Wednesday, December 24, 2014
Ethics and Prevention of Cyberspace Plagiarism P- 04. Information Communication Technology for Libraries
इस ब्लॉग्स को सृजन करने में आप सभी से सादर सुझाव आमंत्रित हैं , कृपया अपने सुझाव और प्रविष्टियाँ प्रेषित करे , इसका संपूर्ण कार्य क्षेत्र विश्व ज्ञान समुदाय हैं , जो सभी प्रतियोगियों के कॅरिअर निर्माण महत्त्वपूर्ण योगदान देगा ,आप अपने सुझाव इस मेल पत्ते पर भेज सकते हैं - email@example.com
Video / Interactive Mode of Tutorial
Ethics and Prevention of Cyberspace Plagiarism
Librarian, Institute of Pharmacy,
The research misconduct and academic dishonesty are relatively old phenomena and they are
prevalently increasing due to easily accessible information through Internet and online resources.
With the massive growth of online information at times it is impossible to know the ownership of
the ideas and to detect plagiarism. Though plagiarism is considered to be relatively old
phenomenon millennium generation students and researchers are more known for cyber
plagiarism as per their free attitude towards using the web content.
The module on ‘Ethics and Prevention of Cyberspace Plagiarism’ will help learners to
understand about the issues of plagiarism related to its prevalence, types and reasons.
Few cases of plagiarism were mentioned to make understand the learners that plagiarism
will be noticed trough whistle blowers and there are few institutes that work as watch
dogs for its prevention.
Detection of manual and cyberspace plagiarism was discussed providing few examples of
commercial and open source software along with their advantages and disadvantages.
Role of academicians, faculty members, library professionals and INFLIBNET center in
prevention of plagiarism and protection of academic and research ethics.
Keywords: Plagiarism, Cyberspace Plagiarism, Higher Education, Anti-Plagiarism Software,
Prevention of Plagiarism, Library guides, INFLIBNET Center.
2. What is Plagiarism?
Though there are no valid definitions for plagiarism, the below mentioned are few definitions
defined by different institutions. According to United States Public Health Service (USPHS)
research misconduct is “fabrication, falsification or plagiarism, in proposing, performing or
reviewing the research, or in reporting research results. Fabrication is making up data or results
and recording or reporting them. Falsification is manipulating research materials, equipment, or
processes or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately
represented in the research record. Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person’s ideas,
processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit”. (Satyanarayana, K., 2010)
According to the Merriam-Webster’s online Dictionary, Plagiarism is the act of stealing of work
or idea or language with out proper acknowledgment to the author and source. The Latin word
‘plagiarius’ (mean ‘kidnapper’) was borrowed into English as ‘plagiary’ in the 17th century
(Random House Dictionary). Though there are so many definitions about plagiarism, some of
them are as given below:
Plagiarism.org, defined it as:
Turning in someone else’s work as your own
Copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit
Failing to put a quotation in quotation marks
Giving incorrect information about the source of quotation
Changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit2
Copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your
work, whether you give credit or not (Plagiarism.org, 2010)
According to United States Office of Research Integrity (ORI) plagiarism is “both the theft of
misappropriation of intellectual property and the substantial unattributed textual copying of
Plagiarism is unprofessional, unethical and theft of intellectual property of the work that has been
already produced in art and research. “Plagiarism is the act of representing as one’s own original
work the creative works of another without appropriate acknowledgment of the author of
sources”. (Creative works may include published and unpublished written documents,
interpretations, computer software, designs, music, sounds, images, photographs, and ideas or
ideological frameworks gained through working with another person or in a group. These works
may be in print and/or electronic media.) (University of Melbourne, 2014)
2.1. Types of Plagiarism
Plagiarism can be intentional or unintentional. The basic categories of plagiarism are
Unintentional plagiarism or accidental which happens due to lack of knowledge of referencing
citation, and also due to intermingling of influences of one’s own thoughts and vastly available
literature, and self plagiarism.
Intentional plagiarism is copying of the others work without proper acknowledgement. Whatever
may be the type, the following are some ways for plagiarism:
Copy-paste: copying word to word textual contents
Idea plagiarism: using similar concept or opinion which is not common knowledge.
