- Know the role, services and activities of Special Libraries
- Learn about NKC recommendations for Libraries
- Learn about various ICT tools which can be implemented in Special Libraries to enhance its outreach activities
2. Special Libraries
3. National Knowledge Commission (NKC) Recommendations
- Providing Internet access – This should link the local library to national and global information.
- Document delivery, including Electronic Document Delivery (EDD)
- Online public access catalogue (OPAC);
- Electronic/AV resources, workstations and appropriate infrastructure for use and delivery;
- All academic institutions must set up institutional repositories of research articles, reports, institutional publications and Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD). This should be made mandatory for accreditation. Such repositories should offer open access.
- Websites, portals, subject gateways, etc (especially in case of special libraries);
- Digitization of rare resources (before any digitization programme, one must consider what is to be digitized and whether any other libraries have undertaken similar exercises);
- Libraries having collections of print and electronic resources should provide integrated access using the latest ICT.
- Union catalogues (print and electronic) of periodicals should be updated and put online.
4. ICT applications for Special Libraries
4.1.1 Free Software
- The freedom to run the program, for any purpose (freedom 0).
- The freedom to study how the program works, and adapt it to your needs (freedom 1). Access to the source code is a precondition for this.
- The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor (freedom 2).
- The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements (and modified versions in general) to the public, so that the whole community benefits (freedom 3). Access to the source code is a precondition for this.
4.1.2 Open Source Software
- Free Redistribution: The license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away the software as a component of an aggregate software distribution containing programs from several different sources. The license shall not require a royalty or other fee for such sale.
- Source Code: The program must include source code, and must allow distribution in source code as well as compiled form. Where some form of a product is not distributed with source code, there must be a well-publicized means of obtaining the source code for no more than a reasonable reproduction cost preferably, downloading via the Internet without charge. The source code must be the preferred form in which a programmer would modify the program. Deliberately obfuscated source code is not allowed. Intermediate forms such as the output of a preprocessor or translator are not allowed.
- Derived Works: The license must allow modifications and derived works, and must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the license of the original software.
- Integrity of The Author's Source Code: The license may restrict source-code from being distributed in modified form only if the license allows the distribution of "patch files" with the source code for the purpose of modifying the program at build time. The license must explicitly permit distribution of software built from modified source code. The license may require derived works to carry a different name or version number from the original software.
- No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups: The license must not discriminate against any person or group of persons.
- No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor: The license must not restrict anyone from making use of the program in a specific field of endeavor. For example, it may not restrict the program from being used in a business, or from being used for genetic research.
- Distribution of License: The rights attached to the program must apply to all to whom the program is redistributed without the need for execution of an additional license by those parties.
- License Must Not Be Specific to a Product: The rights attached to the program must not depend on the program's being part of a particular software distribution. If the program is extracted from that distribution and used or distributed within the terms of the program's license, all parties to whom the program is redistributed should have the same rights as those that are granted in conjunction with the original software distribution.
- License Must Not Restrict Other Software: The license must not place restrictions on other software that is distributed along with the licensed software. For example, the license must not insist that all other programs distributed on the same medium must be open-source software.
- License Must Be Technology-Neutral: No provision of the license may be predicated on any individual technology or style of interface.
4.1.3 Free Software [or] Open Source Software?
4.1.4 Advantages of FOSS
- Full Software available without any locked-in modules which is a common practice among proprietary software.
- Firmware required by some hardware components also provided by the FOSS community.
- Prerequisite software also free and open source.
- Upgrading and updating is done regularly and frequently and anybody can update. Hence, is future-proofed and not dependent on the company.
- No extra charges for upgrading or updating.
- Even if software becomes obsolete, data can be retrieved since source code is open.
- No vendor lock-in as the software is supported by the FOSS community.
- No Annual Maintenance Contract (AMC) hassles.
- Instant online support via scores of mailing lists, user groups, even directly from developers (which is very rare in the case of proprietary and closed source software)
4.1.5 NKC recommendations on OSS for libraries
- Open source software should be used wherever possible at present and eventually at all levels.
- An open source web-enabled library management software should be developed if necessary and provided to all public libraries for facilitating networking. This software should support multiple Indian language scripts and dialects.
