Wednesday, December 24, 2014

Definition, concept, objectives and scope of ICT. classification of computers on the basis of size and generations P- 04. Information Communication Technology for Libraries

इस ब्लॉग्स को सृजन करने में आप सभी से सादर सुझाव आमंत्रित हैं , कृपया अपने सुझाव और प्रविष्टियाँ प्रेषित करे , इसका संपूर्ण कार्य क्षेत्र विश्व ज्ञान समुदाय हैं , जो सभी प्रतियोगियों के कॅरिअर निर्माण महत्त्वपूर्ण योगदान देगा ,आप अपने सुझाव इस मेल पत्ते पर भेज सकते हैं -

Definition, concept, objectives and scope of ICT. classification of computers on the basis of size and generations

P- 04. Information Communication Technology for Libraries *

By :Usha Munshi,Paper Coordinator

1. Definition

ICT stand for information and communication technologies and are defined as a “diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, disseminate, store, and manage information”.  These technologies include computers, the Internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and television), and telephony. ICT refers to technologies that provide access to information through telecommunications. It is similar to Information Technology (IT), but focuses primarily on communication technologies. This includes the Internet, wireless networks, cell phones, and other communication mediums.

2. Concept

The ICT term (Information and Communication Technology) includes all technical means that are used for handling information and facilitating communication, including computers, network hardware, communication lines and all the necessary software. In other words, ICT is comprised of information technology, telephony, electronic media, and all types of process and transfer of audio and video signals, and all control and managing functions based on network technologies.

3. Objectives

One of the main aims of ICT is to help students to become competent and confident users who can use the basic knowledge and skills acquired to assist them in their daily lives. It is also supposed to prepare students for the world of tomorrow. It aims to help learners to have an open and flexible mind. This will help them to adjust to the inevitable future changes.
  • to develop ICT capability in finding, selecting and using information;
  • to use ICT for effective and appropriate communication;
  • to monitor and control events both real and imaginary;
  • to apply hardware and software to creative and appropriate uses of information;
  • to apply their ICT skills and knowledge to their learning in other areas;
  • to use their ICT skills to develop their language and communication skills;
  • to explore their attitudes towards ICT and its value to them and society in general. For example, to learn about issues of security, confidentiality and accuracy.

4. Characteristics of ICT in Education

ICT in education is any hardware and software technology that contribute in the educational information processing. In the context of present era, ICT mainly comprises of Computer technology with its hardware, like, Personal computer machine, infrastructure required for setting up Internet facility and also software like, CD ROM including various programme packages, e-learning strategies etc.

5. Advantages of the use of ICT in Education:

ICT encompasses all those gadgets that deal with the processing of information for better and effective communication. In education, communication process takes place between teachers, students, management and administrative personnel which requires plenty of data to be stored for retrieval as and when required, to be disseminated or transmitted in the desired format. The hardware and software like OHP, Television, Radio, Computers and related software are used in the educational process. However ICT today is mostly focused on the use of Computer technology for processing the data. In this context, advantages of ICT in education can be listed down as follows:
  • Quick access to information: Information can be accessed in seconds by connecting to the internet and surfing through Web pages.
  • Easy availability of updated data: Sitting at home or at any comfortable place the desired information can be accessed easily. This helps the students to learn the updated content. Teachers too can keep themselves abreast of the latest teaching learning strategies and related technologies.
  • Connecting Geographically dispersed regions: With the advancement of ICT, education does not remain restricted within four walls of the educational institutions. Students from different parts of the world can learn together by using online, offline resources. This would result in the enriching learning experience. Such collaborative learning can result in developing:
• Divergent thinking ability in students,
• Global perspectives
• Respect for varied nature of human life and acculturation.
• Facilitation of learning
ICT has contributed in shifting the focus on learning than teaching. ICT helps students to explore knowledge to learn the content through self study. Teacher can help the students by ensuring the right direction towards effective learning. Situational learning, Programmed learning, many Online learning courses are some of the example of self learning strategies that are being utilized with the help of ICT.
  • Catering to the Individual differences: ICT can contribute in catering to individual needs of the students as per their capabilities and interest. Crowded class rooms have always been a challenge for the teacher to consider the needs of every student in the class.
  • Wider range of communication media: With the advent of ICT, different means of communication are being introduced in the teaching learning process. Offline learning, on line learning, blended learning are some of the resources that can be used in educational institutions. Collaborative learning, individualized learning strategies can enhance the quality of group as well as individual learning with the real society. This can ensure the applicability of knowledge.
  • Wider learning opportunities for pupils: Application of latest ICT in education has provided many options to the learners to opt for the course of their choices. Many Online courses are available for them to select any as per their aptitude and interest. Students can evaluate their own progress through different quizzes, ready to use online tests. This can ensure fulfillment of the employment required in the job market thus minimizing the problem of unemployment. It can also provide more efficient and effective citizens to the society as per the changing needs.

