Tuesday, December 31, 2013

Latest trends in Bibliographic description & Exchange formats: ISBD & CCF P- 09. Knowledge Organization and Processing – Cataloguing * By :S P Sood

इस ब्लॉग्स को सृजन करने में आप सभी से सादर सुझाव आमंत्रित हैं , कृपया अपने सुझाव और प्रविष्टियाँ प्रेषित करे , इसका संपूर्ण कार्य क्षेत्र विश्व ज्ञान समुदाय हैं , जो सभी प्रतियोगियों के कॅरिअर निर्माण महत्त्वपूर्ण योगदान देगा ,आप अपने सुझाव इस मेल पत्ते पर भेज सकते हैं - chandrashekhar.malav@yahoo.com

Latest trends in Bibliographic description & Exchange formats: ISBD & CCF

P- 09. Knowledge Organization and Processing – Cataloguing *

By :S P Sood

3.1 Objectives:

After reading carefully this module, it in expected that  you will be able to understand :
  • The basic  concept  and need of bibliographic description ,
  • The development of preparation of draft for various non-book materials,
  • With regard to International standard bibliographic description ,
  • The characteristics  and very purpose of bibliographic description ,
  • The standards format which facilitates for consistency & uniformity in bibliographic,
  • The meaning of exchange format and the reasons for emergence of CCF
  • It’s objective, function and structure
  • The Features and benefit of CCF
Keywords : Bibliographic description, I S B N, Exchange format, Tag, P I G, Record label. 

3.2 Introduction:

      In this age of Information flood and the advent of IT era, it is very difficult to locate and retrieve the desired information. Hence it is necessary that the efficient information retrieval system must have a format of bibliographic description that matches its requirements. A bibliographic format in such a way to be redesigned so as to make it most compatible with the new information environment for international library resource sharing, international library  loan and global networking with the aid of information communication Technologies.
     The bibliographic description in a process of recording the items of information about the document for easy identification and instant location, access and for the purpose of effective dissemination.

3.31 Reasons for flourishing I S B D

         For more then 40 year, I F L A has made significant  contribution for promoting the cause of bibliographic standardisation  which pave the way for developing the concept of  I S B D. The most viable reasons for flourishing I S B D are :
  • Continuing influence of the forces that prompted their formulation  in the first place,
  • Inadequate library budget leads to economic necessity of sharing  cataloguing, the need of library automation and importantly to achieve bibliographic control,
  • Standardisation of bibliographic description format in the viable solution economically and technologically for creation, conversion and use of machine-readable records,
  • The I S B D’s were also intended is serve as the main component of I F L A’s program to make globally and promptly available the basic bibliographic information for all publications in all countries i.e. to promote Universal Bibliographic Control  

3.32 Introduction:

       Unprecedented growth of literature gives rise to develop adequate formats with standard bibliographic description to promote resource sharing among libraries and to have effective information retrieval system. The library scenario has been completely changed with the application Information Communication Technology rendered the traditional manual oriented bibliographic description standards inadequate paved the way for newer bibliographic standards. Moreover, the fast growth of International Bibliographic Exchange Formats and lack of compatibility poses problems to exchange records with one another. It is possible if each of the organizations agree upon a common standard format for exchange purpose to be achieved at National and International level.

3.33 Development of ISBD

In1969 a Working Group was set up at the International Meeting of Cataloguing Experts held at Copenhagen which marked the beginning of the process of developing International Standards for Bibliographic Description which was published in 1971and, subsequently, ISBD (M) was published in 1974. To cope up with advent of Non Book Materials, specific bibliographic descriptions are drafted like ISBD (CM), ISBD (AVM), ISBD (CF) etc. Further ISBD (G) was brought out to offer a generalized structure for the description bibliographic records and the only utility of (G) is that of ensuring harmony among various ISBD s and to remove incompatibility among them. Subsequently ISBD (ER) was brought out to catalogue the Electronic, Internet and Web resources and ISBD (S) for Serials has been changed to ISBD(CR) Continuing Resources in 2002.
            The ISBD specified the elements for bibliographic description, presented the sequence in which they should be presented and pinpointed the punctuation marks whereby they should be separated.
      There are essentially five phases in the development of a new and revised ISBD:
i)                                   creation of draft text.
   ii)   World Wide Review
  iii)    Final Revision
  iv)    Balloting
   v)    Publication and workshop’s
           The ISBD Review Group has taken    initiation to discuss and examine the following :
* to clarity the puropose of area 6 (series) and it’s relation with area 1 in ISBD continuous Resources (ISBD CR), previously  serials and ISSN: idenification or transcription;
*to verify the compatibility of sources of information recommended or prescribed in all ISBD for area 6 and area 1in ISBD(CR) and ISSN
* to improve consistencyof terminology and content throught ISBDs
    After prolong discussion, deliberations, comments and review of the proposed draft which was posted in IFLANET, feedback received which clearly provided the feasible solutions I the above issues.