188.8.131.52.1 Benefits of Koha
- Full-featured ILS. Koha is used worldwide in libraries of all sizes with comprehensive functionality including basic or advanced options. Koha includes modules for circulation, cataloging, acquisitions, serials, reserves, patron management, branch relationships, and more.
- Dual Database Design. Koha uses a dual database design that utilizes the strengths of the two major industry-standard database types (text-based and RDBMS) which ensures that it meets the transaction load of any library.
- Library Standards Compliant. Koha is built using library standards and protocols that ensure interoperability between Koha and other systems and technologies, while supporting existing workflows and tools.
- Web-based Interfaces. Koha's OPAC, circulation management and self-checkout interfaces are all based on standards-compliant World Wide Web technologies.
- Free / Open Source. Koha is distributed under the open-source General Public License (GPL).
- No Vendor Lock-in. Libraries are free to install and use Koha themselves if they have the in-house expertise.
- Supports MARC 21 bibliographic framework for data entry and it is very easy to download download MARC records with Z39.50 server and bring those records into local Koha installation which helps to achieve standardization in cataloguing.
- Evergreen is a metadata search engine
- Evergreen is a transaction processing engine
- Evergreen is just another web application
- Evergreen is based on a robust, scalable, message-passing framework – OpenSRF (pronounced “open surf” stands for Open Scalable Request Framework. It is a framework that allows the development of software without requiring a detailed knowledge of Evergreen's structure.)
- Stable, even under extreme load.
- Robust, and capable of handling a high volume of transactions and simultaneous users.
- Flexible, to accommodate the varied needs of libraries.
- Secure, to protect our patrons’ privacy and data.
- User-friendly, to facilitate patron and staff use of the system.
184.108.40.206.1 Benefits of using DSpace (Dspace (2013). Retrieved from: http://www.dspace.org)
- Largest community of users and developers worldwide with over 800 organizations currently using the DSpace software in a production or project environment.
- Free open source software available for free to anyone. Any organization can use, modify, and even integrate the code into their commercial application without paying any licensing fees.
- Completely customizable:
- User interface – Using Mankin extension, one can fully customize the look and feel of DSpace to suite your own institution's website.
- Ability to customize the metadata - Dublin core is the default metadata format but one can add or change any field to customize.
- OAI-PMH compatible - Ability to configure Browse and Search, i.e. one can decide what fields you would like to display for browsing, such as author, title, date etc.
- Configurable database – one can choose either Postgres or Oracle for the database which DSpace manages items and metadata.
- Ability to choose the default language - DSpace web application is available in over twenty languages.
- Used by educational, government, private and commercial institutions as well as the museums, state archives, state and National Libraries, journal repositories, consortiums, and commercial companies.
- Install out of the box - DSpace comes with an easily configurable web based interface, where any system administrator can install on a single Linux or Windows box to get started.
- Manage and preserve all types of digital content - Common formats currently managed within the DSpace environment are PDF and Word documents. JPEG, MPEG, TIFF files.
220.127.116.11 Eprints (Eprints, 2013).
18.104.22.168.1 Benefits of EPrints
- Repository managers can lower the barrier for your depositors while improving metadata quality and the value of your collection.
- Depositors can
- For Researchers, Eprints
- For Developers
- For Webmasters
- For Institutions
22.214.171.124 Greenstone Digital Library (GSDL)
126.96.36.199.1 Benefits of Greenstone
- Platforms: Greenstone runs on all versions of Windows, and Unix/Linux, and Mac OS-X. It is very easy to install.
- Interoperability: Greenstone is highly interoperable using contemporary standards, It incorporates a server that can serve any collection over the Open Archives Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH), and Greenstone can harvest documents over OAI-PMH and include them in a collection. Any collection can be exported to DSpace ready for DSpace's batch import program, and any DSpace collection can be imported into Greenstone.
- Interfaces: Greenstone has two separate interactive interfaces, the Reader interface and the Librarian interface. End users access the digital library through the Reader interface, which operates within a web browser. The Librarian interface is a Java-based graphical user interface (also available as an applet) that makes it easy to gather material for a collection (downloading it from the web where necessary), enrich it by adding metadata, design the searching and browsing facilities that the collection will offer the user, and build and serve the collection.
