Friday, December 19, 2014

Staffing Pattern in Academic Libraries P- 02. Academic Libraries

इस ब्लॉग्स को सृजन करने में आप सभी से सादर सुझाव आमंत्रित हैं , कृपया अपने सुझाव और प्रविष्टियाँ प्रेषित करे , इसका संपूर्ण कार्य क्षेत्र विश्व ज्ञान समुदाय हैं , जो सभी प्रतियोगियों के कॅरिअर निर्माण महत्त्वपूर्ण योगदान देगा ,आप अपने सुझाव इस मेल पत्ते पर भेज सकते हैं -

Staffing Pattern in Academic Libraries

P- 02. Academic Libraries *

By :jagtar singh,Paper Coordinator

Multiple Choice Question

0 / 1 Points

Question 1: Multiple Choice

Accessioning of books is done by……..
  • Wrong Answer Checked Professional Staff
  •  Un-checked Semi-professional staff
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Non-Professional Staff
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Administrative (Supporting) Staff
0 / 1 Points

Question 2: Multiple Choice

Book selection, Classification, Reference work, Information retrieval are functions associated with…..
  •  Un-checked Professional staff
  • Wrong Answer Checked Semi-professional staff
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Non-professional staff
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Administrative staff
1 / 1 Points

Question 3: Multiple Choice

Considerations for evolving a staffing policy of an academic library include……
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Quantum of workload
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Type of staff
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Qualifications and pay scales
  • Correct Answer Checked All of the above
0 / 1 Points

Question 4: Multiple Choice

Staffing is concerned with providing and maintaining…… resources.
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Physical
  • Wrong Answer Checked Technical
  •  Un-checked Human
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Financial
1 / 1 Points

Question 5: Multiple Choice

The Chairman of the UGC Library Committee appointed in 1957 was…..
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Dr S. Radhakrishnan
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Dr A. L. Mudaliar
  • Wrong Answer Un-checked Dr D. S. Kothari
  • Correct Answer Checked Dr S. R. Ranganathan
2 / 5 PointsFinal Score:

True or False

0 / 1 Points

Question 1: True or False

Manpower planning is the last satge of staffing in an organization.
 Un-checked True
 Un-checked False
1 / 1 Points

Question 2: True or False

Norms for library staff prepared by various Committees are not always implementable.
Correct Answer Checked True
 Un-checked False
1 / 1 Points

Question 3: True or False

Norms for library staffing in university libraries have been prepared by the University Grants Commission
Correct Answer Checked True
 Un-checked False
0 / 1 Points

Question 4: True or False

Qualifications of University Assistant Librarian and College librarian are not the same
Wrong Answer Checked True
 Un-checked False
1 / 1 Points

Question 5: True or False

Recruitment is the process of attracting the right kind of persons to apply fo a job in an Organization
Correct Answer Checked True
 Un-checked False
1 / 1 Points

Question 6: True or False

Selection is the process of evaluating qualification, experience, skill, etc of a candidate.
Correct Answer Checked True
 Un-checked False
0 / 1 Points

Question 7: True or False

Training is essential for new staff to know about the size of catalogue cards, pages in accession regster, etc.
Wrong Answer Checked True
 Un-checked False
4 / 7 PointsFinal Score:

1. Introduction

Staffing is regarded as an important function within an organization that focuses on recruitment, selection, placement, development and training of people who work in an organization. According to Dalton, “staffing is the function by which managers build an organization through recruitment, selection and development of individuals as capable employees.” Staffing pattern may also include other issues related with people such as wages, hiring, performance, organization development, safety, motivation, communication, etc. Thus staffing means to find and recruit the adequate human resources to build the organizational structure. Therefore, in order to achieve the objectives efficiently, an organization needs to employ those persons who are able to execute the tasks at hand.   These employees can gradually improve their commitment and performance; thereby enhance quality and efficiency in the concerned organization.

