Thursday, December 18, 2014

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Application in Libraries P- 02. Academic Libraries

इस ब्लॉग्स को सृजन करने में आप सभी से सादर सुझाव आमंत्रित हैं , कृपया अपने सुझाव और प्रविष्टियाँ प्रेषित करे , इसका संपूर्ण कार्य क्षेत्र विश्व ज्ञान समुदाय हैं , जो सभी प्रतियोगियों के कॅरिअर निर्माण महत्त्वपूर्ण योगदान देगा ,आप अपने सुझाव इस मेल पत्ते पर भेज सकते हैं -

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Application in Libraries

P- 02. Academic Libraries *

By :jagtar singh,Paper Coordinator


Today due to information technology information being produced in the form of various format and is being produced print as well as in non-print form documents. The requirements for information of users have also grown. Library budgets have not grown at the rate as compared to the prices of documents have grown. Due to the remarkable growth of knowledge, there is need for libraries to use information and communication technologies for improving their services. ICT incorporates a range of technologies used to support communication and information. ICT includes both networks and applications. Networks include wireless and satellite telecommunications, broadcasting networks and well known applications are the Internet, database management systems and multimedia tools. ICT makes library work easier, faster, cheaper and more effective. It helps to manage information overload as information retrieval is made easier in computerized systems. Remote access is enabled through networked systems. Computerization saves space and reduces paper. Information and Communication Technology is a set of technological tools and resources which are used to communicate, to create, disseminate, store and manage the information.

Concept and Meaning of ICT/ Automation

Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is synonymous with IT and sometimes used in preference to Information Technology (IT). Sharma, Singh & Kumar (2011) express “ICT” is an umbrella term that includes all technologies for the manipulation and communication of information. The term “ICT” describes the use of computer-based technology and the Internet to make information and communication services available to a wide range of users. Hamelink, (1997) defined as ICTs are those technologies that enable the handling of information and facilitate different forms of communication. These include capturing technologies (e.g. camcorders), storage technologies (e.g. CD-ROMs), processing technologies (e.g. application software), communication technologies (e.g. Local Area Network) and display technologies (e.g. computer monitors).
“ICTs are basically information-handling tools – a varied set of goods, applications and services that are used to produce, store, process, distribute and exchange information for the development of the country. They include the “old” and “traditional” ICTs of radio, television and telephone, and the “new” and “advanced” ICTs of computers, satellite and wireless technology and the Internet. These different tools are now able to work together, and combine to form our “networked world” -a massive infrastructure of interconnected telephone services, standardized computing hardware, the Internet, radio and television, which reaches into every corner of the globe” (Chitla, 2012).
Meaning of Automation The word “automation” has been derived from Greek word “automose” means something, which has power of spontaneous motion or self-movement. The term “automation” was first introduced by D.S. Harder in 1936, who was then with General Motor Company in the U.S. He used the term automation to mean automatic handling of parts between progressive production processes. According to Webster’s Third New International Dictionary of English Languages, automation is, “the techniques of making an apparatus, a process or a system operate automatically”. Automation is “the creation and application of technology to monitor and control the production and delivery of products and services.” In simply words Automation is technology of doing work automatically with the use of machines to control systems and information technologies to increase the productivity in the production of goods and delivery of services.
The Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science define Automation as “automation is the technology concerned with the design and development of process and system that minimize the necessity of human intervention in operation”. (Kent, 1977)
According to McGraw Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology It defines automation as “a coined word having no precise generally accepted technical meaning but widely used to imply the concept, development, or use of highly automatic machinery or control systems”. As per the Oxford English Dictionary automation is “application of automatic control to any branch of industry or science by extension, the use of electronic or mechanical devices to replace human labour” (Simpson & Weiner, 1989).

