Friday, December 26, 2014

Functions of computer P- 04. Information Communication Technology for Libraries

इस ब्लॉग्स को सृजन करने में आप सभी से सादर सुझाव आमंत्रित हैं , कृपया अपने सुझाव और प्रविष्टियाँ प्रेषित करे , इसका संपूर्ण कार्य क्षेत्र विश्व ज्ञान समुदाय हैं , जो सभी प्रतियोगियों के कॅरिअर निर्माण महत्त्वपूर्ण योगदान देगा ,आप अपने सुझाव इस मेल पत्ते पर भेज सकते हैं -

Functions of computer

P- 04. Information Communication Technology for Libraries *

By :Usha Munshi,Paper Coordinator

Multiple Choice Questions

0 / 1 Points

Question 1: Multiple Choice

Computer RAM is
  •  Un-checked Volatile
  • Wrong Answer Checked Non-vlatile
1 / 1 Points

Question 2: Multiple Choice

Dot matrix printer is
  • Correct Answer Checked character printer
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Line Printer
0 / 1 Points

Question 3: Multiple Choice

Example of Non-volatile Memory
  • Wrong Answer Checked RAM
  •  Un-checked ROM
1 / 1 Points

Question 4: Multiple Choice

How many bits in Nibble
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked 2 bits
  • Correct Answer Checked 4 bits
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked 8 bits
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked 16 bits
1 / 1 Points

Question 5: Multiple Choice

Laser printer is
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Impact Printer
  • Correct Answer Checked Non-impact printer
1 / 1 Points

Question 6: Multiple Choice

The hardware that forwards data packets between computer networks
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Switch
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Hub
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Cable
  • Correct Answer Checked Router
0 / 1 Points

Question 7: Multiple Choice

The physical docking point using which an external device can be connected to the computer is called as
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked connectors
  •  Un-checked ports
  • Wrong Answer Checked slots
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked devices
4 / 7 PointsFinal Score:


Any digital computer carries out mainly five functions:
  • Takes data as input.
  • Stores the data/instructions in its memory and can use them when required.
  • Processes the data and converts it into useful information.
  • Provide Outputs.
  • Controls and manages all the above four functions.
Alternate Text


Computer is defined as an electronic device which is capable of receiving (data) in a particular form and of performing a sequence of operations in accordance with a predetermined but variable set of procedural instructions to produce a result in the form of information or signals.
[Ref: Oxford Dictionary]
Computer System is an electronic data processing device, which does the following:
  • Accept and store an input data.
  • Process the data input.
  • And output the processed data in required format.


The main advantages of Computers in today's world are discussed below: 
High Speed
Computer is a fast device which can perform millions of computations on big data within microsecond, nanosecond and even the picoseconds.
Computers are very accurate and it can perform calculation at 100% error free.
Storage Capability
The computer has much more storage capacity than human beings it can store large data and data can be of any type such as images, videos, text, audio and any other type.
Unlike human beings, a computer is free from monotony, tiredness and lack of concentration. Hence it can work continuously without creating any error and boredom and also can do repeated work with same speed and accuracy.
Computers can be used to solve the problems relating to various different fields. At one instant, it may be solving a complex scientific problem and the very next moment it may be playing a card game.
Modern electronic components have failure-free long lives. Computers are designed to make maintenance easy. Hence we can say that a computer is a reliable machine
Once a program is given to computer, i.e., stored in computer memory, the program and instructions can control the program execution without human interaction.
Reduction in Paper Work
The use of computers for data processing in an organization leads to reduction in paper work and speeds up the process. As data in electronic files can be retrieved as and when required, the problem of maintenance of large number of files gets reduced.
Reduction in Cost
Though the initial investment for installing a computer is high but it substantially reduces the cost of each of its transaction.


Following list demonstrates the disadvantages of Computers in today's arena.
A computer is a machine and has no intelligence of its own to perform any task. Each and every instruction has to be given to the computer. A computer cannot take any decision on its own.
It can perform function as instructed by user, so it is fully dependent on human being.
The operating environment of computer should be dust-free and suitable to it.
No Feeling
Computer has no feeling or emotions. It cannot make judgment based on feeling, taste, experience and knowledge unlike a human being.
Applications of Computers
Following list demonstrates the various applications of Computers in today's arena.