2 Manpower Planning

Manpower planning is the first stage of staffing an organization. Organization being a large entity, it need to develop and follow a plan for staffing so as to run it smoothly. Planning requires overall development porgrammes for selection, recruitment, training and development, appraisal, etc of  the staff in all the decision making units of, say, library and information centres. Manpower planning involves projectingand forecasting present staff functions into the future pattern of the academic library environemnt and then relating staff/manpower requiremnts to these conditons.
Some of the general features of manpower planning have been outlined by Narayana as under:
  1. A staffing plan worked out on the basis of organzion plans for both line and staff positions, managers andnon-managers for aprojected period of time.
  2. Assessment of the number of managers required at different levels of the organization structure which is decided by the size of the enterprise, complexity of the organization structure, projected plan and the time schedule.
  3. Development of an organzation chart showing all the persons and their promotability.
  4. Activating manpower plan which sets in motion the process of recruitemnt, selection, placemnt, and promotion of people.       
  5. Continuous appraisal of managers, which is used for promotion, managerial development and corrective actions.
  6. Studying both the external and internal environemnts that affects manpower planning and staffing in all respects.

3.0 Categorization Of Staff

Academic library staff, until recently, was categorized into the following three levels of positions though their nomenclature may differ from library to library:
  1. Professional staff
  2. Semi-professional staff
  3. Non-professional staff
The development of management techniques and their application in libraries has helped in adding another category at managerial level to the above three. But, this fourth category is not yet recognized distinctly from professional staff category in libraries because generally the managerial functions are taken care of by the senior professional staff.
In India, many universities have such categories of staff working in their libraries as Librarian, Deputy Librarian, Assistant Librarian, Technical Assistant, Professional Assistant, Junior Technical Assistant, etc. But the Library Committee of the University Grants Commission has categorized them as Professional Senior, Professional Junior, Professional Assistant, and equated them with the faculty. With the exception of a couple of university libraries, this nomenclature is no more in use.

3.1 Functions of Professional Staff

In a school library, its Librarian belongs to the professional staff category; while in a college library, a Librarian, and an Assistant Librarian are considered as professional staff. On the other hand, the positions of Librarian, Deputy Librarian, Assistant Librarian, Professional Assistant only constitute as professional staff in a university library.
In most of the academic libraries, the senior professional staff members are given the responsibility of managerial functions including planning, formulating policies, preparing budgets, organizing library programmes, etc, of curse with the advice of the Library Committee/ library Authority.
However, in a traditional library, in order to achieve its objectives, the professional staff are generally responsible for performing the following jobs and tasks:
-          Book selection,
-          Classification,
-          Catalouing,
-          Indexing,
-          Abstracting,
-          Reference work and service,
-          Informtion service,
-          Bibliographic assistance,
-          Information retrieval,
-          User instruction.  
In the modern age of informtion growth, the roles of academic libraries as well as those of professional staff have also been undergoing changes. The recent developments of online resources and their use in libraries for the clientele are bringing attitudinal changes among the professional staff in transforming the traditional libraries ino computerised libraries. Such changes will help in further fulfilling the objectives of  the academic libraries.

3.2 Functions of Semi-Professional Staff

In academic libraries Semi-professional staff consists of assistants. These assistants may be called Library Assistants, or Technical Assistants in different libraries. Some of the functions assigned to them include the following:
-          Book ordering,
-          Accessioning of books,
-          Cataloguing,
-          Catalogue maintenance,
-          Circulation,
-          Interlibrary loans,
-          Periodicals registration and display,
-          Maintenance of issue records,
-          Shelving of books and other documents,
-          Preparation of books and periodicals for binding,
-          Stocktaking.  
Semi-professional staff work under the supervision of professional staff. These days the semi-professional staff may have received formal library training at the level of Diploma in library science; and some of them may even have obtained graduate degree in library science. 