Paraphrasing: changing grammar, similar meaning, words, and re-ordering sentences in
Artistic Plagiarism: presenting someone else’s work using different media, such as text,
images, voice or video.
Code plagiarism: using program code, algorithms, classes, or functions without
permission or reference.
Forgotten or expired links to resources: addition or quotations or reference marks but
failing to provide information or up-to-date links to sources.
No proper use of quotation marks: failing to identify exact parts of borrowed contents.
Misinformation of references: adding references to incorrect or non existing original
Translated plagiarism: cross language content translation and use without reference to
original work (Maurer, H. et al., 2006).
2.2. Prevalence of Plagiarism
The borderline between plagiarism and research is surprisingly murky as it is often said the
advanced research is only possible by “standing on the shoulders” of others (Maurer, H. et al.,
2006). In research, it is mandatory to show the existing literature of respective subject to ensure
that the research is going to fill the gaps pertaining to new problem and the literature survey is to
get support from existing literature but not to plagiarize. Where as the researchers should
understand the development of knowledge and learn to appreciate it through acknowledging.
Unfortunately, there is some gap in understanding between acknowledging and plagiarizing.
Perhaps, this may be the main cause for plagiarism. According to University of Alabama at
Huntsvilla, (2014) reasons for plagiarism are as follows:
Lack of research skills
Lack of writing skills
Problems evaluating Internet sources3
Confusion about how to cite sources
Misconception about terminology
Poor time management and organizational skills
Product-oriented writing assignments
Some other reasons are:
Fear of Failure
Publish to prosper (for career advancement)
Recognition amongst the peers
2.3. Some Cases of Plagiarism
The below mentioned are some of the instances of plagiarism listed by Society for Scientific
a. Kundu et al, NCCS-DBT: This case of misrepresentation of data in two JBC
publications by Dr. Kundu and his students, as established by SSV, has received a very
wide coverage in the media. The 2nd paper published in JBC has been withdrawn by the
b. Atiyah-Raju Case: Prof C.K. Raju charged Prof Michel Atiyah, former President of the
Royal Society, UK, of plagiarizing or claiming inappropriate credit to some of his
previously published ideas.
c. Khanuja-CIMAP: Besides being a coauthor of most publications and patents originating
from CIMAP of which he is the Director, some of the publications of Dr. Khanuja are
d. Selladurai et al, Anna Univ.: Prof Selladurai and his students of Anna University have
plagiarized a paper in an international journal.
e. Vankar, IITK: Dr. Padma Vankar of IITK has been charged by the Pesticdes
Manufacturers and Formulators Association of India with manipulation of pesticide data.
Vankar was earlier involved in a plagiarism case.
f. Mashelkar: The highly publicized case of plagiarism involving the Mashelkar committee
on patents, as well as Mashelkar's book on IPR entitled "Intellectual Property and
Competitive Strategies in the 21st Century" by Shahid Ali Khan and R.A. Mashelkar that
was published by Kluwer in 2004.
3. Plagiarism Detection
Plagiarism can be easily detected by the experienced faculty members who are engaged in
academics and research by referring to the text provided in the reports with their extensive
reading and referring habits. Further, detection can be either manual or computer-assisted.
Manual detection requires substantial effort and excellent memory, and is impractical in cases
where too many documents must be compared, or original documents are not available for
comparison. Computer-assisted detection allows vast collections of documents to be compared to
each other, making successful detection much more likely
3.1. Manual Detection
Though the manual detection is difficult sometimes by deploying strategic assessment skills,
detecting plagiarism is relatively an easy task for well experienced faculty members and
reviewers. Some points to remember to check for plagiarism are:
Mixed citation styles
Lack of references or quotations
Anomalies of diction
Anomalies of style
Blunders of clues, which include obvious indicators of copying (Harris, R., 2004).
3.2. Cyberspace Detection
It is also important to check the literature available digitally on Internet as the text can be
prepared by few mouse clicks through cut-copy option and also several readily available papers
from contract cheating. Contract cheating refers to outsourcing of assignments by students to
have work produced on their behalf. These contract sites are placed into four categories: auction
sites, discussion forums, essay mills and feed aggregators. Schoolsucks.com, coursework.info,
cheathouse.com and essayschool.com are few examples to cite for these kinds of sites (Lancaster,
T; Clarke, L., 2008).