Today, computers are integral part of all business organizations because of its characteristics like high speed of calculation, diligence, accuracy, reliability, or versatility. Computers are used in business organisation for:
  • Financial accounting,
  • Payroll Calculations
  • Budgeting
  • Sales Analysis
  • Financial forecasting
  • Managing employees database
  • Maintenance of stocks, etc.
Alternate Text
Today Banking is almost totally dependent on computer. Banks provide following facilities:
  • Banks on-line accounting facility, which includes current balances, deposits, overdrafts, interest charges, shares and trustee records.
  • ATM machines are making it even easier for customers to deal with banks.
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Insurance companies are keeping all records up-to-date with the help of computers. The Insurance Companies, Finance houses and Stock broking firms are widely using computers for their concerns. Insurance Companies are maintaining a database of all clients with information showing:
  • Online transactions,
  • Tracking of claims
  • Online approvals
  • how to continue with policies
  • starting date of the policies
  • next due installment of a policy
  • maturity date
  • interests due
  • survival benefits
  • bonus
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The computer has provided a lot of facilities in the Education System.
  • Online learning platforms are emerging trends in education
  • The uses of computer provide a tool in the Education system known as CBE (Computer Based Education). CBE involves Control, Delivery and Evaluation of learning.
  • The computer education is very familiar and rapidly increasing the graph of computer students.
  • There are number of methods in which educational institutions can use computer to educate the students.
  • It is used for prepare a database about student performance and analyses are carried out.
  • CCE is also done using computers
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 Use of computers in libraries activates a free flow of information from the point of information generation to the point of utilization of information efficiently and effectively.  Computers are used in libraries mainly:
  • Circulation management
  • Acquisition management
  • Serials management
  • Web portals
  • e-books,
  • E-journals etc.
In Marketing uses of computer are following:
  • Advertising: With computers, advertising professionals create art and graphics, write and revise copy, and print and disseminate ads with the goal of selling more products.
  • At Home Shopping: Home shopping has been made possible through use of computerised catalogues that provide access to product information and permit direct entry of orders to be filled by the customers.
Alternate Text
Health Care
Computers have become important part in all Medical Systems. The computers are being used in hospitals to keep the record of patients and medicines. It is also used in scanning and diagnosing different diseases. ECG, EEG, Ultrasounds and CT Scans, etc., are also done by computerised machines.
Some of major fields of health care in which computers are used:
  • Patient Monitoring System: These are used to check patient's signs for abnormality such as in Cardiac Arrest, ECG, etc
  • Diagnostic System: Computers are used to collect data and identify cause of illness.
  • Lab-diagnostic System: All tests can be done and reports are prepared by computer..
  • Pharmacy Information System: Computer checks Drug-Labels, Expiry dates, harmful drug side effects, etc.
  • Nowadays, computers are also used in performing surgery like in keyhole surgery
Alternate Text
Engineering Design
Computers are widely used in Engineering purposes.
One of major areas is CAD (Computer aided design). CAD provides creation, edition, and modification of image. Some fields are:
  • Structural Engineering: Requires stress and strain analysis required for design of Ships, Buildings, Budgets, Airplanes, etc.
  • Industrial Engineering: Computers deal with design, implementation and improvement of integrated systems of people, materials and equipments.
  • Architectural Engineering: Computers help in planning towns, designing buildings, determining a range of buildings on a site using both 2D and 3D drawings.
Alternate Text
Computers are largely used in defense. Modern tanks, missiles, weapons, etc., employ computerised control systems. Some military areas where a computer has been used are:
  • Missile Control
  • Military Communication
  • Military operation and planning
  • Smart Weapons
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Communication means to convey a message, an idea, a picture or speech that is received and understood clearly and correctly by the person for whom it is meant. Some main areas in this category are:
  • E-mail
  • Chatting
  • Forums
  • FTP
  • Telnet
  • Video-conferencing
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Government Applications
Computers play an important role in government applications. Some major fields in this category are:
  • E-Governance
  • Resource management
  • GIS
  • Budgets
  • Sales tax department
  • Income tax department
  • Census reports
  • Computerization of voters lists
  • Computerization of Driving Licensing system
  • Computerization of PAN card
  • Weather Forecasting.
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Computer - Components