3.3 Non-Professional Staff

This category of staff genarally does not posess a formal library training. However, these are required to perform some other jobs and tasks which have not been covered in the functions assigned either to the professional or the semi- professional staff. In academic libraries these staff members are ordinarily called Library Attendants. They perform the following routine type of jobs:
-          Label pasting on books and other documents,
-          Shelving of books,
-          Stack maintenance.

3.4 Administrative (Supporting) Staff

Adminstrative or supporting staff are attached to all large size libraries. These staff members would generally perform all those duties and functions that are carried out in any office of an institution. In an academic library they would invariably perform the following jobs/tasks:
-          Secretarial assistance to the university or college librarian,
-          Maintenance of accounts,
-          Maintenance of personnel records,
-          Maintenance of stores,
-          Typing of office work, etc.,
-          Housekeeping and sanitary duties.
The abovementioned categorisation of library staff into professional, or semi-professional, or non-professional is based not upon the type and/or level of library training undergone, but upon the functions and tasks or  jobs performed by them. Therefore, it may be stated that it is the task and not the person that is professional or otherwise.   
It may be mentioned that in small and medium-sized libraries, the professional and managerial functions are invariably combined. Further, in some other small libraries even the professional and semi-professional functions may also be combined for local reasons.

4.0 Norms For Staffing

An academic library being a service agency, the quality of services it provides to its users depends upon the quality and quantity of staff it has. The staff provided in academic library should not only be properly trained and well qualified but its strength should also be adequate. The number and size of the library staff depends upon many factors such as the number of students, faculties, other clientele, character and number of library collection, the number of hours the library is open for service, and so on. It is therefore important that some guidelines for staffing of these libraries are established in order to assess the number and categories of staff required.
Since the basic work content is more or less similar in most libraries, it has been possible to lay down manpower norms for different types of academic libraries. Several attempts have been made, from time to time, to establish norms for staffing the libraries, called staff formulae, in India as well as in other countries. In India, the Report by the Library Committee appointed by the University Grants Commission (UGC) under the chairmanship of S.R. Ranganathan,  deserves special mention.

4.1 Norms of UGC Library Committee

The Library Committee of the UGC has recommended a formula for the strength of library staff in different sections of college and university libraries. It is based on the statistical data to be maintaiend by a college or universtiy library and is to be determined roughly on the following basis:
  1. Book Section: One person for every 6,000 volumes added in a year.
  2. Periodical Section: One person for every 500 current periodicals taken.
  3. Documentation Section: One person for every 1,000 entries prepared in a year.
  4. Technical Section: One person for every 2,000 volumes added in a year.
  5. Reference Section: One person for every 50 readers (other than the users of text book collection) in a day.
  6. Circulation Section: One person for every 1,500 hours for which one wicket gate of the library has to be kept open in a year.
  7. Maintenance Section: One person for every 6,000 volumes added in a year, one person for every 500 volumes to be replaced in a day, and one person for every 1,00,000 volumes in the library.
  8. Administrative Section: Minimum of one library accountant, one steno-typist and one correspondence clerk.
  9. Supervisory Section One  Librarian and one Assistant or Deputy Librarian.
Unskilled Staff: One cleaner for every 30,000 volumes in the library, one attendant each for every 6,000 volumes addd in a year, for every 500 current periodicals taken, and for each of the shifts in the Circulation Section besides unskilled and the semi-skilled workers notmal to any institution.
It may, however, be mentioned that Ranganathn recast the staff formula later on (in 1965) and suggested the following modificatins:
  1. 1.      Periodical Section : One person for every 1,500 periodicals subscribed instead of every 500 periodicals taken.
  2. 2.      Documentation Section : One person for every 30 research workers in the university instead of one person for every 1,000 entries prepard in a year.
  3. 3.      Maintenance Section: One person for every 1,500 volumes newly added, and 50,000 volumes to be looked after instead of one person for every 6,000 volumes in a year, one person for every 500 volumes to be replaced in a day and one person for every 1,00,000 volumes in the library.