History of Application of ICT/ Automation in Libraries

The first application of automatic data automation in libraries can be traced back to 1936 when the University of Texas adapted a mechanical system for its circulation function. It started in early fifties in the Untied States of America and during this phase computers entered in American libraries. The use of computers and application was very limited and restricted due to the high cost of hardware and non-availability of application software packages. The landmark was the initiation of MARC project (Machine Readable Cataloguing) by the Library of Congress to provide a format for cataloguing. H.P. Luhn had organized computerized indexes in 1950s.
In the early 1960s library automation began especially in the U.S.A. after the World War II. During this period, many libraries in North America and in the U.K began to experiment processing of information by using computers. The era of ICT based library began in the late 1960s to a great extent with the success of INTREX and the MARC projects. During this online, real time interactive computer systems were introduced in the library and information field. In April 1960 the American Chemical Society published its ‘Chemical Titles’ through computers. During this phase, OPAC i.e. Online Public Access Catalogue was in an experimental stage in the U.S.A. and  Machine Readable Catalogue i.e. MARC came into existence in year 1963 at the Library of Congress, U.S.A for providing standardization in automation. W.K. Gilbert prepared a report in the year 1963 on computerization of Library of Congress. On the basis of this report of MARC I project was started in 1966, and the work of bringing out of the Library of Congress Catalog in Machine Readable Catalog (MARC) form was started and completed.
During this phase, OPAC i.e. Online Public Access Catalogue was in an experimental stage in the U.S.A. In 1967, the Ohio College Library Centre (OCLC) was set up which is an online system which marked the beginning of cooperative systems and union catalogue. In 1969, the Library of Congress started distribution of records in the new MARC II format. (Tedd, 1977).In 1967 both OCLC and BALLOTS became operative. In the early 1970s, Online Systems were in operation in several libraries, for example, Bell Telephone Laboratories, Eastern Illinois University etc.
In the 1970s there has been an increase in library cooperation and resource sharing by libraries developing computer based systems. In this phase, designing of online systems and conversion of batch systems into online mode was done and also the growth of library network and databases were seen in these Phase. Here magnetic tapes and floppy disks were used for storing information. During late 1970s there were some achievements like production of National Union Catalogue of Scientific Serials by INSDOC, production of Union Catalogue of DRDO libraries of Western Region by the Institute of Armament Technology at Pune.
Information Technology (recently called ICT) word first time found and appeared in the literature of library and information science in 'Library and Information Science Abstracts' (LISA) in 1975, but term was not in regular use until the early 1980s as mentioned in a guidebook for young professional librarian, (Rowley and Lea, 1988). In the 1980s there was in intensive use of online systems networks, optical disks, CD-ROMs etc. In this period, microcomputers came to be used in libraries. Late on through Internet and library networks, all processes of libraries were integrated(Rajagopalan, 1986).Many techniques were introduced in the universities and national libraries. Several of these systems were like tabulators, sorters; punched cards were used for circulation i.e. for providing books on loan, serial control, acquisition, cataloguing etc. (Laxminarayan, 1986). 