All types of computers follow a same basic logical structure and perform the following five basic operations for converting raw input data into information useful to their users
Sr. No.
Take Input
The process of entering data and instructions into the computer system.
Store Data
Saving data and instructions so that they are available for processing as and when required.
Processing Data
Performing arithmetic, logical operations on data in order to convert them into useful information.
Output Information
The process of producing useful information or results for the user, such as a printed report or visual display.
Control the workflow
Direct the manner and sequence in which all of the above operations are performed.
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Input Unit
The input devices are used to give data to the computer. This unit makes interface between user and computer.  The input devices translate the human being information into the form understandable by computer.
Output Unit
Output unit consists of devices with the help of which we get the information from computer. This unit is a link between computer and users. Output devices translate the computer's output into the form understandable by users.
Memory or Storage Unit:
Memory unit store instructions, data and intermediate results and supplies information to the other units of the computer, when needed. It is also known as main memory or primary storage or Random access memory (RAM). Its size affects speed, power and capability. The memory is subdivided into primary memory and secondary memory.
CPU (Central Processing Unit)
CPU is considered as the brain of the computer. CPU performs all types of data processing operations. It stores data, intermediate results and instructions (program). It controls the operations of all parts of computer.
CPU itself has the following three components
  • ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)
  • Memory Unit
  • Control Unit
 Alternate Text
Control Unit
All the functions and units are controlled by the control unit. Functions of this unit are:
  • It is responsible for controlling the transfer of data and instructions among other units of a computer.
  • It manages and coordinates all the units of the computer.
  • It obtains the instructions from the memory, interprets them and directs the operation of the computer.
  • It communicates with Input/Output devices for transfer of data or results from storage.
ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)
This unit consists of two subsections namely:
  • Arithmetic Section
  • Logic Section
Arithmetic Section
Function of Arithmetic section is to perform arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. All complex operations are done by making repetitive use of above operations.
Logic Section
Function of logic section is to perform logic operations such as comparing, selecting, matching and merging of data.

Computer - Input Devices

Following are few of the important input devices, which are used in Computer Systems:
  • Keyboard
  • Mouse
  • Joystick
  • Light pen
  • Track Ball
  • Scanner
  • Graphic Tablet
  • Microphone
  • Magnetic Ink Card Reader (MICR)
  • Optical Character Reader (OCR)
  • Bar Code Reader
  • Optical Mark Reader
Most common and very popular input device is keyboard. The keyboard helps in inputting the data to the computer. The layout of the keyboard is like that of traditional typewriter, although there are some additional keys provided for performing some additional functions. Keyboards are of two sizes 84 keys or 101/102 keys, but now 104 keys or 108 keys keyboard is also available for Windows and Internet.
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Mouse is most popular Pointing device. In computing, a mouse is a pointing device that detects two-dimensional motion relative to a surface. This motion is typically translated into the motion of a pointer on a display, which allows for fine control of a graphical user interface. It is very easy to use, inexpensive, moves the cursor faster than the arrow keys of keyboard.
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Joystick is also a pointing device, which is used to move cursor position on a monitor screen. It is a stick having a spherical ball at its both lower and upper ends. The lower spherical ball moves in a socket. The joystick can be moved in all four directions.
The function of joystick is similar to that of a mouse. It is mainly used in Computer Aided Designing (CAD) and playing computer games.
 Alternate Text