Using technology for technology driven plagiarism i.e. using anti-plagiarism software for
detecting the cyberspace plagiarism is the latest trend in the academic institutions. The antiplagiarism
technology uses a set of powerful algorithms to create a digital fingerprint of any text
document. Then the document’s fingerprint is cross-referenced against local databases, and
Internet. Finally a colour coded originality report, complete with source links will be generated.
(Plagiarism.org, 2010). Please refer to the images to understand colour coded originality report
from an open source software and a commercial anti-plagiarism software.
Sample of Research articles checked through ‘Plagiarism Detector’- Open Source Software
Image No.1: Article which has references that are not available as ‘Open Access’5
Image No.2: Article which has references that are available limited as ‘Open Access’
Image No.3: Article which has references that are available widely as ‘Open Access’
PUBLICATIONS STUDENT PAPERS
23% 16% 7% 6%
Table 1 Showing the Originality report of the Document through Commercial Software
3.3. Commercial anti-plagiarism software
The below mentioned are few examples of commercial anti-plagiarism software:
MyDropbox Suite integrates a renowned plagiarism prevention technology with a versatile
digital learning environment that enables instructors to manage online assignments, organize
electronic submissions and mark papers on the Web (mydoropbox.com, 2014).
Easy Verification Engine (EVE2) is a very powerful tool that allows professors and teachers at
all levels of the education system to determine if students have plagiarized material from the
World Wide Web. EVE2 accepts essays in plain text, Microsoft Word, or Corel Word Perfect
format and returns links to web pages from which a student may have plagiarized. (Canexus.com,
Turnitin is a new, enhanced version that integrates with three essential instructional support
tools: Originality Check- plagiarism prevention, Grade Mark - paperless grading and Peer Mark -
peer reviewing. Turnitin helps to
Work with a single, "all-in-one" view of a student's paper in its original format,
including styled text, graphics and photos.
View feedback from all sources in one comprehensive, multi-layered view.
Maintain academic integrity and engage students in their development as
3.4. Open Source Anti-plagiarism Software
The below mentioned are few open source anti-plagiarism software that are available online.
Source forge is a resource for open source software development and distribution, which is
dedicated to making open source projects successful and thrives on community collaboration.
Crot open source software is available in two basic versions, Open source Plug-in for Moodle
CMS which can be used only if embedded to the running version of Moodle course management
system. This version is useful for educational institutes and the other one is Crot Desktop which
is primarily intended for individual users. It is a shareware and free for three papers.
DOC Cop creates repots displaying the correlation and matches between documents or a
document and the Web. It gathers the evidence, and provides the information required to judge
whether plagiarism has occurred with out taking copyright or ownership of your material.
The more comprehensive lists of these software can be found from Jeff Williams blog (2009) and
Vij, Rajeev et.al. (2009).
3.5.Limitations of anti-plagiarism Software
Though some open source software are available, while some of them are to be
downloaded and installed others are available as shareware. Effective software, available
through Internet protocol is mostly not freely available.
Most of them rely on text based matching and detect database that are available within
the software. Hence it is clear that assignments using other materials that are not included
in such databases will avoid detection.
Due to the above reason, sometimes it is time consuming for faculty members to check
for plagiarism from other sources
Sometimes there are chances of losing formats while submitted for detection. Hence,
multiple copies of the documents are to be prepared.
Most of the times the research work and data are made available to the third party which
may be against the copyright regulations.
Use of anti-plagiarism software may strain teacher-student relationship, as students may
feel guilty till they are proven innocent.
4. Prevention Strategies
Preventing plagiarism is very difficult task as it is not a technological problem but associated with
the ethical behaviour and correct use of resources. Consistent institutional approach towards
plagiarism are removing opportunities for plagiarism, educating students to understand about 7
avoiding plagiarism, and more importantly promoting ethical behaviour in their academic work
(Cogdell, Barbara; Aidutes, Dorothy, 2008). Combating plagiarism can happen through
combinatorial strategies that encompass institutes, faculty members and students.