History of ICT / Automation Application in Library in India

The Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta was first in India to install a computer system in 1955, and to develop an indigenous computer in 1964.In India, some libraries and information centers made efforts to ‘automate’ their library routines and information services in 1960s with punch card and with a couple of second generation general computers that were available at Kanpur and Bombay. INSDOC was the leader in experimenting with computers for their application in documentation and information work in 1964. Initially they made use of the IBM 1620 Model I that was available at IIT Kanpur. The first attempt was with work on data collected for union catalogue of scientific serial (Raizada, 1965).
In India computers were used in library work for the first time possibly by INSDOC when they computerized the author and subject indexes of ‘Indian Science Abstract’ in 1965.The next experiment carried out at INSDOC in computerization was on preparing author and subject indexes to Indian Science Abstracts.
In 1967 the INSDOC brought out the ‘Roster of Indian Scientific and Technical Translators’ with the help of computers. In 1978 INSDOC initiated SDI service as a NISSAT project with Chemical Abstracts and INSPEC data-bases, with the use of CAN/SDI software of IIT, Madras.
In 1970s many libraries ventured in preparing computerized databases. Through the initiative and financial support of NISSAT many library networks were initiated and are operative. Notables of these networks are CALIBNET (Calcutta Library Network) and DELNET (Delhi Libraries Network), INFLIBNET (Information & Library Network) PUNENET (Pune Library Network) etc. Among other networks are notable are NICNET, INDONET, SIRNET etc. Now a-
days many institutions such as DRTC, INSDOC, DESIDOC, NISSAT etc. are engaged in imparting training for computer application in library work through regular, sponsored and adhoc courses. The price of computer hardware and software has been considerably reduced. Owing to these factors computers have become popular with Indian libraries (Pandey, 1995).
The real boost in library automation came from the establishment of INFLIBNET, Before INFLIBNET; scattered efforts were being made in academic libraries especially in institution of special characters like IITS, IIMS etc. INFLIBNET proved a real catalyst by providing finance and laying standards (Singh, 2003).
Kaul (1999) has given the growth of library automation can be better understood from the following table:
Growth and Developments of Library Automation
n  1940-1949 Semi-mechanical applications including edge-notched cards, optical coincidence, peek-a-boo cards.
n  1950-1959 Use of punched cards, data processing equipments, early computers and micro image searching systems.
n  1960-1969 Application of general purpose digital computers, feasibility studies of online interactive and advance micro image systems, experiments in library networking.
n  1970-1979 Design of online systems and conversion of batch systems into online mode, growth of library network and databases.
n  1980-1989 Intensive use of online systems, networks, mini and microcomputers, optical disks, CD-ROMs, FAX etc.
n  1990s Use of internet and library networks aims towards higher levels of computer application such as recording through electronic media, artificial intelligence etc.
Meaning of ICT Application in Libraries
The emerging Information and communication technologies have changed the face of the libraries services in information storage, retrieval and dissemination of information. “Traditional library housekeeping methods are now carried by using newer technologies. Newer technologies have given better solution to most of the problems encountered in the field of library related to the acquisition, organisation of information, reference services, circulation and bibliographical services”(Perera and Dinesh, 2010) . The use of ICT in libraries is automation of libraries completely. The automation means the use of computers application, telecommunications and microelectronics etc is in the libraries for various works like acquisition, storage, retrieval, transfer and dissemination of information.
Library automation or library computerization is synonymous term used for ICT application in libraries or application of computers and utilization of computer based product and services in the performance of different library operations and functions in carrying out various services. There is a great impact of computers and information technology due to its application in the libraries. ICTs helps library professionals to manage their housekeeping and documentation activities such as circulation, acquisition, maintenance of catalogue, periodical management etc. in the libraries by automating them. The other automated services in the libraries are storage, dissemination and advance searched for the scholars such as SDI, compiling bibliographies, indexing/abstracting etc. Libraries with the ICT application a huge amount of information can be stored and transmit throughout the world
The ICT technologies applied in libraries to face their housekeeping problems and to seek better solution is as stated following (Kakkar, 2006)   
  1. Computing technology (hardware/software)
  2. Communication technology
  3. Network and Internet technology
  4. Web world
  5. Printers/Publishing technology
  6. Reprographic and micrographic technology
An automated library is one where a computer system is used to manage one or several of the libraries key functions such as acquisitions, serials control, cataloging, circulation and the public access catalog. Library automation is the general term for information and communications technologies (ICT) that are used to replace manual systems in the library. Automation is a procedure of using the machineries to do for working easily and saving the labour of human and time. Library Computerization is the part of library automation. At present use of the computer technology for library keeping operation such as administrative work, acquisition, cataloguing, circulation, serial control, OPAC etc. known as library computerization. Table 2 shows the compared concept of traditional library functions with changing into ICT based library (Branscomb, 1981) as cited from Nasir Uddin, 2001
Alternate Text

Definition of ICT/ Automation Application in Library

Library automation may be defined as the application of automatic and semiautomatic data processing machines (computers) to perform traditional library housekeeping activities such as acquisition, circulation, cataloguing and reference and serials control. Today “Library Automation” is by far the most commonly used terms to describe the mechanization of library activities using the computer (Uddin, 2009).
Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences “Library Automation is the use of automatic and semiautomatic data processing machines to perform such traditional library activities as acquisitions, cataloguing, and circulation. These activities are not necessarily performed in traditional ways, the activities themselves are those traditionally associated with libraries; library automation may thus be distinguished from related fields such as information retrieval fields such as information retrieval, automatic indexing and abstracting and automatic textual analysis” (Kent, 1977).