Light Pen
Light pen is a pointing device, which is similar to a pen. It is used to select a displayed menu item or draw pictures on the monitor screen. It consists of a photocell and an optical system placed in a small tube.
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Track Ball
Track ball is an input device that is mostly used in notebook or laptop computer, instead of a mouse. This is a ball, which is half inserted and by moving fingers on ball, pointer can be moved.Since the whole device is not moved, a track ball requires less space than a mouse. A track ball comes in various shapes like a ball, a button and a square.
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Scanner is an input device, used when some information is available on a paper and it is to be transferred to the hard disc of the computer for further manipulation. Scanner captures images from the source which are then converted into the digital form that can be stored on the disc. These images can be edited before they are printed.
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Digitizer is an input device, which converts analog information into a digital form. It can convert a signal from the television camera into a series of numbers that could be stored in a computer. They can be used by the computer to create a picture of whatever the camera had been pointed at. Digitizer is also known as Tablet or Graphics Tablet because it converts graphics and pictorial data into binary inputs. A graphic tablet as digitizer is used for doing fine works of drawing and images manipulation applications.
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Microphone is an input device to input sound that is then stored in digital form. The microphone is used for various applications like adding sound to a multimedia presentation or for mixing music.
 Alternate Text
Magnetic Ink Card Reader (MICR)
MICR input device is generally used in banks because of a large number of cheques to be processed everyday. The bank's code number and cheque number are printed on the cheques with a special type of ink that contains particles of magnetic material that are machine readable. This reading process is called Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR). The main advantage of MICR is that it is fast and less error prone.
 Alternate Text
Optical Character Reader (OCR)
OCR is an input device used to read a printed text. OCR scans text optically character by character, converts them into a machine readable code and stores the text on the system memory.
 Alternate Text
Bar Code Readers
Barcode Reader is a device used for reading bar coded data (data in form of light and dark lines). Bar coded data is generally used in labeling goods, numbering the books, etc. It may be a hand-held scanner or may be embedded in a stationary scanner. Barcode Reader scans a bar code image, converts it into an alphanumeric value, which is then fed to the computer to which bar code reader is connected.
 Alternate Text
Optical Mark Reader (OMR)
OMR is a special type of optical scanner used to recognize the type of mark made by pen or pencil. It is used where one out of a few alternatives is to be selected and marked. It is specially used for checking the answer sheets of examinations having multiple choice questions.
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Computer - Output Devices

Following are few of the important output devices, which are used in Computer Systems:
  • Monitors
  • Graphic Plotter
  • Printer
Monitor commonly called as Visual Display Unit (VDU) is the main output device of a computer. It forms images from tiny dots, called pixels, that are arranged in a rectangular form. The sharpness of the image depends upon the number of the pixels.
There are two kinds of viewing screen used for monitors:
  • Cathode-Ray Tube (CRT)
  • Flat-Panel Display
Cathode-Ray Tube (CRT) Monitor
In the CRT, display is made up of small picture elements called pixels for short. The smaller the pixels, the better the image clarity or resolution. It takes more than one illuminated pixel to form whole character, such as the letter 'e' in the word help.
A finite number of characters can be displayed on a screen at once. The screen can be divided into a series of character boxes - fixed location on the screen where a standard character can be placed.
Most screens are capable of displaying 80 characters of data horizontally and 25 lines vertically. There are some disadvantages of CRT:
  • Large in Size
  • High power consumption
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Flat-Panel Display Monitor
The flat-panel display refers to a class of video devices that have reduced volume, weight and power requirement compared to the CRT. You can hang them on walls or wear them on your wrists. Current uses for flat-panel displays include calculators, video games, monitors, laptop computer, graphics display.
The flat-panel display are divided into two categories:
  • Emissive Displays - The emissive displays are devices that convert electrical energy into light. Example are plasma panel and LED (Light-Emitting Diodes).
  • Non-Emissive Displays - The Non-emissive displays use optical effects to convert sunlight or light from some other source into graphics patterns. Example is LCD (Liquid-Crystal Device)
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Printer is the most important output device, which is used to print information on paper.
There are two types of printers:
  • Impact Printers
  • Non-Impact Printers
Impact Printers
The printers that make impressions of the characters by striking against the ribbon and onto the paper are called impact printers. Characteristics of Impact Printers are the following:
  • Very low consumable costs
  • Impact printers are very noisy
  • Useful for bulk printing due to low cost
  • There is physical contact with the paper to produce an image
These printers are of two types:
  • Character printers
  • Line printers
Character Printers:
Character Printers are printers, which print one character at a time.
These are of further two types:
  • Dot Matrix Printer (DMP)
  • Daisy Wheel
Dot Matrix Printer
In the market, one of the most popular printer is Dot Matrix Printer because of their ease of printing features and economical price. Each character printed is in form of pattern of Dot's and head consists of a Matrix of Pins of size(5*7, 7*9, 9*7 or 9*9) which comes out to form a character that is why it is called Dot Matrix Printer.
  • Inexpensive
  • Widely Used
  • Other language characters can be printed
  • Slow Speed
  • Poor Quality
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Daisy Wheel
Head is lying on a wheel and Pins corresponding to characters are like petals of Daisy (flower name) that is why it is called Daisy Wheel Printer. These printers are generally used for word-processing in offices which require a few letters to be send here and there with very nice quality representation.
  • More reliable than DMP's
  • Better quality
  • The fonts of character can be easily changed.
  • Slower than DMP's
  • Noisy
  • More expensive than DMP's
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Line Printers
Line printers are printers, which print one line at a time.
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These are of further two types:
  • Drum Printer
  • Chain Printer
Drum Printer
This printer is like a drum in shape so it called drum printer. The surface of drum is divided into number of tracks. Total tracks are equal to size of paper, i.e., for a paper width of 132 characters, Drum will have 132 tracks. A character set is embossed on track. The different character sets available in market are 48 character set, 64 and 96 characters set. One rotation of drum prints one line. Drum Printers are fast in speed and prints between 300 to 2000 lines per minute.
  • Very high speed
  • Very expensive
  • Characters fonts can not be changed
Chain Printer
In this printer, chain of character sets are used so it called Chain Printers. A standard character set may have 48, 64, 96 characters.
  • Character fonts can easily be changed.
  • Different languages can be used with the same printer.
  • Noisy
  • Do not have the ability to print any shape of characters.
Non-impact Printers
The printers that print the characters without striking against the ribbon and onto the paper are called Non-impact Printers. These printers print a complete page at a time, also called as Page Printers.
These printers are of two types:
  • Laser Printers
  • Inkjet Printers
Characteristics of Non-impact Printers:
  • Faster than impact printers.
  • They are not noisy.
  • High quality.
  • Support many fonts and different character size.
Laser Printers
These are non-impact page printers. They use laser lights to produce the dots needed to form the characters to be printed on a page.
 Alternate Text
Inkjet Printers
 They print characters by spraying small drops of ink onto paper. Inkjet printers produce high quality output with presentable features. They make less noise and these have many styles of printing modes available. Colour printing is also possible.