4.2 Norms by Seminar on Workflow in University Libraries

The issue of staffing norms in university libraries was also discussed at the Seminar on Workflow in University Libraries held under the auspices of INSDOC (now NISCAIR) and the UGC. It was suggested that whereas the Seminar does not consider it practicable to prescribe norms for all kinds of library operations, it feels that some of the more common jobs may be amenable to stadnardization allowing variation for local conditions.
The following norms were arrived at after discussion of the data presented at the Seminar:
Alternate Text

4.3 UGC Workshop (Khandala, 1979)

The issue of formulating some suitable standards for staff for academic libraries has always been on the minds of the library fraternity. For this purpose a UGC Workshop was held at Khandala during 5-7 March, 1979. The Workshop discussed the standards for College libraries threadbar and recommendations made for library staff which were approved by the UGC Sub-Committee as given below.
A college with 500 student strength and collection of 5,000 volumes in the library shall have the following basic staff:
Librarian                                              1
Assistant Librarian                               1
Library Assistant                                  2
Library Clerk-cum-Typist                    1
Library Attendants                               3
Total                                                    8
Depending upon the strength of a college library, the following additional staff have been recommended:
  1. For an increase of every 500 student enrolment, 1 Library Assistant and 2 Library Attendants should be added.
  2. For every addition of 25,000 volumes upto the limit of 80,000 volumes, 1 Library Assistant and 2 Library Attendants should be appointed.
  3. When the strength of students exceeds 2,000, one more Assistant Librarian and 1 Library Clerk should be added.
  4. The figures mentioned above are based on the following tentative framework of the  main functions that one expects to be carried out in the college library:
      • Acquisition of new books,
      • Periodicals,
      • Technical processing service,
      • Reference service,
      • Circulation of books,
      • Maintenance,
      vii.  Administration,
      viii.Supervisory work, and
      1. Documentation.

      4.4 Norms of AICTE

      The All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) is a statutory body established by the Government of India in 1987 with a view to properly plan and coordinate development of technical education system throughout the country.
      The AICTE has made certain recommendations as norms for the library of a technical institution which is having the basic stock of 4,000 volumes of books and 36 journals (18 Indian, and 18 international). The pattern of staff required is given below:
      Librarian                                                                      1
      Assistant Librarian                                                     1
      Assistants                                                                   4
      Total                                                                             6

      4.5 Norms for School Libraries

      For providing school education various kinds of schools have been established in India. These include the following:
      1. Senior Secondary School
      2. Higher Secondary School
      3. High School
      4. Middle School
      5. Primary School
      In all types of school libraries the pattern of staff required is given below:
      Every middle/high/higher secondary school should have a proper library. The minimum essential staff should consist of a librarian (library training with graduate degree) and one attendant.
      Alternate Text
           4. Primary School
      It is suggested that in primary school, one of the school teachers may be made incharge of the library and given a short training. He/She can look after the library and provide library services on part-time basis to the students and teachers of the school.
      It may, however, be pointed out that the staff formulae as stated above are not always implementable. It may become necessay to modify these norms due to local variations. The norms for  size of library staff should be determined on the basis of functions, activities and the tasks involved in different types of libraries. Moreover, in the present context of information technology and its application in libraries, the formulae developed in the past are likely to be deemed obsolete, andneed to be formulated afresh.

      5.0 Qualifications For Library Staff

      In view of the responsibilities of the library staff in different types of academic libraries, the University Grants Commission has laid down the norms about minimum qualifications for appointment of staff in university, college and school libraries.

