Saturday, December 20, 2014

The Impact of Information and Communication Technology on Society and Libraries P- 02. Academic Libraries

इस ब्लॉग्स को सृजन करने में आप सभी से सादर सुझाव आमंत्रित हैं , कृपया अपने सुझाव और प्रविष्टियाँ प्रेषित करे , इसका संपूर्ण कार्य क्षेत्र विश्व ज्ञान समुदाय हैं , जो सभी प्रतियोगियों के कॅरिअर निर्माण महत्त्वपूर्ण योगदान देगा ,आप अपने सुझाव इस मेल पत्ते पर भेज सकते हैं -

The Impact of Information and Communication Technology on Society and Libraries

P- 02. Academic Libraries *

By :jagtar singh,Paper Coordinator


Human being is always eager to know new things and happening in his soundings and the striving for information has never completed and keep on investigating by research. The information has brought tremendous challenges around the world. Information through ICT based educational institutions, business, industry, agriculture, research, entertainment world, medicine, and science has affected globally on economic, social, cultural, political, and individual through. The demand of society for information may differ from person to person, place to place and time to time in accordance with their specific requirements. People depend for information on friends, experts, printed books, serials, audio-visual materials, etc. Information is power and it can change the world upside down. Information is a source of both political and economic power.
Now days Information is available and can be used by people through technologies. The use of information through technology has become the need in daily life. Due to information technology there has been digital divide in the society and a new term has come up, called Information Society. The concept of information society emerged in the 1970s and by 1990’s the term got popular in present era. In an information society, the quality of life and prospects for change in social and economic development depends upon information and its exploitation. Now throughout the world the society is known and divided as information rich society and information poor society. The change in the social structure has affected on the values, customs and economic activities of the society and people are facing new challenges in everyday life than ever before.

Definitions of Information

The English word ‘information’ was apparently derived from the Latin accusative forminformationem of the nominative informatio meaning concept or idea: this noun is in its turn derived from the verb "informare" (to inform) in the sense of "to give form to the mind", "to discipline", "instruct", and "teach". (
The word information has been explain in dictionaries as "To give knowledge/news/tidings as such it comes to three levels of information i.e. knowledge, news, tidings”. The definitions of information according to a UNESCO document (Inter governmental Conference of Scientific and Technological Information for Development, UNISIST II 1979) "Information is made up of symbolic elements, communicating scientific and technical knowledge, irrespective of their nature (numerical textual, graphic etc.) material carriers (papers print, microform or machine readable form), form of presentation etc.
According to Webster’s Third New International Dictionary “Information is the process by which the form of an object of knowledge is impressed upon the apprehending mind, so as to bring about the state of knowledge.” According to the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary ‘information’ is “the communication or reception of knowledge or intelligence, or knowledge obtained from investigation, study, or instruction. It is intelligence, news, facts, and or data. (
According to the Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science (ODLIS), Information is data presented in readily comprehensible form to which meaning has been attributed within the context of its use. In a more dynamic sense, information is the message conveyed by the use of a medium of communication or expression. Whether a specific message is informative or not depends in part on the subjective perception of the person receiving it. (

Definitions of Communication

The word ‘Communication’ originated from Latin word ‘Communis’ meaning ‘Common’. As per Oxford English Dictionary defines “Communication is imparting, conveying or exchanging of ideas and knowledge whether by speech, writing or signs”. Information is only communicated between individuals or a group, between groups by means of verbal and non-verbal i.e., signs, symbols, signals, radio telephone, mobile phone, computer etc. According to Columbia Encyclopedia of Communication, “Communication is the transfer of thoughts and message as contrasted with transportation of goods and persons”. The revolutions in computers and communications have transformed the application of computers into Information Technology. The rapid developments in Information Technology brought revolutionary changes in information processing, storage, dissemination and distribution and became a key ingredient in bringing-up great changes in over all aspects of society. Communication is the process of transmission and acquisition of information. If information is created, it must be transmitted to others to make the best use of it.
Thus communication is the act of transmission of information from one person to another and one place to the other. For convening or transmission of information - a medium is needed i.e. communication to be done through verbal or non-verbal medium. Today information is communicated through technology i.e. Computers, Communication Technology, Reprographic, micrographic and printing technology.

