Definition, concept, objectives and scope of ICT. classification of computers on the basis of size and generations
- to develop ICT capability in finding, selecting and using information;
- to use ICT for effective and appropriate communication;
- to monitor and control events both real and imaginary;
- to apply hardware and software to creative and appropriate uses of information;
- to apply their ICT skills and knowledge to their learning in other areas;
- to use their ICT skills to develop their language and communication skills;
- to explore their attitudes towards ICT and its value to them and society in general. For example, to learn about issues of security, confidentiality and accuracy.
4. Characteristics of ICT in Education
5. Advantages of the use of ICT in Education:
- Quick access to information: Information can be accessed in seconds by connecting to the internet and surfing through Web pages.
- Easy availability of updated data: Sitting at home or at any comfortable place the desired information can be accessed easily. This helps the students to learn the updated content. Teachers too can keep themselves abreast of the latest teaching learning strategies and related technologies.
- Connecting Geographically dispersed regions: With the advancement of ICT, education does not remain restricted within four walls of the educational institutions. Students from different parts of the world can learn together by using online, offline resources. This would result in the enriching learning experience. Such collaborative learning can result in developing:
- Catering to the Individual differences: ICT can contribute in catering to individual needs of the students as per their capabilities and interest. Crowded class rooms have always been a challenge for the teacher to consider the needs of every student in the class.
- Wider range of communication media: With the advent of ICT, different means of communication are being introduced in the teaching learning process. Offline learning, on line learning, blended learning are some of the resources that can be used in educational institutions. Collaborative learning, individualized learning strategies can enhance the quality of group as well as individual learning with the real society. This can ensure the applicability of knowledge.
- Wider learning opportunities for pupils: Application of latest ICT in education has provided many options to the learners to opt for the course of their choices. Many Online courses are available for them to select any as per their aptitude and interest. Students can evaluate their own progress through different quizzes, ready to use online tests. This can ensure fulfillment of the employment required in the job market thus minimizing the problem of unemployment. It can also provide more efficient and effective citizens to the society as per the changing needs.
6. ICTs are used for:
- applications for corporations (airlines, insurance companies, internet banking)
- applications for state organizations (electronic voting, tax refund)
- applications for healthcare (data about patients, diagnostic tools and instruments, special surgical equipment)
- Applications for education (computer based training - CBT, distance learning, e-learning): adaptive learning time, flexible learning location, multimedia learning experience, reduced costs.
- lack of business human contact
- lack of direct teamwork
- requires great self-discipline
8. ICT in everyday life:
- e - mail
- e - commerce
- online banking
- e - government
- online shopping
- e - learning
9.Basics of the information technology
- Hardware – physical computer parts, palpable and visible
- Software – set of commands that are "understandable" to the computer; instructions to its palpable parts, giving orders what to do
- functions: command execution, data transmission, computer function control
- basic characteristics:
- speed (given in MHz, GHz)
- amount of memory (Cache)
- speed (in MHz)
- capacity (in MB, GB)
- performance (DDR, SDRAM)
- Hard Disk Drive - HDD - device (memory) used for permanent data storage. Data is stored on magnetic platters; electromagnetic heads are used for reading and recording data with the exception of the newest disk types called Solid State Drive (SSD)
- disk platters rotation speed
- capacity (expressed in GB)
- connection interface
- Floppy Disk Drive - FDD
- Optical disks - CD, DVD
- USB flash drive
- function: processing and displaying image on the monitor
- it consists of a graphics processor and its own working memory
- basic characteristics:
- type of graphics processing units (ATI Radeon, Nvidia GeForce, or other)
- RAM size
- connection interface/slot type
- Parallel Port
- Serial Port
- Universal Serial Bus (USB)
10.Common devices and media for storing and transferring data
- Linux (Debian, Ubuntu, Fedora, Knoppix...)
- Microsoft Windows (XP, Vista, 7...)
- Mac OS X (Cheetah, Panther, Snow Leopard...)
- office programs - OpenOffice.org, LibreOffice, Microsoft Office
- antivirus program – Avira, Sophos, Kaspersky etc.