      5.1 University Library

      The UGC revised the minimum qualifications for the appointment of the University Librarian, Deputy Librarian, Assistant Librarian and the amendment made therein from time to time, as provided by the UGC in its notification No. F.3-1/2009 dated 30 June 2010. As per these regulations, the new qualifications are as given below:
        1.      University Librarian
          Essential Qualifications:
          1.         i.            A Master’s Degree in Library Science/ Information Science/ Documentation with at least 55% marks or its equivalent grade of B in the UGC seven point scale and a consistently good academic record.
          2.       ii.             At least thirteen years as a Deputy Librarian in a university library or eighteen years’ experience as a College Librarian.
          3.     iii.            Evidence of innovative libray service and organization of pubished work.
          iv. Desirable: A M.Phil./ Ph.D. Degree in Library Science/ Information Science/Documentation/ Archives and Manuscript- keeping.
          2. Deputy Librarian
          Essential Qualifications:
          1. A Master’s Degree in Library Science/Information Science/Documentation with at least 55% of the marks or its equivalent grade B in the UGC seven point scale and a consistently good academic record.
          2. Five years’ experience as an Assistant University Librarian/ College Librarian.
          iii.Evidence of innovative library services, published work and professional commitment, computerization of library.
          iv. Desirable:  A M.Phil./ Ph.D. Degree in Library Science/Information Science/Documentation/Archives and  Manuscript- keeping/ computerization of library.  
          3. University Assistant Librarian
          Essential Qualifications:
          1. A Master’s Degree in Library Science/Information Science/Documentation or an equivalent professional degree with at least 55% of the marks (or an equivalent grade in a point scale wherever grading system is followed) and consistently  good academic record with knowledge of computerization of library.  
          2. Qualifying in the national level test conducted for the purpose by the UGC or any other agency approved by the UGC.
          3. However, candidates, who are, or have been awarded Ph. D. degree in accordance with the “University Grants Commission (Minimum standards and Procedure for Award of Ph. D. Degree) Regulation 2009”, shall be exempted fromt the requirement of the minimum eligibility condition of NET/ SLET/SET for recruitment and appointment of University Assistant Librarian/ College Librarian.

          5.2 College Library

          The minimum qualifications, as per the norms of the UGC and AICTE, for appointment to the post of college librarian are given below:
            1.      Librarian
              1.         i.            A Master’s Degree in Library Science/Information Science/Documentation or an equivalent professional degree with at least 55% of the marks ( or an equivalent grade  in a point scale wherever grading system is followed)   and consistently good academic record with knowledge of computerisation of library.
              2.       ii.            Qualifying in the national level test conducted for the purpose by the UGC or any other agency approved by the UGC.
              3.     iii.            However, candidates, who are, or have been awarded Ph. D. degree in accordance with the “University Grants Commission (Minimum standards and Procedure for Award of Ph. D. Degree) Regulation 2009”, shall be exempted fromt the requirement of the minimum eligibility condition of NET/ SLET/SET for recruitment and appointment of  College Librarian.

                2.      Assistant Librarian

                  1.  A Master’s Degree in Library Science/Information Science/Documentation or an equivalent professional degree with at least 55% of the marks ( or an equivalent grade  in a point scale wherever grading system is followed)   and consistently good academic record. 
                  2. knowledge of computer application in library.

                  5.3 School Library

                  It is desired that the status of a school librarian should be the same as that of a school teacher. He/She should be at par with teachers having comparable qualifications, in the matter of salary and various facilities.
                  The minimum qualifications for appointment of school library staff should be as given below:
                    1.      Librarian
                      1. B.A. or B.Sc. from a recognised University with at least 50% marks.
                      2. Degree in Library and Information Science or equivalent Diploma in Library Science from a recognized institute.
                      2.  Assistant Librarian
                      1. Higher Secondary/Senior Secondary from any recognized Board.
                        ii.  Certificate Course in Library Science or Diploma in Library Science from a recognized institute.
                      3.Class ‘D’ Staff
                      1. Senior Seconday passed from any recognized Board.
                      2. Relevant experience of one year in a library.