Aims and Objectives of ICT/ Automation Application in Library

In the light of these developments, a library needs to chalk out a programme for efficient and effective management of its services through the use of ICTs. Though library automation programmes started out in many libraries in India as ad-hoc developments which were regularized later, efficiency and effectiveness in library services can be brought out by detailing the objectives of a 'library automation programme.' These objectives can be emphasized that library automation is an expensive affair, may be it involves in one time expenditure on computer parts (hardware), but many other costs such as on software, data entry, data storage, maintenance etc has to be done time to time for up gradation. 
  • Speedily disposal of library work and to provide access to information at a faster rate.
  • To improve control over collection and to have an effective control over the entire operation;
  • To avoid duplication of work by reducing the repetition in the technical processes of housekeeping operations
  • Establishment of a well storage & retrieval system
  • To improve development in the new and existing services library services
  • Time and proper use of human resources saving with qualitative services of the existing staff effectively
  • To maintain and provide bibliographical records of in a computerized form of all the holdings of a library materials through a single enumerative access point.
  • To provide bibliographical details
  • To implements new IT processes to provide high quality information.
  • Improving cost-efficiency in library operations identified above. When discussing cost-efficiency, this must not be understood that by using ICTs, the resulting costs of the operations/services would be necessarily less than those before the use of ICTs.
  • Suitability for library cooperation & coordination development
  • Simplicity in library management to meet the objectives
  • Preparation of reports and correspondence
  • To share effectively and have Suitability for resource sharing and networking among various libraries in a region; to share the resources through library networking.

Need of ICT/ Automation in Libraries

  • In the traditional library systemslibrary functions were performed manually and due to information explosion and increasing demands of users it was getting difficult to provide all the services to users by saving their time.
  • The size of recorded information is ever growing whereas space available at the disposal of each library is limited. No library can think of getting additional space every year, although the collection will grow continuously;
  • Due to knowledge explosion, the society is faced with multifaceted and multidimensional information to such an extent that not only its storage has created challenge, but the organization of this bulk of information has also become unwieldy;
    • Library operations, due to potential growth of information, could take many hours to perform manually but with automation all sorts of housekeeping jobs and other works can be performed with effective and accuracy.
  • Availability of information in various formats print and non-print, and different approaches and needs of user
  • Limitation of  library to buy all published documents, less time, space and human power
  • To avoid the duplication in housekeeping operation and to improve the quality, speed and effectiveness of services to users
  • To provide users a well management and retrieval of information so that they can  search national and international database
  • Due to impact of communication technology on society
  • To improve access the resources on other networks and systems, including the Web at remote place
  • To improve the financial resources and to participate  in resource-sharing and library networks

Preparation for ICT Application in Library

Before taking decision for library automation it is important to know the how much it is need and hoe to afford. Knowledge about Computer hardware and software is must.
Hardware and Software: When automating the library, the hardware to be procured should also be given a thought. While procuring the hardware, it should be seen whether the software which will be implemented will be compatible with the hardware procured. The term software refers to a set of computer programmes written or developed to enable the computer to do desired operations (Pandey, 1995). It is one of the most important components which should be taken notice of, while automation.
Budget: When planning for library automation and networking sufficient funds has to be provided by the institution or the funding agencies for purchasing of hardware, software, furniture etc. It should be noted that if sufficient funds are not available for purchasing the entire software, then the library should automate only those areas, which are of utmost importance and then later on go for overall automation modules.
Training: Manpower or personnel of the library is also an essential necessity. To provide effective and efficient services to the users, the staff should be provided training about the computers, how to work on computers, and the essential features of the software adopted and how the software is used.