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Computer - Memory

A memory is just like a human brain. It is used to store data and instructions. Computer memory is the storage space in computer where data is to be processed and instructions required for processing are stored.
Memory is primarily of three types:
  • Cache Memory
  • Primary Memory/Main Memory
  • Secondary Memory
Cache Memory
Cache memory is a very high speed semiconductor memory, which can speed up CPU. It acts as a buffer between the CPU and main memory. It is used to hold those parts of data and program which are most frequently used by CPU. The parts of data and programs are transferred from disk to cache memory by operating system, from where CPU can access them.
  • Cache memory is faster than main memory.
  • It consumes less access time as compared to main memory.
  • It stores the program that can be executed within a short period of time.
  • It stores data for temporary use.
  • Cache memory has limited capacity.
  • It is very expensive.
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Primary Memory (Main Memory)
Primary memory holds only those data and instructions on which computer is currently working. It has limited capacity and data gets lost when power is switched off.
It is generally made up of semiconductor device. These memories are not as fast as registers. The data and instructions required to be processed earlier reside in main memory. It is divided into two subcategories RAM and ROM.
Characteristic of Main Memory
  • These are semiconductor memories.
  • It is known as main memory.
  • Usually volatile memory.
  • Data is lost in case power is switched off.
  • It is working memory of the computer.
  • Faster than secondary memories.
  • A computer cannot run without primary memory.
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Secondary Memory
This type of memory is also known as external memory or non-volatile. It is slower than main memory. These are used for storing Data/Information permanently.  Contents of secondary memories are first transferred to main memory and then CPU can access it. For example, disk, CD-ROM, DVD, etc.
Characteristics of Secondary Memory
  • These are magnetic and optical memories.
  • It is known as backup memory.
  • It is non-volatile memory.
  • Data is permanently stored even if power is switched off.
  • It is used for storage of the data in the computer.
  • Computer may run without secondary memory.
  • Slower than primary memories.
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Computer - RAM