The below mentioned are few points that help in addressing the prevention of plagiarism:
a. As an academic policy, universities should
Frame clear policies with appropriate disciplinary action available on their
Orientation programmes should be conducted informing about the policies at the
beginning of the each academic session
Code of Honour (declaration of academic integrity) is to be taken from the
students before handling the project work.
b. Imparting Education on Plagiarism
c. Building Institutional Repositories
d. UGC should come up with a policy to deal with plagiarism
e. As suggested by Satyanaraya, K., (2010) the Government of India should frame a
‘National Plan of Action’ that include government/funding agencies, journal editors,
national academies, voluntary bodies, readers and public.
4.1. Role of Academic Community and Academicians
Evering and Moorman (2013) enunciated a possible action plan for members of academic
community and academicians to address the complex issue of plagiarism:
4.1.1. Members of an academic community may:
Engage your colleagues in discussions about plagiarism.
Try to reach a consensus about what constitutes plagiarism.
Make distinctions between blatant and trivial plagiarism.
Determine appropriate responses and consequences to acts of plagiarism.
4.1.2. Faculty members may:
Make plagiarism an explicit topic in your instruction.
Help students see how ideas evolve, and why it is important to acknowledge the work of
Explain and model how to paraphrase and cite.
Provide opportunities to write for realistic purposes and broad audiences.
Review drafts of students’ writing before the final text is due; try to identify acts of
Explicitly teach students how to search the Internet to find valid, reliable information.
4.2. Role of Academic Librarians and Library Professionals
Imparting education on what plagiarism is and how it can be avoided is meant for the students
who are not aware of plagiarism or who are associated with unintentional and accidental
plagiarism. Academic Librarians can play a vital role by conducting Information Literacy
Programmes (ILP) knowing the basic competencies of the students. With the implementation of
CBCS, even a course can be offered by Departments of Library and Information Science of
respective universities on Information Literacy Competencies with Plagiarism as one of the
course contents to the aspirant students.
As a part of Information Literacy Programmes (ILP), workshops can be organized for
different categories of students on few possible below mentioned topics:
Locating different kinds of Information from Print and E-resources,
Search Strategies, 8
Copyright and Fair use and
IPR related issues
The ILPs with the above mentioned topics should be targeted not only to the undergraduate and
post graduate students but also to the research scholars and freshly joined faculty members. Such
kind of programmes when conducted in congenial way will help to bring more number of
students and faculty members to the Library creating a scholarly environment flourishing
academic and research activities in the universities.
4.3. Role of INFLIBNET Centre
The INFLIBNET Centre is responsible for hosting, maintaining and making the digital repository
of Indian Electronic Theses and Dissertations accessible to all institutions and universities.
The MoU to participate in Shodhganga, has different points that a participating University should
understand. According to one of the points, the Centre will extend access to anti-plagiarism
software or provide services to evaluate theses for possible plagiarism and submit a report to the
concerned university. This point is a major step to avoid plagiarism and to develop qualitative
research in Indian Universities. INFLIBNET Centre will also suggest anti-plagiarism software to
the universities or the universities can utilize the software available at its regional centre subject
to the availability of the software. With this, centre is clearly mentioning that not only the
research scholar but also the university has to provide a code of honour for addressing the issue of
plagiarism. Please refer to Shodhganga website for the plagiarism issues related to Shodhganga,
Plagiarism reported in the thesis submitted in Shodhganga and Plagiarism noticed in other
publications from content of Shodhganga. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/ (2014)
4.3.1. Building Institutional Repositories, ETDs
An Electronic Theses or Dissertation (ETD) is an electronic version of printed theses and
dissertations. Recently, University Grants Commission (UGC) has come up with a major
initiative Shodhganga an Indian Repository for Electronic Theses and Dissertaions as
INFLIBNET as a nodal centre for Indian universities and institutions (UGC Notification
(Minimum Standards & Procedure for Award of M.Phil. / Ph.D Degree, Regulation, 2009).
Through this initiative UGC aims:
to facilitate open access to Indian theses and dissertation to the academic community
to maintain standard and quality of research
to ensure easy access and archiving of Indian doctoral theses through centrally
maintained digital repository
to avoid "poor visibility" and the "unseen" factor in research output
to overcome serious problem of duplication and poor quality of research
Though UGC has released the broad guidelines regarding submission of Doctoral Theses in
electronic format, yet they are not as exhaustive as they should have been (Gupta, D.K., 2011).
