of Ministry of Education
- Constitution of State Library Authority as an apex body to advise the
- Government in the matter of library developments;
- Constitution of State Library Directorate for direction and controlling of library services;
- Constitution of District Library Committee in each district;
- Treatment of employees as government servant;
- Collection of library cess at the rate of 6 paise per rupee on house tax and property tax.
4.3 Model Public Libraries Bill of the Planning Commission
- Establish, maintain, develop and integrated adequate public library service in the state;
- Constitution of Committee of Experts to prescribe the standards of service;
- Constitution of State Library Council to advise the government for the promotion and development of library service;
- Establishment of State Library Directorate to control, direct and supervise library system in the state;
- Establishment of State Central Library, State Regional Libraries and District Libraries;
- Treatment of employees in the system of State Government Servants
- Government shall be the financial source and shall maintain the public library system in the state.
4.4 Model Public Libraries Bill of Indian Library Association
- State Library and Information Service, based on a State Policy;
- Constitution of State Library Authority at the apex level with Minister of Libraries as Chairman as policy making and executive body;
- Establishment of Directorate of Public Libraries for directing, controlling and supervising;
- Constitution of City, District Library Authority for rendering service from district to village level;
- Provision for network of Public Library and Information Services from state to village level;
- Constitution of State Library and Information Service;
- Collection of Library cess on house tax and property tax, entertainment tax, professional tax, vehicle tax, etc.;
- Constitution of State Boards for education, book production, co-ordination, etc.;
- Accountability of public expenditure and services.
4.5 Model Union Library Act
- Constitution of a National Library Authority;
- Establishment of national central libraries;
- Constitution of National Library Committee as an advisory body
- to the National library Authority;
- Constitution of National library fund;
- Amendment to the delivery of Books and Newspaper Act, 1954.
5. Public Libraries: Through Five Year Plans
5.1 First Five Year Plan, 1951–1956
5.2 Second Five Year Plan, 1956–1961
5.3 Third Five Year Plan, 1962–1967
- By the end of the Fifth Five Year Plan, set up libraries at block headquarters and in every village having a population of 5,000;
- Encourage the Program of Adult Education to use the services of the public libraries to eradicate illiteracy.
- Twelve of 18 states/UT had state central libraries;
- 205 of 327 districts had district central libraries;
- 1,394 blocks of 5,223 had block (sub–district) development libraries;
- 28,317 villages out of 566,878 had village libraries.
5.4 Fourth Five Year Plan, 1969–1974;
- Allotment of Rs. 310 million for the development of public libraries; but the amount actually provided was a meager Rs. 20 million (US$2.66 million);
- A network of libraries to cover the whole country, and other recommendations similar to those made earlier by the Advisory Committee (India, Planning Commission, 1980).
- Fifteen of 21 states/UT had state central libraries;
- 235 of 376 districts had district central libraries;
- 1,500 of 3,100 sub–districts had sub–district central libraries;
- 50,000 villages of 566,878 had village libraries;
- 1,800 of 2,641 towns had town libraries.
5.5 Fifth Five Year Plan, 1974–1979
5.6 Sixth Five Year Plan, 1980–1985
- Twenty–six states/UT out of 31 existing in 1982 had established/designated state central libraries;
- Out of 401 districts, 291 had district central libraries;
- Out of 5,027 blocks, 1,798 development blocks had block libraries;
- Out of 575,936 villages, 41,828 had village libraries;
- Out of 2,643 towns, 1,280 had town libraries.
5.7 Seventh Five year Plan, 1985–1990
- Provision of reading material for children by all the agencies involved;
- That 10 percent of the annual education budget of the governments be used to purchase books for libraries.
5.8 National Policy on Library &amp; Information System (NAPLIS)
- Proposals for maintenance and development of public libraries should preferably come from State Legislative Enactment. The Central Government may revise the Model Public Library Bill.Funds for library development should come from each state, either from general revenue or from local taxation. Central Government agencies may provide funds under Plan Expenditure.
- Efforts should emphasize rural public libraries. A village or a cluster of villages with an adequate population should have a community library/rural community centre, which will also serve as an information centre. Resources from various agencies engaged in the public health, adult education, State and central government, etc., should be used to build up and maintain this centre.