A RAM (random access memory) constitutes the internal memory of the CPU for storing data, program and program result. We can reach into the memory at random & extremely fast but can also be quite expensive. RAM is volatile, i.e., data stored in it is lost when we switch off the computer or if there is a power failure.
RAM is of two types:
  • Static RAM (SRAM)
  • Dynamic RAM (DRAM)

Computer - ROM

ROM stands for Read Only Memory. The memory from which we can only read but cannot write on it. This type of memory is non-volatile. The information is stored permanently in such memories during manufacture. A ROM stores such instructions as are required to start computer when electricity is first turned on, this operation is referred to as bootstrap.
 Alternate Text
Following are the various types of ROM:
MROM (Masked ROM): The very first ROMs were hard-wired devices that contained a pre-programmed set of data or instructions. These kinds of ROMs are known as masked ROMs. It is inexpensive ROM.
PROM (Programmable Read only Memory): PROM is read-only memory that can be modified only once by a user. It can be programmed only once and is not erasable.
EPROM (Erasable and Programmable Read Only Memory): The EPROM can be erased by exposing it to ultra-violet light for a duration of up to 40 minutes.
EEPROM (Electrically Erasable and Programmable Read Only Memory): The EEPROM is programmed and erased electrically. It can be erased and reprogrammed about ten thousand times. Both erasing and programming take about 4 to 10 ms (milli second).

Computer - Motherboard

motherboard (sometimes alternatively known as the mainboardsystem board) is the main printed circuit board (PCB) found in computers and other expandable systems. It holds many of the crucial electronic components of the system, such as the central processing unit (CPU) and memory, and provides connectors for other peripherals. The motherboard serves as a single platform to connect all of the parts of a computer together.
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  • Motherboard varies greatly in supporting various types of components.
  • Normally, a motherboard supports a single type of CPU and few types of memories.
  • Video Cards, Hard disks, Sound Cards have to be compatible with motherboard to function properly.
  • Motherboards, cases and power supplies must be compatible to work properly together.
  • Intel
  • ASUS
  • AOpen
  • ABIT
  • Biostar
  • Gigabyte
  • MSI

Popular Manufacturers


The motherboard is mounted inside the case and is securely attached via small screws through pre-drilled holes.
Motherboard contains ports to connect all of the internal components. It provides a single socket for CPU. For memory, normally one or more slots are available. Motherboards provide ports to attach floppy drive, hard drive and optical drives via ribbon cables. Motherboard carries fans and a special port designed for power supply.
There are peripheral card slots on front of the motherboard using which video cards, sound cards and other expansion cards can be connected to motherboard.
On left side, motherboard carries a number of ports. These ports connect monitor, printer, mouse, keyboard, speaker, network cables and all to the motherboard. Motherboards also provide USB ports, which allow compatible devices to be connected in plug-in/plug-out fashion. For example, pen drive, digital cameras, etc.

Computer - Memory Units

  • It is the amount of data that can be stored in the storage unit.
  • The storage capacity is expressed in terms of Bytes.
Following are the main memory storage units:
Sr. No.
Bit (Binary Digit)
A binary digit is logical 0 & 1 representing a passive or an active state of a component in an electric circuit.
A group of 4 bits is called nibble.
A group of 8 bits is called byte. A byte is the smallest unit, which can represent a data item or a character.
A computer word like a byte, is a group of fixed number of bits processed as a unit which varies from computer to computer but is fixed for each computer.
The length of a computer word is called word-size or word length and it may be as small as 8 bits or may be as long as 96 bits.
A computer stores the information in the form of the computer words.
Few higher storage units are the following:
Sr. No.
Kilobyte (KB)
1 KB = 1024 Bytes
Megabyte (MB)
1 MB = 1024 KB
GigaByte (GB)
1 GB = 1024 MB
TeraByte (TB)
1 TB = 1024 GB
PetaByte (PB)
1 PB = 1024 TB