Areas and Functions for ICT/ Automation in a library

ICT is used in various areas and fields of library activities are as follows:
Ordering and Acquisitions Acquisition:
  • Ordering Receipting and Acquisition/Accession list
  • Order file/report
  • Claiming
  • Fund accounting
  • Enquiries (about the status of orders)
  • Reports and statistics (about orders)
Serials management:
  • Ordering (placing and renewing subscriptions)Receipting (of individual issues)
  • Claiming
  • Serials cheek-in/out and claiming
  • Union/holding list
  • Binding (control Of items in binding) Fund accounting
  • Cataloguing (of new titles) Circulation control (if items are issued or circulated)
  • Inquiries (related to serials)
  • Reports and statistics
  • Data Entry
  • Authority control
  • Downloading of records from other databases, OPAC and other catalogue forms
  • Online access and On-line catalogue
  • Public Access Interface
  • Other Catalogue forms
  • Access from remote users over the Internet Catalogue card/label production
  • Retrospective conversion
Circulation Control
  • Setting parameters (to reflect loan policies, opening times, etc.)
  • Issue and Return
  • Renewal
  • Fines
  •    Reservations
  •    Borrower file maintenance
  • Enquiries (concerning borrower or the status of items) Notices Reports and statistics (about the utilization of stock)
  • Accounting/budgeting
  • Word processing/mailing
  • Scheduling/planning
  • Statistics/report
  • Tools and analysis of statistical information
Inter library loans
  • (Similar to circulation control but usually with fewer options)
  • Entry
  • Issue and Return
  • Fines
  • Borrower file maintenance
  • Enquiries
  • Reports and statistics
Audio-visual management:
  • Audio-visual acquisition/cataloging
Information storage/retrieval:
  • Database construction
  • Online database searching
  • Down loading/uploading
  • Indexing and abstracting
Reference/Information services:
  • Bibliographic listings
  • Library instructions 
  • Public access/com
Community Information
  • Data Entry
  • Online access
  • Public Access interface
  • Public literacy