Hence, there is urgent need for a written policy to be framed by UGC for dealing plagiarism in
institutes of Higher Education.
Now the education sector has entered into the phase of quality consciousness and several
benchmarking methods have made their way into this system. Hence, it is important that the
academicians should address the issues related to plagiarism. Understanding reasons for 9
occurrence of plagiarism and its preventing techniques has major significance in its avoidance.
The faculty members should teach students to appreciate the development of knowledge;
acknowledge intellectual contributions of other scholars, and represent the process of building on
existing knowledge in academic writing. Every University should establish ‘Centre for Ethical
Research’ with active involvement of librarians, department of library and information science,
Director of Research, and Deans of Students’ Welfare (Satija, M.P., 2011). Also, with the
changing trends in the education which is getting more inclined towards learner-centric, it is
expected that more collaborative e-learning through Virtual Learning Environment may become a
reality in near future. With this kind of VLE, the learners will interact and integrate that will help
them to come up with creative and innovative ideas.
Plagiarism is copying words or ideas, paraphrasing someone’s work without
acknowledging the original author/creator.
Plagiarism may be intentional or unintentional. Well experienced
academicians and peer reviewers can easily find plagiarism from the contents.
Cyberspace plagiarism can be easily detected by checking quotes or important words
through Google search and also through anti-plagiarism software.
Academicians and library professionals should put lot of efforts for prevention of
In India, there is an urgent need for written policy to be framed by University Grants
Commission (UGC) to address plagiarism in Higher Education.
It is also necessary to establish ‘Ethical Research Centers’ in Indian universities.
The Government of India should frame a ‘National Plan of Action’ that include
government/funding agencies, journal editors, national academies, voluntary bodies,
readers and public.
Above all, each individual should be self disciplined and think of the importance of
creative and innovative thinking while prospering in their careers.
1. Cogdell, Barbara.; Aidules, Dorothy. (2008). Dealing with Plagiarism as an Ethical Issue.
In Student Plagiarism in an Online World: Problems and Solutions, ed by Robert Tim S,
Information Science Reference: USA, 2008. Pp. 38-59.
2. Crot Software Available at
URL: http://www.siberiasoft.info/index.php/crot-overview.html Accessed on 02.05.2014.
3. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service policies on research
misconduct; final rule. 42 CFR Parts 50 & 93. Available at:
URL: http://www.nacua.org/documents/HHS_ResearchMisconduct.pdf. Accessed on
4. Doc Cop Software Available at URL: http://www.doccop.com/ Accessed on 02.05.2014
5. Easy Verification Engine (EVE2), Avaialble at
URL: http://www.canexus.com/eve/index.shtml Accessed on 02.05.2014.
6. Gupta, D.K. (2011). ETD: a New Genre of Documents in India. University News, 49(29).
7. Harries, Robert. (2004). Anti-Plagiarism Strategies for Research Papers. Available at
URL: http://www.virtualsalt.com/antiplag.htm Accessed on 12.12.2009.
8. Lancaster, T; Clarke, L. (2008). The Phenomenon of Contract Cheating. In Student
Plagiarism in an Online World: Problems and Solutions, ed by Robert Tim S,
Information Science Reference: USA, 2008. Pp. 144-158.
9. Maurer, H., et al. (2006). Plagiarism – A Survey. Journal of Universal Computer Science,
12(8). Pp. 1050-1084.10
10. Merriam-Webster’s online Dictionary, available at URL
http://www.learnersdictionary.com/search/plagiarism Accessed on 02.10.2010.
11. My Drop Box Suite, available at
URL: http://www.mydropbox.com Accessed on 02.05.2014.
12. Palgiarism.org. available at URL: http://www.plagiarism.org/plag_solutions.html
Accessed on 10.10.2010
13. Plagiarism Detection from Wikipedia, available at URL
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plagiarism_detection Accessed on 20.12.2010
14. Random House Dictionary of the English language
15. Roberts, Tim S. (2008). “Student Plagiarism in an Online World: An Introduction” in
Student Plagiarism in an Online World: Problems and Solutions, Ed by Tim S Robert,
Information Science Reference: USA, 2008. Pp.1-22.