                      6. Pay Scales

                      As per the aabovementioned notification the pay scales, designations and atages of promotion under Career Advancement Scheme of incumbent or newly appointed University Librarian/ Deputy Librarian/ University Assistant Librarian/ College Librarian are given below:
                      1. 1.      University Librarian
                        1. The post of Librarian shall be in the Pay Band of Rs. 37,400 – Rs. 67,000 with the Academic Grade Pay of Rs. 10,000.
                        2. Incumbent Librarian (University) shall be placed at the appropriate stage as per the ‘fixation formula’ in the Pay Band of Rs, 37,000 – Rs 67,000 with AGP of Rs. 10,000.

                      1. 2.      Deputy Librarian
                        1. Deputy Librarians who are directly recruited shall be placed in the Pay Band of Rs. 15,600 – Rs. 39,100 with AGP of Rs. 8,000.
                        2. After completing three years in the Pay Band of Rs. 15,600 – Rs. 39,100 with an AGP of Rs. 8,000, Deputy Librairns/ equivalent positions shall move to the Pay Band of Rs. 37,400 – Rs. 67,000 and AGP of R. 9,000, subject to fulfilling other conditions of eligibility.

                      1. 3.      Assistant University Librarian

                      1. Assistant Librarian in the pre-revised scale of pay of Rs. 8,000 - Rs 13,500 shall be placed in the Pay Band of Rs. 15,600 – Rs.39,100 with AGP of Rs. 6,000.
                      2. Assistant University Librarian (Sr. Scale) in the pre-revised scale of pay of Rs. 10,000 – Rs. 15,200 shall be placed in the Pay Band of Rs. 15,600 – Rs. 39,100 with AGP of Rs. 7,000.
                      The Career Advancement Scheme (CAS) has been extended to professional librarians such as Assistant University Librarian and Deputy Librarian. The UGC has laid down evaluation criteria similar to that of university teachers as per API (Academic Performance Indicator) scoring system and PBAS (Performance Based Appraisal System) methodology laid down by the UGC.

                      1. 4.      College Librarian

                      1. College Librarian in the pre-revised scale of pay of Rs. 8,000 - Rs 13,500 shall be placed in the Pay Band of Rs. 15,600 – Rs.39,100 with AGP of Rs. 6,000.
                      2. College Librarian (Sr. Scale) in the pre-revised scale of pay of Rs. 10,000 – Rs. 15,200 shall be placed in the Pay Band of Rs. 15,600 – Rs. 39,100 with AGP of Rs. 7,000.
                      The Career Advancement Scheme (CAS) has also been extended to professional librarians. The UGC has laid down evaluation criteria similar to that of college teachers as per API (Academic Performance Indicator) scoring system and PBAS (Performance Based Appraisal System) methodology laid down by the UGC.
                      1. 5.      School Librarian
                      In the matter of pay scales, a school librarian should be at par with school teacher, with comparable qualifications.

                      7.1 Recruitment

                      For the purpose of recruitment and selection, it is important to decide the staffing needs of an organization. The library staff positions may be assessed by the characteristics of job and the requisite skill, maturity, and adeequate knowledge to accomplish the job. They must have rquisite skills – technical, human, conceptual, problem-solving skills – so as to be high performers, and ensuring personnel and management practices of the organization. They must possess
                      i)                    professional knowledge in library and information science to be able to provide access to recorded knowledge;
                      ii)                  subject knowledge to serve users better;
                      iii)                managerial ability to organize and mange the library better.
                      In academic libraries, particularly university libraries, staff should be able to develop their interests as scholars, cultivate a real intellectual awareness, and assist the research scholars, faculty and students in a fruuitful manner.
                      The  recruitment of the library staff should, therefore, be properly planned.  Before making actual recruitment it is essential to undertake job description and job specification, and also fixing the qualification and salary scale for each kind of job as per the norms fixed by  the UGC from time to time.
                      It is observed that recruiting is the process of attracting new personnel for jobs possessing necessary skills, abilities, knowledge and attitudes required to fulfil the aims of library services to users.
                      One of the major steps in recruitment process is to determine the vacancies or posts available to be filled up. These vacancies in libraries may arise due to various reasons such as new posts, retirement, reisgnation, promotion, tranfer, leave vacancy, etc. For a new post the approval of the authorities needs to be obtaiend; while an existing post is to be advertised in the newspapers after fixing the qualification, experience, and pay scales (which may be revised if necessary).
                      For the recruitment at the semi-professional and non-professional levels the policy of recruitemnt may differ from one library system to another. Promotion for higher posts may be given to the internal candidates.
                      Once the last date of receiving the applications if over, the applications may be scrutinised and sorted out as per the qualification, experience, etc. Before fixing the interview certain level of test, e.g. general knowledge test, aptitude test, personality test, etc or a combination of these tests may be given to the applicants to ascertain their skills and knowledge. The test shall be useful in screening out the unsuitable applicants.