- Web browser: Mozilla Firefox, Microsoft Internet Explorer, Opera, Safari
- voice recognition software,
- screen reader,
- magnifying tool,
- on-screen keyboard.
- Computer types:
- LAN (Local Area Network) - a small network that physically connects nearby computers (computers within the firm, organization, or a household)
- WAN (Wide Area Network) - a larger network that covers a city or a region,
- Internet – a world network of connected computers, connected through WAN and LAN
- Intranet - a smaller network, closed version of internet to which only certain (authorized) people are granted access (members of an organization)
- Extranet – an intranet version, to which only certain people are granted access (not exclusively members of an organization, but also outsourced experts for performing common tasks),
- Instant messaging (IM) - Google Talk, Skype, Windows Live Messenger, Yahoo! Messenger
- Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) - protocol used for voice transfer over IP network; it basically enables us to use internet in order to make phone-calls
- Really Simple Syndication (RSS) – used for dissemination of information or articles etc. published on web page using RSS channel (RSS news usually consists of title, few sentences and link to a web page where users can read the whole article). Users have to subscribe to RSS channel in order to receive news in their RSS reader. This eliminates a need for visiting a web page in order to find out latest news
- web log
- podcast - digital file that contains audio or video record
- dial-up – use of phone line in order to connect to the internet. The bill for the internet usage is directly proportional to the time spent on the Internet
- broadband – the bill is formed according to speed of data transfer. Additionally, in areas where informational infrastructure for broadband is not developed enough (or for other reason), amount of data transfer is also charged. Unlike dial-up, time spent on the internet is not charged and as a consequence there is a greater risk from hacker intrusion in computers or networks that are connected to internet 24/7
- Internet can also be accessed through phone, mobile, and cable line, as well as through wireless access or via satellite connection.
- social networking websites: Facebook, Bebo, Twitter, MySpace, LinkedIn, Nexopia, Hi5, Tagged, XING, Orkut, etc.
- Internet forums – Forum.hr, Download.hr, etc.
- chat rooms, e.g. Chat Rooms
- multiplayer games: Silkroad Online, Knight Online, Anarchy Online, Guild Wars, World of Warcraft
- Ways to publish and share contents on the internet: blog, podcast, photos, video and audio contents.
- protect privacy of your profile,
- limit publishing and use of your personal data,
- be aware that published information can be publicly accessible,
- be cautious while communicating with strangers.
- Computer in the workplace:
- tasks more suited to a computer than a human:
- repetitive tasks,
- easy automated tasks ,
- mathematical operations,
- Tasks that require high precision and speed.
11.Classification according to Size
- Super computers are the fastest, most-powerful and most expensive computers.
- It has the ability to recover automatically from failures.
- It has the ability to support several Giga Bytes of RAM.
- Unlike conventional computers, which have a single processor to process one instruction at a time, supercomputers have multiple processors (or CPUs) that process multiple instructions at a time.
- Supercomputers are widely used in scientific applications such as aerodynamic design and simulation, processing of geological data.
- One of the most powerful supercomputers today is "The Cray-2" and Some others are CRAY 1, CRAY - MP, SX-2, HITAC S-300, etc.
- A mainframe computer is usually slower, less powerful and less expensive than supercomputers.
- Very large in size with approximately 1000 square ft area.
- Mainframes process several million instructions per second (MIPS). More than 1,000 remote workstations can be accommodated by a typical mainframe computer.
- Mainframes are used by banks and many businesses to update inventory, etc.
- Many modern mainframes have multiprocessing capabilities.
- These are also a general purpose computer, smaller than mainframe computer. Medium sized computer, occupying approximately 10 sq ft of area.
- They have slower operating speed, smaller backup storage, limited hardware and less memory than mainframes.
- Minicomputers are well adapted for functions such as accounting, word processing, data base management, statistical packages for social sciences
- More than 50 terminals and large storage capacity device than micro computers but smaller than mainframe computers. E.g. Prime 9755
- A microcomputer is the smallest, least expensive of all the computers.
- Microcomputers have smallest memory and less power
- Microcomputers are also called personal computers.
- The most common type of microcomputer is a desktop computer, which is a non-portable personal computer.