Definition of Information Technology (IT)

Technology is the study of tools and techniques to accomplish the scientifically prepared plans and/ designs. In other words, technology is the practical application of science to make the human life better. Information Technology is the study of tools and techniques used in processing of information (Vashishth, 2014). The term "Information Technology" is a combination of two words; one is 'Information' and second is 'Technology'. The meaning of Information Technology application is used of technology in the creating, collection, processing, organizing storage, retrieval and dissemination of information. The term `Information Technology' has varying interpretations. Macmillan Dictionary of Information Technology defines IT as "the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a micro-electronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications". UNESCO defines Information Technology as "scientific, technological and engineering disciplines and the management techniques used in information handling and processing information, their applications; computers and their interaction with man and machine and associated social, economic and cultural matters"(Stokes, 1985).
ILA Glossary states “Information technology is the application of the computers and other technology to the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information”. From these definitions it can conclude that information technology is combination of information and technology. It deals with study of computers, telecommunication, microelectronics, etc and Storage, organization and retrieval of information are important function of it.

Definition of Information Technology (IT)

Technology is the study of tools and techniques to accomplish the scientifically prepared plans and/ designs. In other words, technology is the practical application of science to make the human life better. Information Technology is the study of tools and techniques used in processing of information (Vashishth, 2014). The term "Information Technology" is a combination of two words; one is 'Information' and second is 'Technology'. The meaning of Information Technology application is used of technology in the creating, collection, processing, organizing storage, retrieval and dissemination of information. The term `Information Technology' has varying interpretations. Macmillan Dictionary of Information Technology defines IT as "the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a micro-electronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications". UNESCO defines Information Technology as "scientific, technological and engineering disciplines and the management techniques used in information handling and processing information, their applications; computers and their interaction with man and machine and associated social, economic and cultural matters"(Stokes, 1985).
ILA Glossary states “Information technology is the application of the computers and other technology to the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information”. From these definitions it can conclude that information technology is combination of information and technology. It deals with study of computers, telecommunication, microelectronics, etc and Storage, organization and retrieval of information are important function of it.

Information and Communication Technology(ICT)

Toomey from the Center of Lifelong Learning at the Australian Catholic University emphasizes both information technologies and communication technologies in his definition of information and communication technologies (ICT) for teaching and learning: “Information and Communication technology (ICT) generally relates to those technologies that are used for accessing, gathering, manipulating and presenting or communicating information. The technologies could include hardware (e.g. computers and other devices); software applications; and connectivity (e.g. access to the Internet, local networking infrastructure, and videoconferencing)” ICT is a combination of Hardware, Software, Telecommunication and Internet that enable society to create, collect, consolidate and communicate the information in multimedia formats to be used for various purposes. ICT is a basic term used for processing, storage and transfer of information with the application of computers and telecommunication technology in the task of information handling and information to flow from generating to use. “ICTs are those technologies that enable the handling of information and facilitate different forms of communication. These include capturing technologies (e.g. camcorders), storage technologies (e.g. CD-ROMs), processing technologies (e.g. application software), communication technologies (e.g. Local Area Network) and display technologies (e.g. computer monitors)” (Hamelink, 1997). 

Components used in Information and Communication Technologies

Islam & Islam (2006) gave a brief account about the components used in Information and Communication Technologies are Computers, Communication Technology, Reprographic, micrographic and printing technology as stated by Rahman, 2003; Patil, Kumbarand and Krishnananda, 1994 is discussed below:

Computers Technologies

Computers are used in every field of work for the information transmission process with the extensive use of computer technology. It can further be divided into following categories:
Workstations are expensive and powerful computers used mainly by engineers and scientists for sophisticated purposes and these include:
Mainframe computers are fast, large capacity computers, after the super computer, occupies a specially wired, air-conditioned room is capable of great processing speeds and data storage.
Super computers are high-capacity computers that are the fastest calculating device and it may have a vector processing design or massively parallel processing design.
Mini computers are huge like refrigerator-size machine they work as servers in networks.
Personal Computers (PCs) are desktop, laptop floor-standing, or portable computers that can run easy-to-use programmes such as word processing or spreadsheets.
The technologies used in computers are:
Microchip technology is a tiny piece of silicon that contains thousands of micro-miniature electronic circuit components, mainly transistors. The microprocessor of microcomputer, which process data, is made from microchips.
Artificial Intelligence is a group of related technologies that attempts to develop machines to emulate human like qualities, such as, learning, reasoning, communicating, seeing and hearing.
Software technology consists of instructions step-by-step that command the computer in processing the data and what to do. Many applications software packages are commercially available for various applications are used in the field of medicine, science, management and for library and information services etc.
CD-ROM technology is an acronym that stands for Compact Disc Read Only Memory. Data is recorded in digital form. It is used to hold prerecorded text, graphics and sound.