16. Satija, M. P. (2011). Plagiarism: A Tempting Snake. University News, 49(21). Pp.4-8.
17. K, Satyanarayana. (2010). Plagiarism: a Scourge Afflicting the Indian Science-Editorial.
Indian Journal of Medical Research, 131. Pp 373-376. Available at
URL: http://www.icmr.nic.in/ijmr/2010/march/editorial2.pdf Accessed on 22.11.2010.
18. Shodhganga: a Repository for Indian Theses and Dissertations, available at
http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/ Accessed on 02.12.21010.
19. Society for Scientific Values. Available at
URL: http://www.scientificvalues.org Accessed on 20.12.2010.
20. Turnitin2, Available at URL: http://www.turnitin.com/static/whatsnew/index.php
Accessed on 02.05.2014.
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software. In Proceedings of 7th International CALIBER-2009. INFLIBNET Centre:
Ahmedabad. Pp 439-448.
22. University of Albama at Huntsvilla, available at URL
http://www.uah.edu/writing/Word_files/fac_preventing_plag2.doc Accessed on
23. William, Jeff Blog, available at
URL: http://browardbyte.ning.com/profiles/blogs/free-well-mostly-free-anti Accessed on
Websites for further information and learning:
1. University of Melbourne. Available at
URL: https://academichonesty.unimelb.edu.au/plagiarism.html Accessed on 02.05.2014
Accessed on 28.04.2014.
3. University of Albama at Huntsvilla Library guide. Avaialble at
URL: http://libguides.uah.edu/plagiarism accessed on 01.04.2014.
4. Harvard University – About using sources for avoiding plagiarism. Available at
2 accessed on 01.05.2014
5. Indian Copyright law. Available at
URL: http://indiankanoon.org/search/?formInput=plagiarism accessed on 08.05.2014
6. Some facts about Scientific Plagiarism. Available at
URL: http://facts.thefullwiki.org/Scientific_plagiarism_in_India accessed on 08.05.2014
7. D’Annunzio, Melissa Huseman. (2013). Punishable Perils of Plagiarism. Available at
Accessed on 05.05.2014. 11
8. Hancock, Jeff. (2012). Future of Lying. Available at
URL: http://www.ted.com/talks/jeff_hancock_3_types_of_digital_lies Accessed on
9. Ariely, Dan. (2009). Why We Think its OK to Cheat and Steal (Sometimes). Available at
URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nUdsTizSxSI Accessed on 05.05.2014.
1. Joint Information systems Committee on Plagiarism. Available at URL:
http://www.jisc.ac.uk/plagiarism Accessed on 20.11.2010.
2. K, Satyanarayana. (2010). Plagiarism: a Scourge Afflicting the Indian Science-Editorial.
Indian Journal of Medical Research, 131. Pp 373-376. Available at
URL: http://www.icmr.nic.in/ijmr/2010/march/editorial2.pdf Accessed on 22.11.2010.
3. Lampert, Lynn D. (2004). Integrating Discipline based Anti-Plagiarism Instruction into
the Information Literacy Curriculum. Reference Service Review, 32(4. Pp. 347-355.
4. Butakov, Sergey; Barber, Craig. (2012). Protecting Student Intellectual Property in
Plagiarism Detection Process. British Journal of Educational Technology, 43(4).
10.111/j.1467-8535.2012.01290.x Accessed on May 5, 2014.
5. Pimple, Kenneth D. (2008). Research Ethics: The International Library of Essays in
Public and Professional Ethics. Ashgate Publishing Ltd: England.
Did you know?
1. The information can be borrowed readily with out any fear of plagiarism:
a. Compilations of readily available information, such as the phone book
b. Works published by Government institutes (with proper citation)
c. Works that are in public domain (with proper citation)
d. The general facts which are not of result of any kind of experimental work (such as In
India there are 28 existing states and 29th state to be evolved is Telangana)
2. Fair use, dealt in section 107 of US Copyright Act, expects libraries to make an assessment
whether a use is fair or not based on the following four factors or tests:
i. The purpose of character of use
ii. The nature of the work
iii. The amount of the portion of work reproduced (in relation to whole work)
iv. The impact of use on the market or value of the work
1. CONTU guidelines - Section 108 of the Act, prescribed several limitations on the exclusive
right of copyright holder to enable libraries and archives to reproduce under specific
conditions to fulfill requirement of their service mission. CONTU guidelines are also called
as Rule five.