- Metadata formats: Users define metadata interactively within the Librarian interface. These metadata sets are predefined:
- New metadata sets can be defined using Greenstone's Metadata Set Editor. "Plug-ins" are used to ingest externally-prepared metadata in different forms, and plug-ins exist for: XML, MARC, CDS/ISIS, ProCite, BibTex, Refer, OAI, DSpace, METS
- Document formats: Plug-ins are also used to ingest documents. For textual documents, there are plug-ins for: PDF, PostScript, Word, RTF, HTML, Plain text, Latex, ZIP archives, Excel, PPT, Email (various formats), source code. For multimedia documents, there are plug-ins for: Images (any format, including GIF, JIF, JPEG, TIFF), MP3 audio, Ogg Vorbis audio, and a generic plug-in that can be configured for audio formats, MPEG, MIDI, etc.
4.1.8 FOSS for Content Management
188.8.131.52.1 Main Features of Drupal
- Multi-sites feature: One can create more than one website using one instance of Drupal installation.
- Administrator can create authenticated users.
- User Roles can be created and accorded relevant permissions.
- Drupal allows users to register, login, log out, maintain user profiles, etc.
- Multi-user content creation and editing: This feature can be used by libraries to encourage and involve library users also to participate in content creation.
- OpenID support
- Access statistics and logging
- Advanced search functions
- Caching and feature throttling (i.e. one can disable features not required by the library) for improved performance under load
- Comments, forums, and polls
- Descriptive URLs (for example, "www.example.com/products" rather than "www.example.com/?q=node/432")
- Multi-level menu system
- RSS Feed and Feed Aggregator
- Security/new release update notification
184.108.40.206.2 Drupal Modules for Libraries
- Simple remote search module: This simple module allows users to search a remote database (like your OPAC) from your Drupal site.
- Z39.50 Search: This module implements the z39.50 Protocol for Information Retrieval using PHP interface to the YAZ toolkit. With this module you can easily search or scan z39.50 targets (servers) in parallel using the standard Drupal search API and present the results.
- Bibliography Module a.k.a. Drupal Scholar: This module allows users manage and display lists of scholarly publications. Features include:
10. Faceted Search: The Faceted Search module provides a search interface for allowing users to browse content. It is an information navigation and discovery tool. The interface exposes metadata in such a way that users can build their queries as they go, refining or expanding the current query, with results automatically reflecting the current query. This interface also combines free-text search, fully leveraging Drupal's search engine. It avoids complex search forms, and never offers facets that would lead to empty result sets. Faceted Search is in fact a bundle of modules.
- Page caching to improve performance
- RSS feeds
- Printable versions of pages
- News flashes
- Website searching
- Language internationalization.
- The Joomla package consists of different kinds of modular extensions. These extensions are of three kinds:
220.127.116.11.2 Joomla! Modules for Libraries
- Collection: This module manages a collection of books/CDs/DVDs/games. Features include, categories/subcategories; use Amazon web service to fetch additional information; provide a link to the Amazon product page with your partner-id; JoomFish support; users can manage their own lists of items; module to display lists.
- BookLibrary: This module provides a full-featured book library or book collection management environment on a Joomla-based website. It allows you to manage large book libraries. The component can also be used to easily set up a book selling shop using Amazon if you want. With an Amazon Associates ID (as an Amazon affiliate) you can earn credits with book sales through Amazon, while Amazon takes care of the handling and shipping.
- It allows splitting up the classification in categories and subcategories, with a tree structure, without limits in number of sub-children levels
- For every book it is possible to insert details like the book cover (with automatic size rearrangement). You can navigate even for author, editor.
- Registered users can see and comment every book reviewed. They can also ask for more information on the book by sending an email to the site administrator.
- There is a mambot to integrate the search in the entire site.
- It is presently available in Italian, English and French.
- Collaboration and sharing
- Versioning, history and reverting content
- Upgraded visual HTML editor
- Workflow capabilities
- Full-text indexing of Word and PDF documents
- Presentation mode for content
- Support for the search engine Sitemap protocol
- Support for multiple mark-up formats
- Wiki support
- Automatic previous/next navigation
- Rules engine for content
- Auto-generated tables of contents
- Multilingual content management
- Time-based publishing
- Human-readable URLs
- Powerful graphical page editor
- Navigation and updated site maps
- Drag and drop reordering of content
- XML exports of site configurations
- Localized workflow configuration
- Adjustable templates on content
- Standard content types
- Content is automatically formatted for printing
- Standards-compliant XHTML and CSS
- Accessibility compliant
- RSS feed support
- Automatic image scaling and thumbnail generation
- Free add-on products
- Comment capabilities on any content
- Installer packages for multiple platforms
- In-context editing
- Backup support
4.2.1 Applications of Live CD
- Hardware Manufacturers Live CDs allow the system user to test the hardware products without having an operating system in the way, and for consistency in testing configurations.