Communication Technologies

Communication or telecommunication technologies are used to transmit information in the form of signals between remote locations, using electrical or electromagnetic media as carriers of signals. Communication technologies comprise the following:
Audio technology is the recent development is the production of Compact Discs (CDs). Audio technology can be used in libraries and information centers for a wide variety of purposes such as storytelling to children, imparting education, knowledge, recreation, etc.
Audio-visual technologies are those by which things can be understood by listening as well as seeing. AV technologies include the following:
Motion picture is used as one of the instruments of mass media communication. It is the dynamic source of information, education and recreation.
Television is one of the traditional and old information and communication technologies and programmes which are telecast through major station.
CATV (Cable Television) system is a wired communication system of high capacity that flows from a central source through a major distribution cable to neighborhood lines and finally to the line into the house.
Videodisc can be used to disseminate computer programmes, digital databases, educational video programmes and a range of electronic publications.
Videotext is the on-line information retrieval; the information is stored in computer files and accessed through a telecommunication link.
Teletext is a one-way service to a large number of simultaneous users, where information from a central database is broadcast as part of the regular television signal.
Telephone is the longest sources of established methods of electronic information transfer especially to transfer the voice which can be a strong means of disseminating information and keeping of what is being happened concerned organization and outside as well.
Cell phone or mobile phones are based on the cellular radio technology. Mobile phone provides the facility to dial connections anywhere in the world. As the user of mobile telephone moves from cell to cell the radiotelephone link switches from one central transmitter/receiver to a second while the call continues, uninterrupted.
Fax (facsimile transmission) is a method of converting an image into electronic signals that can be transmitted over a communication link and converted back into an image at the receiving end.
E-mail is a system of exchanging message in electronic format. It is the most used tool on the Internet. It has brought a revolutionary changes in communication because any type of information such as personal notes, letter, documents, publication, computer program, even pictures and sound can be sent to or received from anywhere of the world within a fraction of a second at a very cheap rate through electronic signals.
Voice Mail acts like a telephone machine that digitizes the incomings voice message and store for retrieval later. It is an alternative system of e-mail.
Teleconference is a meeting among people remote from one to another who are linked by a communication device such as a telephone, television or computer. There are following five types of teleconference: Audio teleconference Video teleconference Computer teleconference or Computer conference Document conference Personal videoconference.
Satellite technology are formed of microwave transmission in that satellites, which are positioned in space approximately 22,300 miles above the earth, represent relay stations for earth round communication.
Internet is a junction of a number of hardware and software resources or equipments to construct the infrastructure and to perform multiple functions. It is treated as a virtual library where world's information resources are gathered for the use of the clientele. It has broken down the distance barrier in communication. It has greatly influenced the practice of librarianship. Access to information through Internet has changed the total scenario of librarianship.
Network technology is the function of network to interconnect computers and other communication devices so that data can be transferred from one location to another instantly. Computer network is of following two types:
WAN (Wide Area Network) is a communication network that covers wide geographic area such as a country, or state.
LAN (Local Area Network) is a communication network that covers limited geographic area such as campus, or building.

Reproduction Technology

Reprographic technology is used to identify that field of information processing which concerns with technologies and equipments for the reproduction of documents.
Micrographic technology is that field of information technology which concerns making use of microforms. Microform is a generic term for all information carriers which use microfilm or similar optical media (including study) for the high-density recording and storage of optically encoded information in the form of micro images of printed document, bit patterns or holograms.
Printing technology: A printer is a device that converts computer output in to printed images. There are a number of different kinds of printers used in library such as Dot Matrix Printers, Laser printer, Inkjet, Bubble-Jet, etc.