2. 23rd April is observed as Word Book and Copyright Day in order to honor and acknowledge
the authors and their contributions –books and other intellectual content. The UNESCO
establishes 23 April a red letter day for the significance it holds for world literature
Questions for Self check:
1. What is your definition of Plagiarism?
A. Plagiarism is copying words or ideas, paraphrasing someone’s work without acknowledging
the original author/creator. Also manipulation of data by falsification or fabrication which is
unethical and considered as misappropriation of intellectual property rights.
2. Do you think it is necessary to frame clear guidelines for classifying plagiarism/cheating and
how to report such cases? Why?
A. Yes. As framing of clear guidelines for classifying plagiarism/cheating will help in taking
proper action during the handling of issues of plagiarism.
3. Match the following:
To whom should the cases of Plagiarism be reported for the below mentioned categories
a. Students 1. Research & Ethical Committee/Committee constituted to
address plagiarism (3)
b. Research Scholars 2. Academic coordinator/responsible team of faculty members
c. Scientists 3. Concerned authorities from which contributors belong to (4)d. Authors 4. Dean of respective faculty/Vice Chancellor office (2)
4. Copyright law do not provide protection to the creators, giving them excessive rights over
distribution and reproduction of that material (False)
5. The “facts” that have been published as the result of individual research are considered as the
intellectual property of that author. (True)
6. Do you think that anti-plagiarism software will play a major role in prevention of plagiarism?
A. Though plagiarism software has no role in prevention, it will help to make understand
students and faculty members about the prevalence of plagiarism so that necessary
precautions can be taken for its prevention.
7. Name two (i) Commercial and (ii) Open source anti plagiarism software
A. i. Commercial software (a) EVE plagiarism detection, (b) iTenticate- Turnitin software
ii. Open Source Software (a) Plagiarism Detector, (b) Crot
8. What are the major steps that are to be implemented to prevent plagiarism in academics?
A. Creating awareness amongst students and research scholars about the plagiarism and
disadvantages associated with it. There should be a strict ‘Academic Honour Code’ to
address plagiarism in higher education.
9. What kind of penalties or punishments are to be faced by the plagiarists?
A. The range of penalties and punishments that are to be faced by plagiarists will be:
For students and researchers will be from repeating semester/ debarring from the enrolled
programme. If the plagiarism by respective author is reported, for faculty member and
scientist, he/she may have to resign or accept suspension/dismissal from the current position.
If author is a research scholar then it will lead to the extent of cancellation of Ph.D.
registration from the respective university. Also the Editor-in-Chief of the respective
journal/publisher will black list the author for entire life.
10. What is the UGC’s initiative behind launching Shodhganga project through INFLIBNET
A. UGC’s initiative behind launching Shodhganga project through INFLIBNET Centre is to:
i. To provide broad access to research output
ii. To avoid duplication of research output
iii. To avoid plagiarism as the research content being into public domain will encourage
whistle blowers to report plagiarism that will further help in its prevention
11. Do you think that availability of Open Access resources are a threat or boon for plagiarism?
A. Though it is imagined Open Access as a boon for plagiarism, in reality it is a threat to it. As
content plagiarized from Open Access resources will be readily available for scrutiny.
12. Have you ever noticed any Library guides providing information about ‘avoiding plagiarism’ on
Indian University websites?
A. Though the library guides for preventing plagiarism are not noticed on Indian university
websites, few universities are offering links related to citations, citation styles and antiplagiarism
software13. How Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) is helpful in preventing plagiarism?
A. VLE support learning through collaboration and integration of learners that will lead to
series of discussions and group assignments that will help in improving the thought process
and creative thinking, which will prevent plagiarism.
14. What would be the Library professionals’ contribution in prevention of plagiarism?
A. Library professionals have a vital role in preventing plagiarism. Through Information
Literacy activities they can train students and faculty members to search authentic resources,
importance of citations, citation styles, Copy right, Intellectual Property Rights and Fair use
and Open Access, etc. They can also provide online tutorials by creating Library guides on
15. DMCA (The Digital Millennium Copyright Act) is incorporated into the copyright act from