6. ICTs are used for:

  • applications for corporations (airlines, insurance companies, internet banking)
  • applications for state organizations (electronic voting, tax refund)
  • applications for healthcare (data about patients, diagnostic tools and instruments, special surgical equipment)
  • Applications for education (computer based training - CBT, distance learning, e-learning): adaptive learning time, flexible learning location, multimedia learning experience, reduced costs. 

7. Disadvantages:

  • lack of business human contact
  • lack of direct teamwork
  • requires great self-discipline 

8. ICT in everyday life:

  • e - mail
  • e - commerce
  • online banking
  • e - government
  • online shopping
  • e - learning 

9.Basics of the information technology

Information technology (IT) is a technology which uses computers to gather, process, store, protect, and transfer information. Today, it is common to use the term Information and communications technology (ICT) because it is unimaginable to work on a computer which is not connected to the network.
The computer consists of:
  • Hardware – physical computer parts, palpable and visible
  • Software – set of commands that are "understandable" to the computer; instructions to its palpable parts, giving orders what to do
Basic computer work principle: the data enters the computer through input devices, it is being processed and stored in the system unit and displayed via output devices.

The system unit consists of the following components:

Motherboard - MBO:-A computer "backbone" responsible for communication between components and transmission of information
a. Central Processing Unit (CPU): -
  • functions: command execution, data transmission, computer function control
  • basic characteristics:
  • speed (given in MHz, GHz)
  •  amount of memory (Cache)
b. Memory
Random Access Memory (RAM) - a memory container for programs that are currently running and data that is being processed.
Basic characteristics:
  • speed (in MHz)
  • capacity (in MB, GB)
  • performance (DDR, SDRAM)
Permanent memory:
  • Hard Disk Drive - HDD - device (memory) used for permanent data storage. Data is stored on magnetic platters; electromagnetic heads are used for reading and recording data with the exception of the newest disk types called Solid State Drive (SSD)
Basic characteristics:
  • disk platters rotation speed
  • capacity (expressed in GB)
  • connection interface
  • Floppy Disk Drive - FDD
  • Optical disks - CD, DVD
  • USB flash drive
c. Graphics processing units (GPU)  
  • function: processing and displaying image on the monitor
  • it consists of a graphics processor and its own working memory
  • basic characteristics:
    • type of graphics processing units (ATI Radeon, Nvidia GeForce, or other)
    • RAM size
    • connection interface/slot type
d. ports:
  • Parallel Port
  • Serial Port
  • Universal Serial Bus (USB)

Input and output devices
Input devices:
Output devices:
  • keyboard
  • scanner
  • touchpad
  • mouse
  • trackball
  • joystick
  • microphone
  • stylus
  • camera (web, digital)
  • monitor
  • projector
  • printer
  • plotter
  • speakers
  • earphones