The Impact of Information and Communication Technology on Society

Developments in ICT have brought about the merger of the computing, information, communications, entertainment, mass media industries thereby providing a means of exchanging information in the digital format used by computers. Social structure has changed with the information communication and technology. With this, the values, structure, customs and economic activities etc of the society are facing more challenges than ever before. The impact of ICT is much more and further reaching than any other technology invented so far ICT is empowering society in both the economic and social. The Impact of Information and Communication Technology on Society in the different fields is discussed below:

1 . Business and Industry

Business and Industry are the first to use ICT techniques for managing their information system to run their business. The Internet or E-commerce has made grate changes in the business and changing the way companies are operate far beyond buying and selling. Due to internet there is increased production and availability of products as well as huge publication of multimedia digital information and goods in the market. “An infrastructure of computing and communication technology, providing 24-hour access at low cost to almost any kind of price and product information desired by buyers, will reduce the informational barriers to efficient market operation”( Konsbruck,2013  )
Email / instant messenger is used by business people to interact with colleagues/clients for finding information and managing in everyday life. The  basic function such as accounting, record, writing letters create budgets, communication are also done with computers The services such as transfer of money and paying of bills through e-banking, use of ATM machine to withdraw and transfer of money through online are essential commodity in the business world. The ICT has changed the people way of shopping and now anything can be bought such as electronics, furniture, books, dress material and food etc on the internet through online shopping. By these more interesting jobs like systems analysts, programmers and software engineers, as well as help desk operators and trainers have been created.

2. Education

ICT have revolutionized in the education field and has introduced new dimensions through e-learning, m-learning and u-learning. Universities has started Distant Educationprogrammes and are now experimenting with technologies such as Video and audio cassettes, telecast through television networks. The learning process has shifted from school to remote place as well as at home, which have become possible by the emergence of information technology. Distance education will serve for those working people who want new skills but who cannot attend a class at a fixed time during the week.
ICT have made its permanent place in classrooms and libraries where they have become essential for the learning process through multimedia such as for analyzing, interpreting, searching and scanning the books, journals and magazines. Students may use computers in the class room, to develop science projects, prepare reports and gather information from all over the world. They can learn depending upon online library to read magazines and journals directly from a computer terminal, without having to search the shelves.
Information technology in library and information centers have started using in technical functions associated with technical processing classification, cataloguing and circulation work.  Information storage databases are used in retrieval and dissemination of information. Management information services for libraries, especially analyze library statistics, library finances etc. ICT can best be used in service and orientation courses to practicing librarians’ continuing education programs for teachers of library and information science correspondence studies and library extension services.

3. Scientific Use

Computers are used scientifically in the research to develop, collect and analyze test data. It has made the exchange of information electronically with colleagues throughout the world. Scientists can access remotely placed databases without traveling any farther than the closest computer.
Scientists can also use computers to predicting earthquakes and change in the weather patterns. Satellites and space probes have brought valuable of information about our solar system and the cosmos. Aerospace research institutes are using super Computer.
Scientists and engineers across the country will be able to work with each other and access remote scientific facilities, through video­conferencing, shared virtual workspaces, networked scientific facilities. New information and databases will increase the efficiency and effectiveness of research enterprise all over the world.
Researchers will be able to solve problems in large-scale DNA sequencing and gene identification that has provided ways to cure human genetic diseases. Researchers are constructing a "virtual world" to model the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem, which serves as a nursery area for many commercially important species.

4. Medicine and Health Care

In medical field, IT is used for multipurpose tasks such as diagnosing the disease, capture and transmits photographs of internal problems such as blood clots and tumors that previously can be seen only during exploratory surgery, monitoring patients at their bedside and controlling the movement of robotic surgical assistants.
Doctors can now use large archives of radiology images to identify the patterns and features associated with particular disease. With remote access to supercomputers, they will also be able to improve the accuracy of mammography by detecting subtle changes in three-dimensional images.
Several innovative medical applications use small, special purpose computers. For example, pace makers are computers that operate within the human body to help it function better. In addition, computers are so tiny that they can be swallowed are proving to be valuable diagnostic tool.

5. Engineering and Manufacturing

IT plays an important role in manufacturing and in product design. In factories, computers control virtually everything and use computerized robotic arms to do physical work that is hazardous or highly repetitive. Automobile plants use robots to perform tasks such as painting, welding and cutting and bending metal for body parts. Manufacturing with computers and robotics is called computer aided manufacturing (CAM).Virtual reality and modeling and simulation can dramatically reduce the time required to develop new products.
A product designed with a computer can be far more productive than with pencil and paper. While designing a product with a computer, engineers create an electronic model by describing all three dimensions of the object. Computer-aided design (CAD) is used for designing objects with a computer. Specialized CAD systems are available for designing car, house, and buildings to molecules, spacecrafts, airplanes and specialized engineering works. 