Application of ICT / Automation in House Keeping Operations

Impact of ICT has transformed the ‘traditional library’ into ‘automated library’. Libraries have been serving as hybrid libraries and new form of libraries are ‘Digital library’ and ‘virtual library’ also seen due to ICT. The use of information technology for automating various library housekeeping jobs, functions and activities. Use of information technology in libraries is aimed to provide better services and to save the time of the library patrons. Library with the ICT application can operate house-keeping, planning, maintenance and other administrative works.
Application of ICT Acquisition
Acquisition is important part of the house keeping jobs as it add the new collection support in achieving the aim of a library. Automated library acquisition system helps doing all those work in more accurate, timely and with complete records of orders. This reduces labour and paper work and the personnel time and efforts required to do which is involved in manual system.
Types of files processed in acquisition
Libraries differ in nature, size, collection, services, budget and objectives, etc. Hence, the files required and functions involved in automated library acquisition would vary from library to library. The records of files processed in acquisition commonly are as:
  • Record of document data 
  • Record of  vendors data
  • Record of document In-acquisition or in-process data
  • Record of financial data
  • Record of invoice/ bill data
  • Record of library purchase policy and decision taken file
  • Record of Files related to currency conversion data and users data, etc.
Acquisition processes or operations involved in library acquisitions are selection, order, receive and accession. The acquisition of document goes through following processed such as:
Request:  Receive indents, suggestions and requests for the documents to be acquired
Pre-Order: In this process documents are check if the requested items are already there in the library or in the process of acquisition to avoid duplication of documents.
  • Approval is obtain from the authority for purchase and
  • Select vendor, type of grant etc.
Order: Order of the documents is placed through electronically generated or print
Post-Order Follow-up claims for overdue orders
  • Receive and record items against delivery bills
  • Physical verification is done of received items
  • Process invoice for payments
  • Accessioning of the documents
  • Reports are generated for pertaining to acquisition
  • Send items for further processing i.e. classification, cataloguing and binding
  •   Supports accessioning of the items such as in regular order, on-approval, gifts or Exchange, etc.;
  • Supports and handles ordering of multiple copies and multi volume documents;
  • Capable of transforming the input data into actual order to be sent;
  • Handles the partial receipt of an order;
  • Accommodates variety of materials in different formats;
  • Generates claims/ reminder notices for un-received items
  • Supports the cancellation of order due to non-supply of orders and Provides wide range of access points to search one or more data files in relation to acquisition
Library Automation in Serial / Periodical Control
Effective control over serial publications has always been a challenging library operation. The libraries acquire periodicals like newspapers, magazines, and journals as well as other periodical publications such as serials, conference proceedings of learned societies etc. The term serials/ periodical are used to describe the function, policies, procedures and operations for the acquisition of periodicals in a library. The acquisition systems of periodical publications are not same as acquiring of books.  Therefore the acquisition functions of periodicals deal with periodicals section in a library only. Library can have an efficient control over acquisition, maintenance and circulation of serial/ periodical publications. The process of overed under automated serial control is as follows 
For New Subscription and Purchasing
  • Placing and starting new subscription orders for new titles
  • Checking out of expiry of subscribed and renew of existing subscription and sending renewal/standing orders.
  • Entry of issues arrived in a library Sending reminders for overdue issues and if not required subscription to be stop
  • Cancellation of subscription
  • Preparing lists of periodicals subject wise, vendor wise, according to local parameters such as academic department/unit wise for academic libraries
  • Maintaining budget records related to payments and other expenditures by preparation of routing slips for journal issues
  • Preparation of lists of periodicals for updating of holding list
  • Preparation and maintenance of files on publishers, vendors, languages, countries, currencies, subjects, frequencies and mode of delivery.
  • Invoice processing
Receipt of Issues
  • Check-in on computer data entry of received regular or special issues of journals including supplements and indexes, etc.
  • Claiming and sending reminders/ claims for un-received or missing issues of journals
Post Receipt
  • Routing involves in circulation of individual issues
  • Binding of old periodicals  and  accessioning of bound volumes
  • Management reports based on titles, checked-in and claims, etc.
  • On-line user access to be provided through OPAC
  • Circulation of bound volumes if the library does
  • Preparing indexing for subject bibliographies and for services like CAS, SDI
Library Automation in Cataloguing:  
Cataloguing is one of the most important tools (catalogues) that are to be used maximum of times by most of the users. The catalogues tools help in utilization of a library's resources and services. Computerised cataloguing is one of the most used retrieval tool all over the world. It is also used to exchange, distribute and use the bibliographic data across the geographical boundaries. Computer based cataloguing became possible with the creation of Computer Output Microform (COM) catalogues in 1960s.
Rowley (1987) listed the use of catalogues are mainly by two ways:
(a) Cataloguing and other catalogue forms, and.
(b) OPAC
The basic use of computers in cataloguing is for reducing the data-entry effort. Once bibliographic details of document are fit into the system, the data can be used for generating catalogue cards, as well as getting output in given electronic forms, e.g. the Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC). In many cases libraries in their initial stages have only electronic catalogues without those available online. Production of book catalogues of new arrivals is also possible. Book cards and spine labels can also be produced using the same data that was entered at an earlier stage in technical or circulation or acquisition sections.
The automation done in cataloguing process provides speed up in the processing of materials into the collection. It reduces the clerical effort, stationery (cards.) and unit cost of cataloguing a work and act as a common means to library materials across libraries. Machine Readable Cataloguing "MARC format" is a broadly accepted structural coding scheme for all type of material, like monographs, serials, sound recordings, scores, manuscripts, maps, audio-visual materials, and machine readable data files. The data can be included in a MARC format is all information represented on cataloguing cards such as author, title editor, physical description, series statement, notes, subject headings, added entries call number, ISBN and information which is helpful for cataloguing and processing by the computer. 
Components of Machine Readable Format
The machine format consists of the following components:
i) Data element: To be entered with information such as ISBN.
ii) Field:  It contains detail description of the documents- author, title, and place of publication, publishers, year of publication, edition, volume, and series. Fields are of two kinds: a) Fixed fields, containing data elements that is always expressed in a predetermined number of characters; b) Variable fields, containing data elements with no predetermined length.
ii) Record: The complete collection of fields treated a record represents a particular bibliographic item i.e., a book, periodical article, etc.
A machine readable record format will have three major components. They are
i)                    The structure of a record, which is the physical representation of data on the machine readable medium
ii)                  The content designators of labels, which are the means of identifying the data elements or providing additional information about each data element or sometimes referred to as codes used to represent data elements;
iii)                The contents of the record, which are the data elements themselves.
Computer Based Cataloguing (OPAC) display deals with
Retrieved Results,
Individual Records
Should provide appropriate amount of information
Generally there are three layer displays in an OPAC
Brief display; and
Full Display
Library Automation in Circulation:
Libraries control circulation by keeping records in order to achieve optimum availability to use of its reading materials by users. Automated circulation systems need the following data for record:
Records of Users ( Library Member) data 
  • New Registration or Renewal of membership to create a unique ID
  • Entry of personal details
  • Entry of patron’s eligibility and other parameters like number of documents to be issued, period of loan and category of membership, expiry date of membership, etc.
  • Generation of patron ID card with a barcode embedded.
  • Edit or modification in any of the above
  • Deletion or cancellation of membership
  • Issue of ‘No-dues’ or ‘clearance’ certificate
Records for Documents
  • Maintenance of document database automatically done through Acquisition and Catalogue modules of library
Records of Administration work
  • Update Calendar (due date and calculation of overdue charges)
  • Inter Library Loan
  • Fiscal Management
  • Generation of reports related to circulation
Records of Transaction Management
  • Preparation of Check-in/ Check-out , overdue and recall notices for lent out items
  • Facilitation of renewals Collection of issue statistics
  • Identification and trapping of reserved books upon their return
           Helping in calculation and collection of overdue charges
Reminder of over borrowing and other borrower details
  • Report generation
 Barcode is an optical machine, which can read\ represent the data relating to the object to which it is attached. Barcode technology is widely used in circulation activities in a library. The details of the document and of the users needed for issue and return is captured from barcodes. Using Barcodes lots of library and users time is saves; reduced Cost; reduced errors; and improves the operational efficiency.