                      7.2 Selection

                      Once the test is conducted, the selection procedure involves interview of the candidates by the Selection Committee constituted for the purpose. The Selection Committee members should try to ascertain the capabilities and the suitability of the candidates to be selected for a particular post. The inteview helps the Librarian and the Selection Committee to fill the gaps in the information obtained through the application forms and the test. Interview also enable the Selection Committee assess the candidate’s job-related behaviour, attitude, and vision.  Selection is the process of evaluating the qualifications, experience, skill, knowledge, etc of the applicants in relation to the requirements of the job. The selection process has two basic objectives: (i) to predict which applicant would be the most successful if selcted for the job, and (ii)  to sell the organization and the job to the right candidate. The selection process is also based on the objectives of the organization, job specification, recruitment policy of the organization. This procedure will help to know whether the right person is selected for a right job; otherwise, as they say that ‘a misplaced person may ruin the organization’, is aptly applicable particulary to top posts.
                      These days there are many pulls and pressures for the recruitment and selection of library staff. Also, the regulations may require recruitment based on quotas (for example, scheduled caste, scheduled tribe, other
                       backward class, internal quota, etc.).
                      Finally, after a candidate is selected for a post, the appointment letter is sent to her/him and, on acceptance, the placement process begins in the library.

                      7.3 Training and Development

                      When the new recruit joins duty in the library, he/she is not well conversant with either the new environment or the new people. For the new employee the first few days are therefore crucial. During this period opinions and attitudes are formed about the library as well as co-workers. The orientation of the new staff member with the new environment will be very useful as it may help to reduce the anxiety and make her/him familiar with the job condition and fellow workers.  
                      Training and development are sometimes ae understood to be the same. But it is not so. Training can be as simple, say, as using a PC application, and as complex as learning how to be an aircraft pilot. Development, on the other hand, is often informal, and has wider application. Development usually provides tools to do a range of things, and relating to capability and competency. It involves progression from basic knowhow to more advanced, mature or complex understanding. It widens the range of skills like leadership, managing projects, or organizing information. Development, therefore, prepares people in libraries to take on the greater responsibilites for the good of the organization.
                      For the new staff some training is essential to make him/her understand the perspectives, job objectives, job requirements, functions, etc. with regard to the objectives and mission of the organization.
                      These days training of staff is regarded as investment because it enhances the image of the library by providing various types of services to the users. Therefore, a proper training of new staff would help developing his skills further and make him more competent for the library. Training ensures quality in work and progress of library. But most of the libraries are small in size, they can not afford to have training programme of their own. However, they can take the advantage of the training programmes sponsored by larger libraries, or the Departments of Library and Information Science.
                      1. i.                    On-the-job Training:   It means that the new staff member undergoes training in the actual work situation. It may also includes apprenticeship, wherein the new employee undergoes training under a highly skilled and experienced senior worker. Such a training equips the trainee with a practical knowledge of actual work situations.
                      2. ii.                  In-Service Training: Some university and other large libraries organize programme for in-service training of professional and non-professional employees. This method may include class room lectures, seminars, slide shows, audio-visual aids, etc. Wilson and Tauber advocate this method and observe that “In-service training becomes a deliberate function of management rather than  one reserved to the individual. The program may be designed for orienting or inducting the new staff member, for increasing the efficiency of present staff members, and for preparing certain members of the staff for promotion.”
                      3. iii.                Vistis to other Libraries: In addition to the above, the employees should be provided opportunities to visit and learn about various working conditions and routine of different types of libraries. Such visits can broaden the outlook of the new employees  to some extent  and motivate them to improve their own skills which is useful for their parent institution.