6. Legal practice and law enforcement

Legal information through computer legal services software such as lexis and west law allows lawyers to search quickly through huge collection of information called data bases for case information. Lawyers can create their own databases for cases involving special judgments and hearings. The result of hearings can be seen on the computer screens just seconds after the actual statement is made. Computer technology does not stay in the attorney's office. Today, one can see it right in the court room and can be used to translate all the statements into readable text.
Law enforcement agencies such as police departments use mobile computers, sometimes called mobile data terminals (MDT's) in the squad cars. The technique commonly known as DNA finger printing is very widely used in forensic sciences. it can positively identify someone from traces of blood, skin, or hair left at crime scene.

7. Theater, Film and Television

The theater technicians use coordinated computer controlled lighting cues to brighten or dim the stage. The motion picture industry has achieved astounding computerized special effects. Movies now contain many visual tricks that could never be performed without the aid of computers. Technicians use high powered computers to create an illusion of a locomotive flying through the air or a robot transforming itself into human being. Computer animation involves creating images of people or other creatures on a computer and then making the images appear to move against the real or computer generated background. Television networks have already started serving with news, views, entertainments and other programs of public interest, which are reaching to all corners of the world. ICT has changed the way in access and entertainment. Some people now prefer to read news on the internet instead of buying a newspaper or magazine. Download and read books on e-readers instead of reading traditional paper books. Download or stream music and films from the internet instead of buying CDs or games instead of buying the CD or DVD. Watch TV after its aired using online catch-up services like BBC iPlayer and 4OD

8. Home and Day to day life

An ordinary person in his daily life needs to have access to information. One may need information on the subjects concerned and activities with his daily life. With the advent of information technology, access to such information has now become very easy.
The personal computers have become common in people's home, for carrying out record keeping and majority of household activities. For example, televisions contain small computers that automatically fine tune the image, select brightness and correct the color tone, Washing machines, microwave ovens, dishwashers and sewing machine also use small computers to run them effectively.
The transfer of money and paying of bills through e-banking, use of ATM machine to withdraw and transfer of money through online has changed the life style of people. Online shopping, e-tickets for travelling are done through internet.
People are socializing through blogs, Twitter, Orkut, Facebook, LinkedIn and Ibibo, etc. The emergence of social networking has introduced a new way to communicate and to discuss and share thoughts, first-hand experiences, snaps, videos and information online. People have been making their profiles on these social networking websites and interact as well as share with one another regularly. Online social networking sites are becoming more popular among all the age groups and are connecting likeminded individuals together to share their information, ideas, thoughts, experiences and videos, etc.

9. National Security

A top priority for the Defence Department is "dominant battlefield awareness", which will give a significant advantage in any armed conflict. This requires an ability to collect information from large numbers of high-resolution sensors, automatic processing of the data to support terrain and target recognition, and real-time distribution of that data to the war fighter. 

10. Culture and Sports

Through computer and television, the people directly can see alternative life styles that have not been in the past for their older generations. It has become possible by information technology applications. ICT is used in sports for video officials and they use ICT to help them make decisions which would be hard to see normally. The use of ICT makes the results more accurate and well-organized. 

11. Government

The government needs a most sophisticated information system for collecting, organizing and disseminating its statistical data on all its activities. For which the government constitutes the most important and vital information resource for planning and later implementing. It is all have done by the use of information technology.” Governments worldwide have recognized the role that Information and Communication Technologies could play in socio-economic development. A number of countries especially those in the developed world and some in developing countries are putting in place policies and plans designed to transform their economies into an information and knowledge economy”( Chitla,2012)
Thus, we see that information technology has an impact upon every facet of the society which has undergone significant changes. Information technology has changed the whole working environment of the society. The rapid development of information technology has tremendously increased the capacity of processing information and accelerated growth in the information intensive sector. Various attributes of information technology are triggering a new wave of growth in every field of the society.

2. Politics

The new information communication technology offers many promising ways to make societies more democratic. Teleconferencing with representatives of the society, cable television channels devoted to legislative proceedings and better voter information on candidates are the examples of applications of information technology.