10.Common devices and media for storing and transferring data

Software - a computer program which, as opposed to hardware, is an intangible part of the computer, written to perform a single or multiple tasks on computer using the built-in hardware.
Software types:
Operating systems (OS) - the basic program on your computer that is automatically loaded when computer is started up:
  • Linux (Debian, Ubuntu, Fedora, Knoppix...)
  • Microsoft Windows (XP, Vista, 7...)
  • Mac OS X (Cheetah, Panther, Snow Leopard...)
Application software – some types of software that can be used on an installed operating system:
  • office programs -, LibreOffice, Microsoft Office
  • antivirus program – Avira, Sophos, Kaspersky etc.
  • Web browser: Mozilla Firefox, Microsoft Internet Explorer, Opera, Safari
E -accessibility options:
  • voice recognition software,
  • screen reader,
  • magnifying tool,
  • on-screen keyboard.
  • Computer types:
  • LAN (Local Area Network) - a small network that physically connects nearby computers (computers within the firm, organization, or a household)
  • WAN (Wide Area Network) - a larger network that covers a city or a region,
  • Internet – a world network of connected computers, connected through WAN and LAN
  • Intranet - a smaller network, closed version of internet to which only certain (authorized) people are granted access (members of an organization)
  • Extranet – an intranet version, to which only certain people are granted access (not exclusively members of an organization, but also outsourced experts for performing common tasks),
World Wide Web (WWW) - one of the services that can be used on Internet which enables us to view and search contents in a form of web-pages
Other services on Internet that can be used:
  • Instant messaging (IM) - Google Talk, Skype, Windows Live Messenger, Yahoo! Messenger
  • Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) - protocol used for voice transfer over IP network; it basically enables us to use internet in order to make phone-calls
  • Really Simple Syndication (RSS) – used for dissemination of information or articles etc. published on web page using RSS channel (RSS news usually consists of title, few sentences and link to a web page where users can read the whole article). Users have to subscribe to RSS channel in order to receive news in their RSS reader. This eliminates a need for visiting a web page in order to find out latest news
  • web log
  • podcast - digital file that contains audio or video record
Internet access:
  • dial-up – use of phone line in order to connect to the internet. The bill for the internet usage is directly proportional to the time spent on the Internet
  • broadband – the bill is formed according to speed of data transfer. Additionally, in areas where informational infrastructure for broadband is not developed enough (or for other reason), amount of data transfer is also charged. Unlike dial-up, time spent on the internet is not charged and as a consequence there is a greater risk from hacker intrusion in computers or networks that are connected to internet 24/7
  • Internet can also be accessed through phone, mobile, and cable line, as well as through wireless access or via satellite connection.
Virtual (online) communities
  • social networking websites: Facebook, Bebo, Twitter, MySpace, LinkedIn, Nexopia, Hi5, Tagged, XING, Orkut, etc.
  • Internet forums –,, etc.
  • chat rooms, e.g. Chat Rooms
  • multiplayer games: Silkroad Online, Knight Online, Anarchy Online, Guild Wars, World of Warcraft
  • Ways to publish and share contents on the internet: blog, podcast, photos, video and audio contents.
Advices on how to protect oneself while using virtual communities:
  • protect privacy of your profile,
  • limit publishing and use of your personal data,
  • be aware that published information can be publicly accessible,
  • be cautious while communicating with strangers.
  • Computer in the workplace:
  • tasks more suited to a computer than a human:
  • repetitive tasks,
  • easy automated tasks ,
  • mathematical operations,
  • Tasks that require high precision and speed. 

11.Classification according to Size

a) Super Computer
  • Super computers are the fastest, most-powerful and most expensive computers.
  • It has the ability to recover automatically from failures.
  • It has the ability to support several Giga Bytes of RAM.
  • Unlike conventional computers, which have a single processor to process one instruction at a time, supercomputers have multiple processors (or CPUs) that process multiple instructions at a time.
  • Supercomputers are widely used in scientific applications such as aerodynamic design and simulation, processing of geological data.
  • One of the most powerful supercomputers today is "The Cray-2" and Some others are CRAY 1, CRAY - MP, SX-2, HITAC S-300, etc.
b) Mainframe Computer
  • A mainframe computer is usually slower, less powerful and less expensive than supercomputers.
  • Very large in size with approximately 1000 square ft area.
  • Mainframes process several million instructions per second (MIPS). More than 1,000 remote workstations can be accommodated by a typical mainframe computer.
  • Mainframes are used by banks and many businesses to update inventory, etc.
  • Many modern mainframes have multiprocessing capabilities.
c) Mini Computer
  • These are also a general purpose computer, smaller than mainframe computer. Medium sized computer, occupying approximately 10 sq ft of area.
  • They have slower operating speed, smaller backup storage, limited hardware and less memory than mainframes.
  • Minicomputers are well adapted for functions such as accounting, word processing, data base management, statistical packages for social sciences
  • More than 50 terminals and large storage capacity device than micro computers but smaller than mainframe computers. E.g. Prime 9755
d) Micro Computer/ Personal computers
  • A microcomputer is the smallest, least expensive of all the computers.
  • Microcomputers have smallest memory and less power
  • Microcomputers are also called personal computers.
  • The most common type of microcomputer is a desktop computer, which is a non-portable personal computer.
Almost all the computer users are familiar with the personal computers. They normally know what the personal computer is and what are its functions. This is the computer mostly preferred by the home users. These computers are lesser in cost than the computers given above and also, small in size; they are also called PCs in short for Personal computers.
This computer is small in size and you can easily arrange it to fit in your single bedroom with its all accommodation. Today this is thought to be the most popular computer in all.
e) Notebook computers
Having a small size and low weight the notebook is easy to carry to anywhere. A student can take it with him/her to his/her school in his/her bag with his/her book. This is easy to carry around and preferred by students and business people to meet their assignments and other necessary tasks.
The approach of this computer is also the same as the Personal computer. It can store the same amount of data and having a memory of the same size as that of a personal computer. One can say that it is the replacement of personal desktop computer.

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