- The central government increases its assistance to state governments in the development of public libraries. The RRRLF, as the national agency for coordinating and assisting the development of public libraries, should be suitably strengthened in order to do this.
- Standards and guidelines for library service should be created.
- There should be a system of national libraries consisting of National Library, Calcutta (Now Kolkata) as the National Library of India, National Depository libraries in Delhi, Bombay (Now Mumbai), Madras (now Chennai), National Subject Libraries, and others. These national libraries should form part of one integrated system.
- A National Commission on Libraries and Information System or National Commission on Informatics and Documentation may be constituted by an Act of Parliament to serve under the Ministry of Human Resource Development. The Commission will have representation from appropriate central and state agencies and could provide guidance and coordinate library development programmes in all sectors. This body will have the primary responsibility for the implementation of NAPLIS programmes.
- National Depository libraries; Connemara Public library, Chennai; Central Library (Asiatic Society), Bombay; and Delhi Public Library, Delhi should concentrate on development of collections and preservation of Indian culture produced in the languages of their regions, supplementing and complementing the efforts of the Indian National Library.
- The Indian National Bibliography should have a comprehensive coverage of the national output of documents and should be updated regularly. This responsibility should be vested in the National Library.
- Government should create a national awareness of the need to preserve the nation's cultural heritage. National libraries should be responsible, with preservation facilities created there. Links between libraries, archives, and museums should be established for the purpose of national preservation.
- The Ministry of Rural Development has a plan for one community centre in every Panchayat Centre. The Department of Culture and the Ministry of Rural Development have agreed to provide library services at each of these Rural Community Centres.
- An important link should be established between community centre library and primary schools. If the schools do not have libraries of their own, the community centre library should provide children with adequate services.
- A community centre library should have an important role in adult education programmes.
- A district library should provide facilities and recreation for the disabled and low-income people, e.g., literature in Braille.
- Libraries should be built in areas of tribal concentration and in minority communities to help in developing and sustaining their distinctive cultures.
- Libraries should be equipped with relevant resources, such as publications covering Open University and vocational educational courses, for their role in support of distance education.
- All public libraries within a state should form a part of a network extending from village library through community centre library, district library, and state network, and should be linked to the national information grid (Sahib, 2003).
5.9 Eighth Five Year Plan, 1992–1997
- The Khuda Bakst Public Library proposed establishment of an Institute of Oriental Studies and open regional units for research on Indo–Islamic and comparative religion;
- The Rampur Raza Library would acquire sophisticated equipment for preservation of its collections;
- The Asiatic Society, Calcutta, is to open an art gallery, introduce a desktop publishing system, and construct a new building;
- The National Library proposed making microfilms available, producing a national union catalogue, and providing book production statistics;
- The Central Reference Library is to be reorganized into a National Bibliographical and Documentation Center with a computer center; and,
- The Delhi Public Library is to open two new libraries within its service area.
5.10 Ninth Five Year Plan, 1997–2002
5.11 Tenth Five Year Plan, 2002 -2007
5.12 Eleventh Five Year Plan, 2007-2012
6.Public Libraries: Planning at State Level and Library Legislation
7. Library Legislation in India
8. National Mission on Libraries
9. Public Libraries: Resource Mobilisation
1.2.1 Did You Know?
Public libraries play a vital role in dissemination existing knowledge and promote the creation of new knowledge. Public libraries are social institutions and produce informed public opinion which is a major requisite for a working democracy.
Delhi Public Library was established in 1951 as the first UNESCO Public Library Pilot Project under the joint auspices of UNESCO and Government of India to adopt “Modern Techniques to Indian Conditions” and to serve as a model public library for Asia.
1.2.2 Interesting Facts
Delhi Public Library was established in 1951 as a pilot project sponsored by UNESCO and the Government of India
During seventh five year plan, in 1985, a committee was set up under the chairmanship of Prof. D.P. Chattopadhyay to formulate a National Policy on Library & Information System (NAPLIS)
Delivery of Book Act was passed in 1954 by Indian Parliament
National Knowledge Commission set up in 2005 by the Prime Minister
In India Nineteen States have so far enacted Library legislations
1.2.4 Web links