Services to the Users in ICT Environment

Library users have now accepted and making use computers, the Internet, the Web, Intranet, Extranet and other technologies. Library automation and networking provides numerous benefits to library users. As a result, library users are placing new demands on their libraries. Users are always in need to access the current and latest information resources.
Libraries provide speedy and easy access to information with the use of ICT. The users can access the information at remote place and enhances users' satisfaction. Users can access to unlimited information from different sources. Networked information resources have made possible to combine and reform information from different sources
Web access to OPACs: Libraries are providing access to Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) interfaces. This is making it easier for users to learn and use resources available in the library collection.
Electronic document delivery: Libraries are providing ICT based interlibrary lending system. Through electronic networks deliver of electronic document, copies of journal articles and other documents in digital format to library users' desktops has become easy.
Networked information resources: Libraries are providing their users with access to networked information resources, i.e. databases, electronic scholarly journals, encyclopedias, public government information, etc, provided by various publishers or suppliers.
Information delivery to users’ desktopLibrary users can now access to electronic information resources from the computer desktops in the computer centers, Internet cafes, offices and even at home.
Online instructions: library programmes to users how to use library sources and services. These include online tutorials on searching online resources and virtual tours of library collections.
Online reader’s advisory services to users include services such as informing users via e-mail, the website of the library about new arrivals of the documents , periodicals and providing facilities for readers to interact with the reference staff through online virtual reference desks), etc.


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