ISBD has brought radical changes in descriptive cataloguing. The main objectives are :
  • To make records generating from different sources interchangeable so as to facilitate global networking.
  • To facilitate their interpretation overriding the language barrier, and
  • To make feasible conversion of such records into machine-readable form.
  • Intended to be an aid to international communication of bibliographic information between national and linguistic groups.
  • Intended to provide the data required in various bibliographical activities i.e not only in library cataloguing but also in the announcement of new publications and in the acquisition and distribution of Books and their handling both in the libraries and in the book trade.
  • To facilitate the free flow of information by facilitating the exchange of bibliographic records in one database to machine-readable form.


  • ISBD helps standardization of cataloguing rules and manual format for machine-readable bibliographic records.
  • To make publications identifiable by the descriptions alone without the aid of Headings of Main, Added entries or Uniform title.
  • To provide a standard to facilitate International exchange of bibliographic information, whether in written or machine readable form.
  • To provide a uniform descriptive framework for all types of library materials that will serve varied bibliographic uses.

  • Designed primarily as an instrument for the international communication of bibliographic information.  By specifying the elements which should comprise a bibliographical description and by prescribing the order in which they should be presented and the punctuation by which they should be presented and demarcated.
  • Should also be suitable to machine readable form and development of AACR-2 meets the ISBD standards and recommendations, as such AACR-2 is applicable to machine readable form.
  • To provide a standardization of bibliographic record


       1: It’s comprehensiveness
       2: It’s fixed order of data elements
       3: It’s use of punctuation as delimiters or
           divides between the different
           Bibliographic elements.
       4: In ISBD traditional data elements of bibliographic descriptions are separated and grouped into 8 distinct areas.                                                                                                               


There are 8 areas of description as per ISBD are:
  1. Title and statement of responsibility.
  2. Edition
  3. Material (or type of Publication) specific data (used for cartographic materials and serials)
  4. Publication, distribution data, including place and date of Publication.
  5.  Physical description
  6. Series
  7. Notes
  8. Standard number and terms of availability.
 Alternate Text

3.38 Punctuation marks used in ISBD

        The different punctuation marks used to demarcate various areas of bibliographic descriptions in ISBD have been prescribed in AACR—2R  are provided in Appendix-1 for better understanding and clarity of the students.


              The fast growth of international bibliographic exchange formats coupled with lack of compatibility amongst them creates problems both to libraries and other information services to exchange records with one another.  Hence, each of these organizations felt the urgent need to agree upon a common standard format for the purpose of easy exchange.  International Symposium on Bibliography Exchange Formats with the initiation by the UNESCO General Information Programmer in April 1978 in Taormina, Sicily was convened to study the desirability and feasibility of establishing maximum compatibility between existing bibliographic exchange formats. The Symposium was organized by UNISIST International Centre for Bibliographic Description in collaboration with International Council of Scientific Unions Abstracting Board, IFLA and ISO.
              After long deliberations by the experts, the Adhoc Group arrived at consensus for drafting the CCF with the following guide lines:
  1. That the structure of the new format would be in accordance with the ISO – 2709.
  2. That the core record would consist of a small number of mandatory data elements essential to bibliographic description, identified in a standard manner.
  3. That the core record would be larger in number by adding optional data elements, identified in a standard manner.
  4. That a standard technique would be developed for accommodating levels, relationships, and links between bibliographic entities.
  5. Most significantly it was also recommended that CCF should provide a meaningful link between the major exchange formats basing on ISBD.
  6. Also resolved that to device a technique to establish relationship between bibliographic records and between elements within bibliographic records.

              The concept of the record segment was developed and later refined and finally a method for designating relationship between records, segments and fields was duly approved by the Group.  Consequently the first edition of CCF was published in 1984 and subsequently the second edition was brought out in 1988.Various bibliographic agencies in Asia, North and South America and Europe recommended changes which were later on duly incorporated into this new edition.

              Within an information system, the records which form the database will usually exist in a number of separate but highly compatible formats.  At least there will be:
  • A format in which the records will be input to the system,
  • A format best suited to long – term storage,
  • A format to facilitate retrieval, and
  • A format in which records will be displayed.

              The need of CCF is remarkably significant if two or more organizations intend to exchange records with one another.  It cannot be achieved unless and until each of these organizations come to an agreement to adopt common standard format for exchange purposes.
              The information interchange within that country is possible so also will be greatly facilitated both technically and economically if there is a single national standard exchange format. Whereas, if the standard format of each country is different from all others, then it will be more problematic and complex to have international information interchange among national bibliographic agencies since a number of computer programs that must be written to accommodate the translation of records form one format to another.
              The most significant factor is to go for a common and compatible format to achieve uniformity and consistency among different kinds of agencies creating bibliographic records.