Impact of Information and Communication Technologies on Libraries

Information has become a vital resource in the present day content. With the advancement of research and social requirements, information is need in an organized manner to be possible to disseminate it for further use. Information Technology means a variety of technological applications in the process of communication of information. Today information is the soul of the libraries as users are becoming tech survey. Electronic publishing technologies with wide and global networking have given rise to the development of hybrid, digital and virtual libraries.
The communication along with the Internet has brought a paradigm shift in information usage. It is the need of user to know that where information is available, when and how user can use the information as per their need. Today ICT has changed the libraries by storing the document, providing speedy access, ease to use a large volume of information by interoperability and integration. ICT in libraries refers to the use or applications of various technologies such as computer hardware/software that enable user to create, collect, store, consolidate and Communicate information in multimedia formats for various purposes. Technologies like reprographics, audio-video recording, storage devices, retrieval, reproduction and dissemination of information in a library environment have taken fixed place in the libraries. 

1. Impact of ICT on Traditional Libraries

Traditional libraries were viewed as mere storehouses of knowledge but they have now been physically changing their face and given a new look in the modern information and communication era. Now electronic components and computers are seen along with documents. Before the information technology, the libraries are based upon centralized control and have few access locations but now libraries communication has become two-way communication. The Information and Communication Technologies (ICT’s) in libraries has changed the role of library professionals and services from being mere storehouses to access points for retrieval of information. Today due to ICT libraries are known with new name as hybrid libraries, E- libraries/ Digital libraries and Virtual libraries. Digital libraries depend on information recorded on digital formats like CD-ROMS. Virtual libraries are libraries that do not exist in physical space or structure but can be accessed via networks.

2. Impact of ICT on Library Managerial Operations and Communication

With the ICT Library work has become easier, faster, cheaper and more effective. New change in the library services such as cataloguing, reference services, circulation management, serials control etc are now done with automation. The routine works andinformation is recorded in electronic format using Word processing, accounting, database management and communication with staff and users is done through e-mail. ICT has helps to manage information overload as information retrieval is made easier in computerized systems.  Computerization has save space and reduces paper. “For the Libraries, ICT’s has tremendously changed the Management of Resources or House Keeping Operations as well as the way services are delivered. While general IT application tools and Integrated Library Management Systems are largely used in housekeeping operations, like acquisition, cataloguing, circulation control, serials control etc; Internet has been used extensively as a resource as well as a tool to deliver the Library and Information Services (LIS)” (Chauhan, 2004).
Email is an essential method of communication both socially, commercially and professionally. It is a means of communication between the library staff and the users. The speed of delivery, the ability to send to multiple recipients, the flexibility of using web-based e-mail accounts for sending e-mails for various locations, the ability to attach other types of files, such as images, the low cost involved in sending mail in bulk.

3. Impact of ICT on Library Collection and Format of the Documents

With the information technology the format of the document has changed from print to electronic. Today Library collections consist in both the format i.e. physical information resources such as books, periodicals, videos, films etc, stored in physical library buildings, but now also comprises in digital resources too. Access to digital information resources is not restricted to specified time and place. The large number of digital information from other libraries and information centers are now available through the Internet, intranets and extranets to the users in their own libraries. Users can access the required information at their remote place
The Information Seeking Sources and Searching Tools of the libraries has changed fromPrinted tools (Card catalog, printed bibliographies, printed abstracts and indexes, etc.) to E-tools for library collections (OPAC, Web OPAC, Online databases—abstracts and indexes), Search engines for the Web collection (Google, Alta Vista Advanced Search, All The Web), Meta-Search Engines--most of which are not recommended, others), Subject Directories, Invisible Web (Searchable databases).

4. Impact of ICT on Library Services and Users

Computer and internet has brought in a new impact to the library and information usage. In libraries, information technology has assisted library professionals to provide value added quality information service and give more remote access to the national as well as internationally available information resource.
ICT is impacting on various aspects of libraries and the information profession. Advancements in ICT and the wide spread use of ICT is resulting in digital information sources and digital media replacing and becoming the dominant form of information storage and retrieval. The term library services are no longer refers only to be given in physical buildings located in a specific geographic location but also services to the users can be given through digital or virtual libraries that can be accessed from anywhere.
Today's highly sophisticated information technology to facilitate the storage of huge amounts of data or information in a very compact space. Information technologies promise fast retrieval of stored information and revolutionize our concept of the functions of a traditional library and a modern information center. Recently technological developments have dramatically changed the mode of library operations and services (Khan, 1989).