Computer - Ports

What is a Port?
A computer port is a physical docking point using which an external device can be connected to the computer. External devices are connected to a computer using cables and ports. Ports are slots on the motherboard into which a cable of external device is plugged in. Examples of external devices attached via ports are mouse, keyboard, monitor, microphone , speakers, etc.
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Following are few important types of ports:
Serial Port - Used for external modems and older computer mouse.
Parallel Port -Used for scanners and printers
PS/2 Port -Used for old computer keyboard and mouse
Universal Serial Bus (or USB) Port -Can connect all kinds of external USB devices such as external hard disk, printer, scanner, mouse, keyboard, etc.
VGA Port -Connects monitor to a computer's video card.
Power Connector - Connects to the computer's power cable that plugs into a power bar or wall socket.
Firewire Port
  • Transfer large amounts of data at very fast speed.
  • Connects camcorders and video equipments to the computer
  • Data travels at 400 to 800 megabits per second.
  • Invented by Apple
  • Three variants: 4-Pin FireWire 400 connector, 6-Pin FireWire 400 connector and 9-Pin FireWire 800 connector
Modem - Connects a PC's modem to the telephone network.
Ethernet Port-Connects to a network and high speed Internet.
Digital Video Interface, DVI port -Connects a Flat panel LCD monitor to the computer's high-end video graphic cards.
Sockets - Connect microphone, speakers to sound card of the computer 

Computer - Hardware

Hardware represents the physical and tangible components of the computer, i.e., the components that can be seen and touched.
Examples of Hardware are following:
  • Input devices -- keyboard, mouse, etc.
  • Output devices -- printer, monitor, etc.
  • Secondary storage devices -- Hard disk, CD, DVD, etc.
  • Internal components -- CPU, motherboard, RAM, etc.

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Computer - Software

Software is a set of programs, which are designed to perform a well-defined function. A program is a sequence of instructions written to solve a particular problem.
There are two types of soft wares:
  • System Software
  • Application Software
System Software
The system software is a collection of programs designed to operate, control and extend the processing capabilities of the computer itself. System software are generally prepared by computer manufacturers.
The software comprise of programs written in low level languages which interact with the hardware at a very basic level. System software serves as the interface between hardware and the end users. Some examples of system software are Operating System, Compilers, Interpreter, Assemblers, etc.
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Application Software
Application softwares are the softwares that are designed to satisfy a particular need of a particular environment. All softwares prepared by us in the computer lab can come under the category of Application Software.
Application software may consist of a single program, such as a Microsoft's notepad for writing and editing simple text. It may also consist of a collection of programs, often called a software package, which work together to accomplish a task, such as a spreadsheet package.
Examples of Application softwares are the following:
  • Payroll Software
  • Student Record Software
  • Inventory Management Software
  • Income Tax Software
  • Railways Reservation Software
  • Microsoft Office Suite Software
  • Microsoft Word
  • Microsoft Excel
  • Microsoft Powerpoint
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Features of system software and application software are:
System software
Application software
  • Close to system.
  • Fast in speed.
  • Difficult to design.
  • Difficult to understand.
  • Less interactive.
  • Smaller in size.
  • Difficult to manipulate.
  • Generally written in low-level language.

  • It is close to user.
  • It is easy to design.
  • More interactive.
  • Slow in speed.
  • Generally written in high-level language.
  • Easy to understand.
  • Easy to manipulate and use.
  • Bigger in size and requires large storage space.