3.9.4 SCOPE
              The CCF is basically designed to provide a standard format for three major purposes :
  1. To permit the exchange of bibliographic records between the groups of libraries and the abstracting and indexing services.
  2. To permit a bibliographic agency to use a single set of computer programs to manipulate bibliographic records received from both the libraries and the abstracting and indexing services.
  3. To serve as the basis of a format for an agency’s own bibliographic database, by providing a list of useful data elements.

3.9.5 USES
These uses have been accommodated in the following ways:
  1. By specifying a small number of mandatory data elements which are recognized by all sectors of the information community as essential in order to identifying an item.
  2. By providing mandatory data elements that are sufficiently flexible to accommodate varying descriptive practices. Each field and subfield indicates whether-the use of that data element is mandatory or optional.
  3. By providing a number of optional elements which may be useful to describe an item according to the practices of the agency which creates the record.
  4. By providing a mechanism for linking records and segments of records without imposing on the originating agency any uniform practice regarding the treatment of related groups of records or data elements.

              The record structure of the Common Communication Format comprises a specific implementation of the International standard ISO – 2709; Each CCF consists of four major parts:
  1. Record Label
  2. Directory
  3. Data fields
  4. Record Separator
          The Diagrammatic Represent on of the CCF Record Structure has been given in Appendix – 2 for better understanding of the reders.

              Each CCF record begins with a fixed-length label of 24 characters to provide parameter to process record.
              The directory is a table containing a variable number of fourteen-character entries; the table is terminated by a field separator character.  Each directory entry corresponds to an occurrence of a data field in the record, and is divided into five parts:
  1. Tag
  2. Length of data field
  3. Starting character position
  4. Segment identifier
  5. Occurrence identifier

A data field consists of.
  1. Indicators
  2. One or more subfield each of which is preceded by a subfield identifier.
  3. A data field separator

              The record separator (Character 1/13 of ISO 646) is the final character of the record. It follows the field separator of the field data field of the record.
              The unique features of CCF attract many institutions, information centers, and other organization of various countries are mentioned as under:
(1)         As all the necessary data elements are incorporated, it can be used to produce catalogue cards
(2)         No cataloguing rules are imposed as it is user friendly and rather catalogue friendly since .
(3)         As it is a flexible and very popular format,  many developing countries are adopting it for the creation of bibliography records in machine readable form; Absolutely there is no problem for Bibliographic Agencies following AACR2 can be conveniently converted to CCF format.
(4)         Provision of basic data elements facilitate for optional elements and private fields thus enabling an agency to incorporate new standard elements considered important.
(5)         It facilitates a library and bibliographic agency to use a single use of computer program for the exchange of data.
(6)         Provision of the mandatory data elements which are flexible and can accommodate verifying descriptive practices.
(7)         Its simple set of data elements that can be used at any bibliographic level and are dissociated from cataloguing codes. 
(8)         It is the logically defined record structure which uses the fourth element of the ISO 2709 directory to denote the bibliographic level and filed occurrence.
(9)         CCF is specifically designed for retrieval and output within an institution. It neither includes its own cataloguing rules nrecommends any particular cataloguing code oriented towards any specific type of output format.

3.4. Summary :

            This module clearly discusses about bibliographic description, the development of ISBD and later on bibliographic formats for other special materials like ISBD (AV), ISBD (CM), ISBD (CF), ISBD (CR) and ISBD (ER) so as to help the catalogues for the  purpose of cataloguing. The objectives, purposes and characteristics are explained. Also the 8 areas of description of ISBD have been mentioned with the help of an entry showing the organization of items of information of a document. Further, the genesis, objectives, uses, structure and features of CCF have also been discussed. The structure of CCF have been explained by citing a diagram for better understanding.

3.5. Chunk Text :

  • ISBD originated in 1971 with the initiation of IMCU.
  • It facilitates for International library resource sharing and global networking.
  • ISBD for Electronic Resources was brought out in 2002 as rules of AACR-2R replacing, computer files”.
  • The serial, Rule-12 has been changed to ‘Continuing Resources’.
  • It is independent of language barrier.
  • ISBD helps standardization of cataloguing rules and facilitates conversion of records into machine-readable form.
  • ISBD consists of 8 areas of description.
  • Use of punctuation separates different bibliographic elements.
  • CCF was published in 1984 and 2nd edition in 1988.
  • Structure of new format is in consonance with ISO-2709.
  • CCF facilitates the exchange of bibliographic records between the groups of libraries and the abstracting & indexing services.
  • The record structure of CCF comprises record label, directory, data fields and record separator.

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