Library Networking provides access to online information through the internet or intranets to its users at remote places. Information such as online databases, e-journals, e- books, government publications can be used digitally through networked systems.

Electronic Document Delivery has reduced the postal services in the libraries. Traditional method to send documents to users or carry out interlibrary lending has been replaced by electronic networks and now documents can be delivered in various formats e.g PDF straight to users’ desktops (Futalibrarian, 2013)

Electronic Reference Services tools are replacing the conventional means of postal, phone or in-person reference services. Libraries are now providing reference services through email, subject gateways, FAQs, chat rooms, virtual reference desk, and ask-me. SDI (Selective dissemination of information) or Current Awareness Services (CAS) and virtual reference desks, announcements of new acquisitions and other reader advisory services can be made easier through the internet. Users can have online interaction with the reference staff.

Library Cooperation and Resource Sharing improves access and service through borrowing and lending from other libraries. Cooperation and sharing have been transformed from a print to a digital by information technology. Libraries can create and share bibliographic records and other information resources in digital format.

Institutional Repositories are publications that originate locally from within the university community such as theses, dissertations, reports, conference papers and seminar papers. These resources can preserve for future and access by any users from anywhere.

Online User Education or Tutorials can be given by libraries through internet or CD –ROMS to educate their users or carry out information literacy programmes. Virtual tours can be offered online making user education more convenient for all. 

5. Emerging Technologies in Libraries Social Media:

Networks like twitter, facebook and LinkedIn, are some interactive internet services that are presently serving as communication forum for librarians and their uses. These networks can be deployed for educational uses. Discussion groups, list serves and communities also assist library services.

Components of Library 2.0/ 3.0 are Wiki, Blog, RSS, Podcasting, Instant Messaging, SMS, MMS, Social networking. With Library 2.0 library services are constantly updated and re-evaluated to best serve library users. It also attempts to harness the library user in the design and implementation of library services by encouraging feedback and participation (

Social Networking Tools had made their way into libraries. In this era of technology, libraries are in the position to reach their users everywhere and communicate with them crossing geographical and political barriers by shifting to web 2.0 technologies. In this era of technology, libraries are in the position to reach their users everywhere and communicate with them crossing geographical and political barriers by shifting to web 2.0 technologies such as blogs, Face book, Flicker and YouTube, etc. Library professionals can maintain blogs easily and interact with one another.

Blogs are used for providing information related to library, works for library publicity and marketing purposes and get feedback and suggestions from the users. Reference librarian or personnel responsible for reference service should be literate in these technologies. He/she can maintain blog. It will help to connect with users, know their problems related to library and introduce new services to users. Using the same way, library use can be promoted easily. It should be updated with new contents and information regularly.

Library Websites has become a medium of communication for libraries to their users. It is also used to promote the library and publicise it.

Online Searching of information, online databases, browsing and surfing the internet through search engines, Meta search engines and subject directories to supplement library sources have become convenient in use. 

6. Information is for Use:

With the ICT applications the libraries able to implement the laws of Library Science effectively such as every user his/her books/information, Save the time of the users and 'Library is a growing organism'. ICT with its tremendous information sources, rapid transmission speed and easy access ensures the satisfaction of the user with complex demand, break down the distance barrier and shortened the time required and ensure the right information to the right reader at the right time. It also increases and solves the library's demand of collection development. It is really an excellent tool for the library and information centers.

7. ICT has provided new challenges to libraries:

The perceived role of Libraries and librarians in an information society has now to cope with the demands of an information society. Librarians must have the knowledge, skills and tools in handling digital information to be efficient creators, collectors, consolidators and communicators of information. Librarians with the knowledge, skills and tools required of information professionals in an information society will be the key success factors in enabling the library to perform its role as an information support system for society. Poor funding of ICT infrastructures, Constant change of software and hardware, Erratic power supply, Insufficient bandwidth, Lack of technical IT knowledge by library staff, Copyright and intellectual property rights management

8. The Trends in the Development of Libraries

The Trends in the Development of Libraries are that the library has to be networked, To be stocked with a core collection that is multimedia, have access to global information, become digital, and to become virtual.


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