                      7.4 Continuing Professional Development (CPD)

                      It is an established knowledge that learning is a lifelong process. It is equally applicable in the field of librarianship also. Library and informatin professionals must be given opportunities for contnuing education to update their knowledge, skills, echniques, etc. Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is regarded as a planned, continuous and lifelong process where participants try to develop their personal and professional qualities and improve their knowledge, skills and practice leading to their empowerment, and development of their organization.
                      Continuous Professional Development in librarianship is a structured approach to learning to help ensure competence to practice, taking in knowledge, skills and practical experience. CPD can involve any relevant learning activity whether formal and structured or informal and self-directed.
                      CPD consists of any educational activity which helps to maintain, develop or increase knowledge, problem-solving, technical skills, or professional performance standards all with the goal that library and information professionals will provide better library and information services.
                      In view of the rapid developments of information technologies and application of computers in academic libraries for various housekeeping activities, the existing skills of professionals were not enough to meet the new and rising demands by users for information and information products. Such a situation provided the opportunities for fresh interest in professional development and continuing education programmes.
                      Over the years, continuing education or CPD  has assumed several forms like refresher courses, workshops, summer/winter schools, and even seminars, symposia, and conferences. In some other Western countries, like the United States, several library schools have developed formally structured continuing education programmes which are useful for professional development. But in India, such a concept has yet to take  a shape. 
                      However, at the national level, several organizations are now providing and supporting continuing education programmes for academic library professionals. A few names of such agencies as INFLIBNET, NISCAIR, DRTC, DESIDOC, AICTE/ ISTE, etc may be mentioned. These agencies are organizing training programmes, seminars, conferences, workshops for professionals for updating their knowledge, skills, vision, etc from time to time.
                      Another significant development in this area is the establishment of Academic Staff Colleges within some state -funded universities with the financial support from the University Grants Commission; their number being about 66 at present. These units have been given the responsibility of providing opportunities for professional development programmes in different disciplines.     
                      The knowledge and skills gained through such professional development programmes should be effectively utilized by the professionals for the development of their respective organizaitons. It is a major responsibility of both the professional as well as the parent institution to make right use for improving the library services for their users.

                      8. Summary

                      Manpower planning is considered necessary for developing a staffing pattern in the academic libraries. There are mainly three catgories of library staff, viz., professional, semi-professional and non-professional. States that book selection, classification, reference service, informtion retrieval, user instruction, etc. are professional funcitons; while book ordering, circualtion of books, maintenance, shelving, stocktaking, etc are semiprofessional functions. On the other hand, managerial functions include planning, formulating policies, preparing budgets, etc.   Positions of Librarian, Deputy Librarian, and Assistant Librarian in a university library, and College Librarian in a college form the professional level staff. It is pointed out that it is always the function or task that is professional and not the person occupying a position. The size of staff in different academic libraries is determined on the basis of activities, services, etc involved for which purpose various staff formulae developed by Ranganthan Committee, and other committees from time to time. These formulae,  particularly the UGC, also prescribe the requisite qulaifications and pay scales for each of the professional positions from time to time. The UGC has also defined the criteria for recruitment and selection of professional posts in academic libraries. Describes the selection process involing test and interview sp as t assess the knowledge and intelligence of the candidates. Points out the significance of training and development of new library staff not only for improving library services but also for career grwoth of people. These days several continuing professional development programmes are available to library staff acquiring new knowedge, skills, techniques, to increase their competence.  

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