- Anti-virus software developers Live CDs allow the user to boot his system in a known safe condition, so any virus infections on their machine would not interfere with the virus testing software.
- System manufacturers and distributors Live CDs allow for a recovery of a broken operating system, or to re-baseline a system that needed to be reloaded for any reason.
- Operating system developers Live CD provides an environment to test system components, to install a new baseline operating system, or to recover a broken or otherwise corrupted OS.
- Public domain and third party software packages Live CD are used to test all computer hardware components without operating system intervention.
4.2.2 Functioning of Live CD
- System BIOS releases control to the boot device, i.e. Live CD, causing the initial operating system (OS) to be loaded.
- Live CD OS detects hardware attached to the system like, ISA and PCI controllers, processor resources, memory buses, system resources and components attached.
- Live CD OS loads drivers for hardware and provides a baseline configuration for those devices based on system BIOS configuration.
- Live CD OS creates an area in RAM to store necessary operating system components and loads operating system components into the RAM.
- The system loads up services and applications needed for Live CD functionality.
- The system either runs automated processes for testing, or enters
- interactive mode for users to perform functions they feel are necessary.
- One can test an operating system without actually loading it
- One can test all the applications under an OS that come with the livecd without loading them
- If one is satisfied, one can load the OS onto the hard disk
- CD-ROM of 700MB or
- USB memory stick (fastest) or
- Virtual Machines like VBOX, qemu, VMWare, kvm, etc. (slowest – unless you have the main memory more than 2 GB).
- One need not use a DVD as the LibliveCD requires just 700MB space
18.104.22.168 Components of Liblive CD
- DSpace (version: 3.1)
- Koha (version: 3.10.04)
- Drupal (version : 7.20)
- LXDE Desktop
- Open-ssh server
- MySQL and
- Exim4 (mail server)
- Dovecot (IMAP server)
- SquirrelMail (web based mail client)
- OpenJDK Java and Tomcat
- epdfview/Foxit (To read PDF files)
- Abiword (To read/edit doc files)
- IBus (Multilingual Input Method Framework)
- Gnumeric (To read/edit excel files)
4.3 Web 2.0 technologies
- Digital media sharing websites, and
- Social networking websites.
22.214.171.124 How to create a blog?
- a wiki website allows it's users to create, edit or delete content,
- provide meaningful page links between relevant topics.
126.96.36.199 How to create a Wiki?
4.3.3 Social Networking Websites
4.3.4 Media Sharing Websites
4.4 Virtual Libraries on Second Life
- Info Island 1
- Info Island 2
- Edu Island
- Caledon Library
- Healthinfo Island
- Imagination Island - Rachelville
- ALA Arts Island
- Cybrary City 1
- Cybrary City 2
- Organisational baggage
- Computing technology
4.4.1 Issues with managing libraries on Second Life
- Difficulty in balancing online and offline duties.
- Librarians who complete virtual library work at home are not compensated by their libraries for this work.
- Adequate computing equipment and faster broadband access is important for increasing the productivity and performance of Second Life libraries, and these requirements limit the involvement of numerous librarians.
- Additional issues of computing supports include network security programs such as appropriate permissions, authentications, limitations of functionality based on security restrictions and service attacks.
- Technology challenges like the use of Radio-frequency identification (RFID) - common in most libraries - has become one of the challenges for Second Life libraries. Second Life sometimes is not able to get all the information normally stored on RFID devices such as the means keeping track of library books, people or policies.
- Some studies have found that some librarians did not pay enough attention to pre-planning their Second Life libraries. Most Second Life librarians have no time to manage Second Life Library during their working time because there is not any official timeline that designed by departments. As a result, Second Life libraries are misunderstood by many people who view Second Life libraries as just games without any educational value.
- Although the Second Life library is easier to navigate and provides many useful and good materials, it has few users. The reason is that the Second Life branch has not been well promoted in real life so library users do not know its existence.