Computer - Number System

When we type some letters or words, the computer translates them in numbers as computers can understand only numbers. A computer can understand positional number system where there are only a few symbols called digits and these symbols represent different values depending on the position they occupy in the number. Radix or base is defined as the total number of digits available in the number system
Decimal Number System
The number system that we use in our day-to-day life is the decimal number system. Decimal number system has base 10 as it uses 10 digits from 0 to 9. In decimal number system, the successive positions to the left of the decimal point represent units, tens, hundreds, thousands and so on.
As a computer programmer or an IT professional, you should understand the following number systems, which are frequently used in computers.
Number System & Description
Binary Number System
Base 2. Digits used: 0, 1
Octal Number System
Base 8. Digits used: 0 to 7
Hexa Decimal Number System
Base 16. Digits used: 0 to 9, Letters used: A- F
Binary Number System
Binary number systems use two digits, 0 and 1 and therefore called base 2 number system. Each position in a binary number represents power of the base 2
Binary Number: 101012
Calculating Decimal Equivalent:
Binary Number
Decimal Number
Step 1
((1 x 24) + (0 x 23) + (1 x 22) + (0 x 21) + (1 x 20))10
Step 2
(16 + 0 + 4 + 0 + 1)10
Step 3
Note: 101012 is normally written as 10101.
Octal Number System
Octal number systems use eight digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. It is also called base 8 number system. Each position in a octal number represents power of the base (8).
Octal Number: 125708
Calculating Decimal Equivalent:
Octal Number
Decimal Number
Step 1
((1 x 84) + (2 x 83) + (5 x 82) + (7 x 81) + (0 x 80))10
Step 2
(4096 + 1024 + 320 + 56 + 0)10
Step 3
Note: 125708 is normally written as 12570.
Hexadecimal Number System
Hexadecimal number system uses 10 digits and 6 letters: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F. Letters represent numbers starting from 10. A = 10. B = 11, C = 12, D = 13, E = 14, F = 15. It is also called base 16 number system. Each position in a hexadecimal number represents power of the base (16). Example, 160.
Hexadecimal Number: 19FDE16
Calculating Decimal Equivalent:
Binary Number
Decimal Number
Step 1
((1 x 164) + (9 x 163) + (F x 162) + (D x 161) + (E x 160))10
Step 2
((1 x 164) + (9 x 163) + (15 x 162) + (13 x 161) + (14 x 160))10
Step 3
(65536+ 36864 + 3840 + 208 + 14)10
Step 4
Note: 19FDE16 is normally written as 19FDE.

Computer - Data & information

What is Data?
Data can be defined as a representation of facts, concepts or instructions in a formalized manner, which should be suitable for communication, interpretation or processing by human or electronic machine.
Data is represented with the help of characters like alphabets (A-Z, a-z), digits (0-9) or special characters(+,-,/,*,<,>,=, etc.).

What is Information?
Information is organised or classified data so that it has some meaningful values to the receiver. Information is the processed data on which decisions and actions are based. For the decision to be meaningful, the processed data must qualify the following characteristics:
  • Timely - Information should be available when required.
  • Accuracy - Information should be accurate.
  • Completeness - Information should be complete.

Data Processing Cycle

Data processing is the re-structuring or re-ordering of data by people or machine to increase their usefulness & add values for particular purpose.
Data processing consists of basic steps input, processing and output. These three steps constitute the data processing cycle.
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  • Input - In this step, the input data are prepared in some convenient form for processing. The form will depend on the processing machine. For example, when electronic computers are used, the input data could be recorded on any one of several types of input mediums, such as magnetic disks, tapes and so on.
  • Processing - In this step, input data are changed to produce data in a more useful form. For example, pay-checks may be calculated from the time cards or a summary of sales for the month may be calculated from the sales orders.
  • Output -Here, the results of the proceeding processing step are collected. The particular form of the output data depends on the use of the data. For example, output data may be pay-checks for employees.

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Computer - Networking

What is a Computer Network?

A computer network is a system in which multiple computers are connected to each other to share information and resources.
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  • Used to communicate each other.
  • Share Resources from one computer to another
  • Create files and store them in one computer, access those files from the other computer(s) connected over the network
  • Connect a printer, scanner or a fax machine to one computer within the network and let other computers of the network use the machines available over network.
Following is the list of hardware required to set up a computer network:
  • Network Cables
  • Router
  • Network Interface card
  • Switches/Hubs
Network Cables
Network cables are used to connect computers. The most commonly used cable are Category 5 and 6 cable RJ-45.
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To connect many computers to form a network we use a central body to which other computers, printers, scanners, etc., can be connected and then this body will manage or distribute network traffic.
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router is a networking device, commonly specialized hardware that forwards data packets between computer networks. This creates an overlay internetwork, as a router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks. When a data packet comes in one of the lines, the router reads the address information in the packet to determine its ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey.
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Network Card
Network card is a necessary component of a computer without which a computer cannot be connected over a network. It is also known as network adapter or Network Interface Card (NIC). Most of branded computers have network card pre-installed.
Network Interface Cards
Network cables are required to provide network access.
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